Skip to main content

Full text of "ICC IEBC (2012): International Existing Building Code"

See other formats


mm- 



wmm * * * * * ; 




7^ 








NOTICE OF INCORPORATION 

United States Legal Document 

J^" All citizens and residents are hereby advised that 
this is a legally binding document duly incorporated by 
reference and that failure to comply with such 
requirements as hereby detailed within may subject you 
to criminal or civil penalties under the law. Ignorance of 
the law shall not excuse noncompliance and it is the 
responsibility of the citizens to inform themselves as to 
the laws that are enacted in the United States of America 
and in the states and cities contained therein. "^& 

* * 

ICC IEBC (2012), the International Existing Building 
Code, as mandated and incorporated by the States and 
Municipalities including Maryland in the 
Code of Maryland Administrative Regulations (COMAR) , 
Section 05.02.01.02. 






w i§**-* * * * i&KMmmxm 



g^EEj|2E 





INTERNATIONAL 

EXISTING BUILDING 

CODE* 

A Member of the International Code Family 








Bfeih 



• 

1 


ls=^ 




INTERNATIONAL 

CODE COUNCIL 8 



I^TERMATIONAI 

EXISTING BUILDING 

CODE" 

A Member of the International Code Family* 

mm HHHHHBHI HHHMSHtk. jdSSNKBmBBSb* 

■HI nhHhHhI ^^^^^», JmmHF# 



i 



■Hi 



■■III 



«■■■■■■ _j SJBjHBHHr 
j hbh hmbBI HHHHBHRk hbI 



HhHHHhp' ^wHHHmHHn 



Become a Building Safety Professional Member 
and Learn More about the Code Council 

GO TO WWW.ICCSAFE.ORG for All Your Technical and 

Professional Needs Including: 

> Codes, Standards and Guidelines 

> Membership Benefits 

> Education and Certification 

> Communication;, on Industry Mews 



2012 International Existing Building Code' 



First Printing: April 2011 



® 



ISBN: 978-1-60983-044-1 (soft-cover edition) 
ISBN: 978-1-60983-043-4 (loose-leaf edition) 

COPYRIGHT © 201 1 

by 

INTERNATIONAL CODE COUNCIL, INC. 



ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. This 2012 International Existing Building Code® is a copyrighted work owned by the International 
Code Council, Inc. Without advance written permission from the copyright owner, no part of this book may be reproduced, dis- 
tributed or transmitted in any form or by any means, including, without limitation, electronic, optical or mechanical means (by 
way of example, and not limitation, photocopying, or recording by or in an information storage retrieval system). For informa- 
tion on permission to copy material exceeding fair use, please contact: Publications, 4051 West Flossmoor Road, Country Club 
Hills, IL 60478-5795. Phone 1-888-ICC-SAFE (422-7233). 

Trademarks: "International Code Council," the "International Code Council" logo and the "International Existing Building 
Code" are trademarks of the International Code Council, Inc. 



PRINTED IN THE U.S.A. 



PW% IC If a ^ ^'^ If 1 ' 5 
B^s Sr^ Hr^ By!!) it. P^ 



Introduction 



Development 



Adoption 



Internationally, code officials recognize the need for a modern, up-to-date code addressing repair, 
alteration, addition or change of occupancy in existing buildings. The International Existing Building 
Code®, in this 2012 edition, is designed to meet this need through model code regulations that safe- 
guard the public health and safety in all communities, large and small. 

This comprehensive existing building code establishes minimum regulations for existing buildings 
using prescriptive and performance-related provisions. It is founded on broad-based principles 
intended to encourage the use and reuse of existing buildings while requiring reasonable upgrades 
and improvements. This 2012 edition is fully compatible with all of the International Codes 9 (I- 
Codes®) published by the International Code Council (ICC)®, including the International Building 
Code 9 , International Energy Conservation Code 9 , International Fire Code®, International Fuel Gas 
Code" 1 , International Green Construction Code™ (to be available March 2012), International 
Mechanical Code®, ICC Performance Code®, International Plumbing Code®, International Private 
Sewage Disposal Code®, International Property Maintenance Code m , International Residential 
Code , International Swimming Pool and Spa Code™ (to be available March 2012), International 
Wildland-Urban Interface Code® and International Zoning Code®. 

The International Existing Building Code provisions provide many benefits, including the model 
code development process, which offers an international forum for building professionals to discuss 
performance and prescriptive code requirements. This forum provides an excellent arena to debate 
proposed revisions. This model code also encourages international consistency in the application of 
provisions. 



The first edition of the International Existing Building Code (2003) was the culmination of an effort 
initiated in 2000 by a development committee appointed by the ICC and consisting of representa- 
tives of the three statutory members of the International Code Council at that time, including: Build- 
ing Officials and Code Administrators International, Inc. (BOCA), International Conference of 
Building Officials (ICBO) and Southern Building Code Congress International (SBCCI). The intent was 
to draft a comprehensive set of regulations for existing buildings consistent with and inclusive of the 
scope of the existing model codes. Technical content of the latest model codes promulgated by 
BOCA, ICBO and SBCCI as well as other rehabilitation codes was utilized as the basis for the develop- 
ment, followed by a public forum in 2001 and the publication of the 2001 Final Draft. This 2012 edi- 
tion presents the code as originally issued in 2003 with the changes reflected in the 2006 edition, 
2009 edition and with further changes approved through the ICC code development process 
through 2010. A new edition such as this is promulgated every three years. 

This code is founded on principles intended to encourage the use and reuse of existing buildings 
that adequately protect public health, safety and welfare; provisions that do not unnecessarily 
increase construction costs; provisions that do not restrict the use of new materials, products or 
methods of construction; and provisions that do not give preferential treatment to particular types 
or classes of materials, products or methods of construction. 



The International Existing Building Code is available for adoption and use by jurisdictions interna- 
tionally. Its use within a governmental jurisdiction is intended to be accomplished through adoption 
by reference in accordance with proceedings establishing the jurisdiction's laws. At the time of 
adoption, jurisdictions should insert the appropriate information in provisions requiring specific 
local information, such as the name of the adopting jurisdiction. These locations are shown in brack- 
eted words in small capital letters in the code and in the sample ordinance. The sample adoption 
ordinance on page xi addresses several key elements of a code adoption ordinance, including the 
information required for insertion into the code text. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



in 



Maintenance 



The International Existing Building Code is kept up to date through the review of proposed changes 
submitted by code enforcement officials, industry representatives, design professionals, and other 
interested parties. Proposed changes are carefully considered through an open code development 
process in which all interested and affected parties may participate. 

The contents of this work are subject to change both through the code development cycles and 
the governmental body that enacts the code into law. For more information regarding the code 
development process, contact the Codes and Standards Development Department of the Interna- 
tional Code Council. 

While the development procedure of the International Existing Building Code assures the highest 
degree of care, ICC, its members, and those participating in the development of this code do not 
accept any liability resulting from compliance or noncompliance with these provisions, because ICC 
does not have the power or authority to police or enforce compliance with the contents of this 
code. Only the governmental body that enacts the code into law has such authority. 



Code Development Committee Responsibilities 

(Letter Designations in Front of Section Numbers) 



In each code development cycle, proposed changes to this code are considered at the Code Devel- 
opment Hearings by the International Existing Building Code Development Committee. Proposed 
changes to a code section having a number beginning with a letter in brackets are considered by a 
different code development committee. For example, proposed changes to code sections that are 
preceded by the letter [F] (e.g., [F] 1404.2), are considered by the International Fire Code Develop- 
ment Committee at the Code Development Hearings. 

The content of sections in this code that begin with a letter designation is maintained by another 
code development committee in accordance with the following: 

[A] = Administrative Code Development Committee; 

[B] = International Building Code Development Committee (IBC— Fire Safety, General, Means 

of Egress or Structural); 

[F] = International Fire Code Development Committee; 

[P] = International Plumbing Code Development Committee; 

[FG] = International Fuel Gas Code Development Committee; 

[EC] = International Energy Conservation Code Development Committee; and 

[M] = International Mechanical Code Development Committee. 



iv 2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



Note that, for the development of the 2015 edition of the l-Codes, there will be two groups of 
code development committees and they will meet in separate years. The groupings are as follows: 



Group A Codes 

(Heard in 2012, Code Change Proposals 

Deadline: January 3, 2012) 


Group B Codes 
(Heard in 2013, Code Change Proposals 

Deadline: January 3, 2013) 


International Building Code 


Administrative Provisions (Chapter 1 all codes except 
IRC and ICCPC, administrative updates to currently ref- 
erenced standards, and designated definitions) 


International Fuel Gas Code 


International Energy Conservation Code 


International Mechanical Code 


International Existing Building Code 


International Plumbing Code 


International Fire Code 


International Private Sewage 
Disposal Code 


International Green Construction Code 




ICC Performance Code 




International Property Maintenance Code 




International Residential Code 




International Swimming Pool and Spa Code 




International Wildland-Urban Interface Code 




International Zoning Code 



Code change proposals submitted for code sections that have a letter designation in front of 
them will be heard by the respective committee responsible for such code sections. Because differ- 
ent committees will meet in different years, it is possible that some proposals for this code will be 
heard by a committee in a different year than the year in which the primary committee for this code 
meets. 

For instance, Section 606.2.3 is designated as the responsibility of the International Building 
Code Development Committee (Structural), along with all structural related provisions of the IEBC. 
This committee will conduct its code development hearings in 2012 to consider all code change pro- 
posals to the International Building Code and any portions of other codes that it is responsible for, 
including Section 606.2.3 of the IEBC and other structural provisions of the IEBC (designated with [B] 
in front of those sections). Therefore, any proposals received for Section 606.2.3 will be considered 
in 2012 by the International Building Code Development Committee (Structural). 

Another example is that every section of Chapter 1 of this code is designated as the responsibility 
of the Administrative Code Development Committee, and that committee is part of the Group B 
code hearings. This committee will conduct its code development hearings in 2013 to consider all 
code change proposals for Chapter 1 of this code and proposals for Chapter 1 of all l-Codes. There- 
fore, any proposals received for Chapter 1 of this code will be deferred for consideration in 2013 by 
the Administrative Code Development Committee. 

It is very important that anyone submitting code change proposals understand which code devel- 
opment committee is responsible for the section of the code that is the subject of the code change 
proposal. For further information on the code development committee responsibilities, please visit 
the ICC web site at www.iccsafe.org/scoping. 



larginal Markings 



Solid vertical lines in the margins within the body of the code indicate a technical change from the 
requirements of the 2009 edition. Deletion indicators in the form of an arrow ( ■*) are provided in 
the margin where an entire section, paragraph, exception or table has been deleted or an item in a 
list of items or a table has been deleted. 

A single asterisk [*] placed in the margin indicates that text or a table has been relocated within 
the code. A double asterisk [**] placed in the margin indicates that the text or table immediately 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



following it has been relocated there from elsewhere in the code. The following table indicates such 
relocations in the 2012 International Existing Building Code. 



2012 LOCATION 



301.1 



301.1.1 



301.1.2 



301.1.3 



301.1.4 



301.1.4.1 



Table 301.1.4.1 



301.1.4.2 



Table 301.1.4.2 



907.4.4 



2009 LOCATION 



101.5 



101.5.1 



101.5.2 



101.5.3 



101.5.4 



101.5.4.1 



Table 101.5.4.1 



101.5.4.2 



Table 101.5.4.2 



606.2.1 (706.2.1 in 2012 numbering) 



Note that portions of Chapter 1 in the 2009 code, were moved to Chapter 3 in 2012, creating a 
new chapter. Therefore, all subsequent chapters were renumbered. There are single asterisks [*] 
and double asterisks [**] shown for this reorganization. The chapters affected are: 



2012 LOCATION 



Chapter 4 



Chapter 5 



Chapter 6 



Chapter 7 



Chapter 8 



Chapter 9 



Chapter 10 



Chapter 11 



Chapter 12 



Chapter 13 



Chapter 14 



Chapter 15 



Chapter 16 



2009 LOCATION 



Chapter 3 



Chapter 4 



Chapter 5 



Chapter 6 



Chapter 7 



Chapter 8 



Chapter 9 



Chapter 10 



Chapter 11 



Chapter 12 



Chapter 13 



Chapter 14 



Chapter 15 



Italicized Terms 



Selected terms set forth in Chapter 2, Definitions, are italicized where they appear in code text. 
Such terms are not italicized where the definition set forth in Chapter 2 does not impart the 
intended meaning in the use of the term. The terms selected have definitions which the user should 
read carefully to facilitate better understanding of the code. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



Effective Use of the International Existing Building Code 



The International Existing Building Code is a model code in the International Code family of codes 
intended to provide alternative approaches to remodeling, repair or alteration of existing buildings. 
A large number of existing buildings and structures do not comply with the current building code 
requirements for new construction. Although many of these buildings are potentially salvageable, 
rehabilitation is often cost-prohibitive because compliance with all the requirements for new con- 
struction could require extensive changes that go well beyond the value of the building or the origi- 
nal scope of the rehabilitation. At the same time, it is necessary to regulate construction in existing 
buildings that undergo additions, alterations, renovations, extensive repairs or change of occu- 
pancy. Such activity represents an opportunity to ensure that new construction complies with the 
current building codes and that existing conditions are maintained, at a minimum, to their current 
level of compliance or are improved as required to meet basic safety levels. To accomplish this 
objective, and to make the rehabilitation process easier, this code allows for options for controlled 
departure from full compliance with the International Codes dealing with new construction, while 
maintaining basic levels for fire prevention, structural and life safety features of the rehabilitated 
building. 

This code provides three main options for a designer in dealing with rehabilitation of existing 
buildings. These are laid out in Section 301 of this code: 

OPTION 1: Work for alteration, repair, change of occupancy, addition or relocation of all existing 
buildings shall be done in accordance with the Prescriptive Compliance Method given in Chapter 4. 
It should be noted that this same method is provided in Chapter 34 of the International Building 
Code. 

OPTION 2: Work for alteration, repair, change of occupancy, addition or relocation of all existing 
buildings shall be done in accordance with the Work Area Compliance Method given in Chapters 5 
through 13. 

OPTION 3: Work for alteration, repair, change of occupancy, addition or relocation of all existing 
buildings shall be done in accordance with the Performance Compliance Method given in Chapter 
14. It should be noted that this option is also provided in Chapter 34 of the International Building 
Code. 

Under limited circumstances, a building alteration can be made to comply with the laws under 
which the building was originally built, as long as there has been no substantial structural damage 
and there will be limited structural alteration. 



Ar rnnfj©fniint and Format of the 2012 IEBC 



Before applying the requirements of the IEBC it is beneficial to understand its arrangement and for- 
mat. The IEBC, like other codes published by ICC, is arranged and organized to follow logical steps 
that generally occur during a plan review or inspection. The IEBC is divided as follows: 



Chapters 


Subjects 


1-2 


Administrative Requirements and Definitions 


3 


Compliance Methods 


4 


Prescriptive Compliance Method for Existing Buildings 


5-13 


Work Area Compliance Method for Existing Buildings 


14 


Performance Compliance Method for Existing Buildings 


15 


Construction Safeguards 


16 


Referenced Standards 


Appendix A 


Guidelines for Seismic Retrofit of Existing Buildings 


Appendix B 


Supplementary Accessibility Requirements for Existing Buildings 


Appendix C 


Guidelines for Wind Retrofit of Existing Buildings 


Resource A 


Information on Fire Resistance of Archaic Materials and Assemblies 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE 8 



The following is a chapter-by-chapter synopsis of the scope and intent of the provisions of the 
International Existing Building Code: 

Chapter 1 Scope and Administration. This chapter contains provisions for the application, 
enforcement and administration of subsequent requirements of the code. In addition to establish- 
ing the scope of the code, Chapter 1 identifies which buildings and structures come under its pur- 
view. Chapter 1 is largely concerned with maintaining "due process of law" in enforcing the 
regulations contained in the body of the code. Only through careful observation of the administra- 
tive provisions can the code official reasonably expect to demonstrate that "equal protection under 
the law" has been provided. 

Chapter 2 Definitions. All defined terms in the code are provided in Chapter 2. While a defined 
term may only be used in one chapter or another, the meaning provided in Chapter 2 is applicable 
throughout the code. 

Where understanding of a term's definition is especially key to or necessary for understanding of 
a particular code provision, the term is shown in italics wherever it appears in the code. This is true 
only for those terms that have a meaning that is unique to the code. In other words, the generally 
understood meaning of a term or phrase might not be sufficient or consistent with the meaning pre- 
scribed by the code; therefore, it is essential that the code-defined meaning be known. 

Guidance regarding tense, gender and plurality of defined terms as well as guidance regarding 
terms not defined in this code is also provided. 

Chapter 3 Compliance Methods. This chapter explains the three compliance options available 
in the code. In addition, this chapter also lays out the methods to be used for seismic design and 
evaluation throughout the IEBC. Finally this chapter clarifies that provisions in other l-codes related 
to repairs, alterations, additions, relocation and changes in occupancy must also be addressed 
unless they conflict with the IEBC. In that case the IEBC takes precedence. 

Chapter 4 Prescriptive Compliance Method. This chapter provides one of the three main 
options of compliance available in the IEBC for buildings and structures undergoing repair, altera- 
tion, addition or change in occupancy. This chapter duplicates the provisions that are predomi- 
nantly in Chapter 34 of the IBC, Sections 3403 through 3411. 

Chapter 5 Classification of Work. This chapter provides an overview of the Work Area Method 
available as an option for rehabilitation of a building. The chapter defines the different classifica- 
tions of alterations and provides general requirements for repairs, alterations, change of occu- 
pancy, additions, historic buildings and relocated buildings. Detailed requirements for all of these 
are given in subsequent Chapters 6 through 13. 

Chapter 6 Repairs. Chapter 6 governs the repair of existing buildings. The provisions define con- 
ditions under which repairs may be made using materials and methods like those of the original 
construction or the extent to which repairs must comply with requirements for new buildings. 

Chapter 7 Alterations — Level 1. This chapter provides the technical requirements for those 
existing buildings that undergo Level 1 alterations as described in Section 403, which includes 
replacement or covering of existing materials, elements, equipment or fixtures using new materials 
for the same purpose. This chapter, similar to other chapters of this code, covers all building-related 
subjects, such as structural, mechanical, plumbing, electrical and accessibility as well as the fire and 
life safety issues when the alterations are classified as Level 1. The purpose of this chapter is to pro- 
vide detailed requirements and provisions to identify the required improvements in the existing 
building elements, building spaces and building structural system. This chapter is distinguished from 
Chapters 8 and 9 by only involving replacement of building components with new components. In 
contrast, Level 2 alterations involve more space reconfiguration and Level 3 alterations involve 
more extensive space reconfiguration, exceeding 50 percent of the building area. 

Chapter 8 Alterations — Level 2. Like Chapter 7, the purpose of this chapter is to provide 
detailed requirements and provisions to identify the required improvements in the existing building 
elements, building spaces and building structural system when a building is being altered. This chap- 



viii 201 2 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



ter is distinguished from Chapters 7 and 9 by involving space reconfiguration that could be up to 
and including 50 percent of the area of the building. In contrast, Level 1 alterations (Chapter 7) do 
not involve space reconfiguration and Level 3 alterations (Chapter 9) involve extensive space recon- 
figuration that exceeds 50 percent of the building area. Depending on the nature of alteration work, 
its location within the building and whether it encompasses one or more tenants, improvements 
and upgrades could be required for the open floor penetrations, sprinkler system or the installation 
of additional means of egress such as stairs or fire escapes. 

Chapter 9 Alterations — LeveS 3. This chapter provides the technical requirements for those 
existing buildings that undergo Level 3 alterations. The purpose of this chapter is to provide detailed 
requirements and provisions to identify the required improvements in the existing building ele- 
ments, building spaces and building structural system. This chapter is distinguished from Chapters 7 
and 8 by involving alterations that cover 50 percent of the aggregate area of the building. In con- 
trast, Level 1 alterations do not involve space reconfiguration and Level 2 alterations involve exten- 
sive space reconfiguration that does not exceed 50 percent of the building area. Depending on the 
nature of alteration work, its location within the building and whether it encompasses one or more 
tenants, improvements and upgrades could be required for the open floor penetrations, sprinkler 
system or the installation of additional means of egress such as stairs or fire escapes. At times and 
under certain situations, this chapter also intends to improve the safety of certain building features 
beyond the work area and in other parts of the building where no alteration work might be taking 
place. 

Chapter 10 Change of Occupancy. The purpose of this chapter is to provide regulations for the 
circumstances when an existing building is subject to a change in occupancy or a change in occu- 
pancy classification. A change of occupancy is not to be confused with a change of occupancy classi- 
fication. The International Building Code (IBC) defines different occupancy classifications in Chapter 
3, and special occupancy requirements in Chapter 4. Within specific occupancy classifications there 
can be many different types of actual activities that can take place. For instance, a Group A-3 occu- 
pancy classification deals with a wide variation of different types of activities, including bowling 
alleys and courtrooms, indoor tennis courts and dance halls. When a facility changes use from, for 
example, a bowling alley to a dance hall, the occupancy classification remains A-3, but the different 
uses could lead to drastically different code requirements. Therefore, this chapter deals with the 
special circumstances that are associated with a change in the use of a building within the same 
occupancy classification as well as a change of occupancy classification. 

Chapter 11 Additions. Chapter 11 provides the requirements for additions, which correlate to 
the code requirements for new construction. There are, however, some exceptions that are specifi- 
cally stated within this chapter. An "Addition" is defined in Chapter 2 as "an extension or increase in 
the floor area, number of stories or height of a building or structure." Chapter 11 contains the mini- 
mum requirements for an addition that is not separated from the existing building by a fire wall. 

Chapter 12 Historic Buildings. This chapter provides some exceptions from code requirements 
when the building in question has historic value. The most important criterion for application of this 
chapter is that the building must be essentially accredited as being of historic significance by a state 
or local authority after careful review of the historical value of the building. Most, if not all, states 
have such authorities, as do many local jurisdictions. The agencies with such authority can be 
located at the state or local government level or through the local chapter of the American Institute 
of Architects (AIA). Other considerations include the structural condition of the building (i.e., is the 
building structurally sound), its proposed use, its impact on life safety and how the intent of the 
code, if not the letter, will be achieved. 

Chapter 13 Relocated or Moved Buildings. Chapter 13 is applicable to any building that is 
moved or relocated. 

Chapter 14 Performance Compliance Methods. This chapter, a duplicate of IBC Section 3412, 
Compliance Alternatives, allows for existing buildings to be evaluated so as to show that alterations,' 
while not meeting new construction requirements, will improve the current existing situation. Pro- 
visions are based on a numerical scoring system involving 19 various safety parameters and the 
degree of code compliance for each issue. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



Chapter 15 Construction Safeguards. The building construction process involves a number of 
known and unanticipated hazards. Chapter 15 establishes specific regulations in order to minimize 
the risk to the public and adjacent property. Some construction failures have resulted during the ini- 
tial stages of grading, excavation and demolition. During these early stages, poorly designed and 
installed sheeting and shoring have resulted in ditch and embankment cave-ins. Also, inadequate 
underpinning of adjoining existing structures or careless removal of existing structures has pro- 
duced construction failures. 

Chapter 16 Referenced Standards. The code contains numerous references to standards that 
are used to regulate materials and methods of construction. Chapter 16 contains a comprehensive 
list of all standards that are referenced in the code, including the appendices. The standards are 
part of the code to the extent of the reference to the standard. Compliance with the referenced 
standard is necessary for compliance with this code. By providing specifically adopted standards, 
the construction and installation requirements necessary for compliance with the code can be read- 
ily determined. The basis for code compliance is, therefore, established and available on an equal 
basis to the building code official, contractor, designer and owner. 

Chapter 16 is organized in a manner that makes it easy to locate specific standards. It lists all of 
the referenced standards, alphabetically, by acronym of the promulgating agency of the standard. 
Each agency's standards are then listed in either alphabetical or numeric order based upon the stan- 
dard identification. The list also contains the title of the standard; the edition (date) of the standard 
referenced; any addenda included as part of the ICC adoption; and the section or sections of this 
code that reference the standard. 

Appendix A Guidelines for the Seismic Retrofit of Existing Buildings. Appendix A pro- 
vides guidelines for upgrading the seismic resistance capacity of different types of existing buildings. 
It is organized into separate chapters which deal with buildings of different types, including unrein- 
forced masonry buildings, reinforced concrete and reinforced masonry wall buildings, and light- 
frame wood buildings. 

Appendix B Supplementary Accessibility Requirements for Existing Buildings and 

Facilities. Chapter 11 of the International Building Code (IBC) contains provisions that set forth 
requirements for accessibility to buildings and their associated sites and facilities for people with 
physical disabilities. Sections 410, 605, 705, 906, 1006, 1012.1.4, 1012.8, 1105, 1204.1, 1205.15, 
1401.2.5 and 1508 in the code address accessibility provisions and alternatives permitted in existing 
buildings. Appendix B was added to address accessibility in construction for items that are not typi- 
cally enforceable through the traditional building code enforcement process. 

Appendix C Guidelines For Wind Retrofit Of Existing Buildings. This Appendix is intended 
to provide guidance for retrofitting existing structures to strengthen their resistance to wind forces. 
This appendix is similar in scope to Appendix A which addresses seismic retrofits for existing build- 
ings except that the subject matter is related to wind retrofits. These retrofits are voluntary mea- 
sures that serve to better protect the public and reduce damage from high wind events for existing 
buildings. 

The purpose of the Appendix is to provide prescriptive alternatives for addressing retrofit of 
buildings in high wind areas. Currently there are two chapters which deal with the retrofit of gable 
ends and the fastening of roof decks, Appendix Chapters CI and C2 respectively. 

Resource A Guidelines on Fire Ratings of Archaic Materials and Assemblies. In the pro- 
cess of repair and alteration of existing buildings, based on the nature and the extent of the work, 
the IEBC might require certain upgrades in the fire-resistance rating of building elements, at which 
time it becomes critical for the designers and the code officials to be able to determine the fire- 
resistance rating of the existing building elements as part of the overall evaluation for the assess- 
ment of the need for improvements. This resource document provides a guideline for such an eval- 
uation for fire-resistance rating of archaic materials that is not typically found in the modern model 
building codes. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



LoiSLA § IUIM 



The International Codes are designed and promulgated to be adopted by reference by legislative action, jurisdictions wishing to 
adopt the 2012 International Existing Building Code as an enforceable performance-based regulation governing structures and 
premises should ensure that certain factual information is included in the adopting legislation at the time adoption is being con- 
sidered by the appropriate governmental body. The following sample adoption legislation addresses several key elements, 
including the information required for insertion into the code text. 

SAMPLE LEGISLATION FOR ADOPTION OF 
THE INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE 

ORDINANCE NO. 



A[N] [ORDINANCE/STATUTE/REGULATION] of the [JURISDICTION] adopting the 2012 edition of the International Existing Build- 
ing Code, regulating and governing the repair, alteration, change of occupancy, addition and relocation of existing buildings, 
including historic buildings, in the [JURISDICTION]; providing for the issuance of permits and collection of fees therefor; repeal- 
ing [ORDINANCE/STATUTE/REGULATION] No. of the [JURISDICTION] and all other ordinances or parts of laws in conflict 

therewith. 

The [GOVERNING BODY] of the [JURISDICTION] does ordain as follows: 

Section !. That a certain document, three (3) copies of which are on file in the office of the [TITLE OF JURISDICTION'S KEEPER 
OF RECORDS] of [NAME OF JURISDICTION], being marked and designated as the International Existing Building Code, 2012 edi- 
tion, including Appendix Chapters [FILL IN THE APPENDIX CHAPTERS BEING ADOPTED] (see International Existing Building 
Code Section 101.6, 2012 edition), as published by the International Code Council, be and is hereby adopted as the Existing 
Building Code of the [JURISDICTION], in the State of [STATE NAME] for regulating and governing the repair, alteration, change of 
occupancy, addition and relocation of existing buildings, including historic buildings, as herein provided; providing for the issu- 
ance of permits and collection of fees therefor; and each and all of the regulations, provisions, penalties, conditions and terms of 
said Existing Building Code on file in the office of the [JURISDICTION] are hereby referred to, adopted, and made a part hereof, as 
if fully set out in this legislation, with the additions, insertions, deletions and changes, if any, prescribed in Section 2 of this ordi- 
nance. 

Section 2. The following sections are hereby revised: 

Section 101.1 Insert: [NAME OF JURISDICTION] 

Section 1401.2 Insert: [DATE IN ONE LOCATION] 

Section 3. That [ORDINANCE/STATUTE/REGULATION] No. of [JURISDICTION] entitled [FILL IN HERE THE COMPLETE 

TITLE OF THE LEGISLATION OR LAWS IN EFFECT AT THE PRESENT TIME SO THAT THEY WILL BE REPEALED BY DEFINITE MEN- 
TION] and all other ordinances or parts of laws in conflict herewith are hereby repealed. 

Section 4. That if any section, subsection, sentence, clause or phrase of this legislation is, for any reason, held to be unconstitu- 
tional, such decision shall not affect the validity of the remaining portions of this ordinance. The [GOVERNING BODY] hereby 
declares that it would have passed this law, and each section, subsection, clause or phrase thereof, irrespective of the fact that 
any one or more sections, subsections, sentences, clauses and phrases be declared unconstitutional. 

Section 5. That nothing in this legislation or in the Existing Building Code hereby adopted shall be construed to affect any suit 
or proceeding impending in any court, or any rights acquired, or liability incurred, or any cause or causes of action acquired or 
existing, under any act or ordinance hereby repealed as cited in Section 3 of this law; nor shall any just or legal right or remedy 
of any character be lost, impaired or affected by this legislation. 

Section 6. That the [JURISDICTION'S KEEPER OF RECORDS] is hereby ordered and directed to cause this legislation to be pub- 
lished. (An additional provision may be required to direct the number of times the legislation is to be published and to specify 
that it is to be in a newspaper in general circulation. Posting may also be required.) 

Section 7. That this law and the rules, regulations, provisions, requirements, orders and matters established and adopted hereby 
shall take effect and be in full force and effect [TIME PERIOD] from and after the date of its final passage and adoption. 

2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® xi 



xii 2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



CHAPTER 1 SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION. ... 1 

PART 1— SCOPE AND APPLICATION. 1 

Section 

101 General 1 

102 Applicability 1 

PART 2— ADMINISTRATION AND 

ENFORCEMENT 1 

103 Department of Building Safety 1 

104 Duties and Powers of Code Official 2 

105 Permits 3 

106 Construction Documents 5 

107 Temporary Structures and Uses 6 

108 Fees 6 

109 Inspections 7 

1 10 Certificate of Occupancy 7 

1 1 1 Service Utilities 8 

112 Board of Appeals 8 

113 Violations 8 

114 Stop Work Order 9 

115 Unsafe Buildings and Equipment 9 

116 Emergency Measures 9 

1 17 Demolition 10 

CHAPTER 2 DEFINITIONS 11 

Section 

201 General 11 

202 General Definitions 11 

CHAPTER 3 COMPLIANCE METHODS 13 

Section 

301 Compliance Methods 13 

CHAPTER 4 PRESCRIPTIVE COMPLIANCE 

METHOD 15 

Section 

401 General 15 

402 Additions 15 

403 Alterations 16 

404 Repairs 17 



405 Fire Escapes 

406 Glass Replacement 

407 Change of Occupancy 

408 Historic Buildings 

409 Moved Structures 

410 Accessibility for Existing Buildings 



CHAPTER 5 CLASSIFICATION OF WORK 23 

Section 

501 General 23 

502 Repairs 23 

503 Alteration— Level 1 23 

504 Alteration— Level 2 23 

505 Alteration— Level 3 23 

506 Change of Occupancy 23 

507 Additions 23 

508 Historic Buildings 23 

509 Relocated Buildings 23 

CHAPTER 6 REPAIRS. 25 

Section 

601 General 25 

602 Building Elements and Materials 25 

603 Fire Protection 25 

604 Means of Egress 25 

605 Accessibility 25 

606 Structural 25 

607 Electrical 26 

608 Mechanical 26 

609 Plumbing 27 

CHAPTER 7 ALTERATIONS— LEVEL 1 29 

Section 

701 General 29 

702 Building Elements and Materials 29 

703 Fire Protection 29 

704 Means of Egress 29 

705 Accessibility 29 

706 Structural 30 

707 Energy Conservation 31 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



CHAPTER 8 ALTERATIONS— LEVEL 2 33 

Section 

801 General 33 

802 Special Use and Occupancy 33 

803 Building Elements and Materials 33 

804 Fire Protection 35 

805 Means of Egress 37 

806 Accessibility 41 

807 Structural 41 

808 Electrical 42 

809 Mechanical 42 

810 Plumbing 42 

811 Energy Conservation 42 

CHAPTER 9 ALTERATIONS— LEVEL 3 43 

Section 

901 General 43 

902 Special Use and Occupancy 43 

903 Building Elements and Materials 43 

904 Fire Protection 44 

905 Means of Egress 44 

906 Accessibility 44 

907 Structural 44 

908 Energy Conservation 45 

CHAPTER 10 CHANGE OF OCCUPANCY 47 

Section 

1001 General 47 

1002 Special Use and Occupancy 47 

1003 Building Elements and Materials 47 

1004 Fire Protection 47 

1005 Means of Egress 47 

1006 Accessibility 47 

1007 Structural 47 

1008 Electrical 48 

1009 Mechanical 49 

1010 Plumbing 49 

1011 Other Requirements 49 

1012 Change of Occupancy Classification 49 

CHAPTER 11 ADDITIONS 53 

Section 

1101 General 53 

1 102 Heights and Areas 53 



1 103 Structural 53 

1104 Smoke Alarms in Occupancy 

Groups R and 1-1 54 

1 105 Accessibility 54 

1 106 Energy Conservation 54 

CHAPTER 12 HISTORIC BUILDINGS 55 

Section 

1201 General 55 

1202 Repairs 55 

1203 Fire Safety 55 

1204 Alterations 56 

1205 Change of Occupancy 56 

1206 Structural 57 

CHAPTER 13 RELOCATED OR MOVED 

BUILDINGS 59 

Section 

1301 General 59 

1302 Requirements 59 

CHAPTER 14 PERFORMANCE COMPLIANCE 

METHODS 61 

Section 

1401 General 61 

CHAPTER 15 CONSTRUCTION 

SAFEGUARDS 73 

Section 

1501 General 73 

1 502 Protection of Adjoining Property 74 

1503 Temporary Use of Streets, Alleys and Public 

Property 74 

1 504 Fire Extinguishers 74 

1505 Means of Egress 75 

1 506 Standpipe Systems 75 

1 507 Automatic Sprinkler System 75 

1508 Accessibility 75 

1509 Water Supply for Fire Protection 75 

CHAPTER 16 REFERENCED STANDARDS ...... 77 

APPENDIX A GUIDELINES FOR THE SEISMIC 
RETROFIT OF EXISTING 
BUILDINGS 79 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE 8 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



CHAPTER Al SEISMIC STRENGTHENING 

PROVISIONS FOR UNREINFORCED 
MASONRY BEARING WALL 
BUILDINGS 79 

Section 

A101 Purpose 79 

A102 Scope 79 

A103 Definitions 79 

A104 Symbols and Notations 79 

A105 General Requirements 80 

A106 Materials Requirements 81 

A107 Quality Control 83 

A108 Design Strengths 83 

A109 Analysis and Design Procedure 84 

A110 General Procedure 84 

Al 1 1 Special Procedure 84 

Al 12 Analysis and Design 86 

Al 13 Detailed System Design Requirements 87 

A 1 1 4 Walls of Unburned Clay, 

Adobe or Stone Masonry 88 

CHAPTER A2 EARTHQUAKE HAZARD 
REDUCTION IN EXISTING 
REINFORCED CONCRETE AND 
REINFORCED MASONRY WALL 
BUILDINGS WITH FLEXIBLE 

DIAPHRAGMS 93 

Section 

A201 Purpose 93 

A202 Scope 93 

A203 Definitions 93 

A204 Symbols and Notations 93 

A205 General Requirements 93 

A206 Analysis and Design 94 

A207 Materials of Construction 95 

CHAPTER A3 PRESCRIPTIVE PROVISIONS FOR 
SEISMIC STRENGTHENING OF 
CRIPPLE WALLS AND SILL PLATE 
ANCHORAGE OF LIGHT, WOOD- 
FRAME RESIDENTIAL 

BUILDINGS 97 

Section 

A301 General 97 

A302 Definitions 97 

A303 Structural Weaknesses 98 

A304 Strengthening Requirements 98 



CHAPTER A4 EARTHQUAKE RISK 

REDUCTION IN WOOD-FRAME 
RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS 
WITH SOFT, WEAK OR 

OPEN FRONT WALLS 115 

Section 

A401 General 1 15 

A402 Definitions 115 

A403 Analysis and Design 115 

A404 Prescriptive Measures for Weak Story 117 

A405 Materials of Construction 117 

A406 Information Required to be on the Plans 118 

A407 Quality Control 118 

CHAPTER A5 EARTHQUAKE HAZARD 
REDUCTION IN EXISTING 

CONCRETE BUILDINGS 119 

Section 

A501 Purpose 119 

A502 Scope 119 

A503 General Requirements 119 

A504 Site Ground Motion 119 

A505 Tier 1 Analysis Procedure 119 

A506 Tier 2 Analysis Procedure 120 

A507 Tier 3 Analysis Procedure 121 

CHAPTER A6 REFERENCED STANDARDS ..... 123 

APPENDIX B SUPPLEMENTARY ACCESSIBILITY 
REQUIREMENTS FOR EXISTING 
BUILDINGS AND FACILITIES ... 125 
Section 

B101 Qualified Historical Buildings and Facilities. . . 125 
B102 Fixed Transportation Facilities and Stations . . . 125 

B103 Dwelling Units and Sleeping Units 126 

B104 Referenced Standards 126 

APPENDIX C GUIDELINES FOR THE WIND 
RETROFIT OF EXISTING 
BUILDINGS 127 

CHAPTER CI GABLE END RETROFIT FOR 

HIGH-WIND AREAS 127 

Section 

C101 General 127 

C102 Definitions 127 

C103 Materials of Construction 127 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



C 1 04 Retrofitting Gable End Walls 

to Enhance Wind Resistance 129 

CHAPTER C2 ROOF DECK FASTENING 

FOR HIGH-WIND AREAS 147 

Section 

C201 General 147 

C202 Roof Deck Attachment for Wood Roofs 147 

RESOURCE A GUIDELINES ON FIRE RATINGS 
OF ARCHAIC MATERIALS AND 
ASSEMBLIES 149 

Section 

1 Fire-related Performance of Archaic 

Materials and Assemblies 150 

2 Building Evaluation 151 

3 Final Evaluation and Design Solution 154 

4 Summary 161 

Appendix 163 

Resource A Table of Contents 163 

Bibliography 282 

INDEX 289 



xvi 2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



CHAPTER 1 

SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION 



PART 1— SCOPE AND APPLICATION 



SECTION 101 
GENERAL 

[A] 101.1 Title. These regulations shall be known as the 
Existing Building Code of [NAME OF JURISDICTION], hereinaf- 
ter referred to as "this code." 

[A] 101.2 Scope. The provisions of the International Existing 
Building Code shall apply to the repair, alteration, change of 
occupancy, addition and relocation of existing buildings. 

[A] 101.3 Intent. The intent of this code is to provide flexi- 
bility to permit the use of alternative approaches to achieve 
compliance with minimum requirements to safeguard the 
public health, safety and welfare insofar as they are affected 
by the repair, alteration, change of occupancy, addition and 
relocation of existing buildings. 

[A] 101.4 Applicability. This code shall apply to the repair, 
alteration, change of occupancy, addition and relocation of 
all existing buildings, regardless of occupancy, subject to the 
criteria of Sections 101.4.1 and 101.4.2. 

[A] 101.4.1 Buildings not previously occupied. A build- 
ing or portion of a building that has not been previously 
occupied or used for its intended purpose in accordance 
with the laws in existence at the time of its completion 
shall comply with the provisions of the International 
Building Code or International Residential Code, as appli- 
cable, for new construction or with any current permit for 
such occupancy. 

[A] 101.4.2 Buildings previously occupied. The legal 
occupancy of any building existing on the date of adoption 
of this code shall be permitted to continue without change, 
except as is specifically covered in this code, the Interna- 
tional Fire Code, or the International Property Mainte- 
nance Code, or as is deemed necessary by the code official 
for the general safety and welfare of the occupants and the 
public. 

[A] 101.5 Safeguards during construction. All construction 
work covered in this code, including any related demolition, 
shall comply with the requirements of Chapter 15. 

[A] 101.6 Appendices. The code official is authorized to 
require rehabilitation and retrofit of buildings, structures or 
individual structural members in accordance with the appen- 
dices of this code if such appendices have been individually 
adopted. 

[A] 101.7 Correction of violations of other codes. Repairs 
or alterations mandated by any property, housing, or fire 
safety maintenance code or mandated by any licensing rule or 
ordinance adopted pursuant to law shall conform only to the 
requirements of that code, rule, or ordinance and shall not be 



required to conform to this code unless the code requiring 
such repair or alteration so provides. 



SECTION 102 
APPLICABILITY 

[A] 102.1 General. Where there is a conflict between a gen- 
eral requirement and a specific requirement, the specific 
requirement shall be applicable. Where in any specific case 
different sections of this code specify different materials, 
methods of construction or other requirements, the most 
restrictive shall govern. 

[A] 102.2 Other laws. The provisions of this code shall not 
be deemed to nullify any provisions of local, state, or federal 
law. 

[A] 102.3 Application of references. References to chapter 
or section numbers or to provisions not specifically identified 
by number shall be construed to refer to such chapter, section, 
or provision of this code. 

[A] 102.4 Referenced codes and standards. The codes and 
standards referenced in this code shall be considered part of 
the requirements of this code to the prescribed extent of each 
such reference and as further regulated in Sections 102.4.1 
and 102.4.2. 

Exception: Where enforcement of a code provision would 
violate the conditions of the listing of the equipment or 
appliance, the conditions of the listing shall govern. 

[A] 102.4.1 Conflicts. Where conflicts occur between pro- 
visions of this code and referenced codes and standards, 
the provisions of this code shall apply. 

[A] 102.4.2 Conflicting provisions. Where the extent of 
the reference to a referenced code or standard includes 
subject matter that is within the scope of this code, the pro- 
visions of this code as applicable, shall take precedence 
over the provisions in the referenced code or standard. 

[A] 102.5 Partial invalidity. In the event that any part or pro- 
vision of this code is held to be illegal or void, this shall not 
have the effect of making void or illegal any of the other parts 
or provisions. 

PART 2— ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT 



SECTION 103 
DEPARTMENT OF BUILDING SAFETY 

[A] 103.1 Creation of enforcement agency. The Depart- 
ment of Building Safety is hereby created, and the official in 
charge thereof shall be known as the code official. 

[A] 103.2 Appointment. The code official shall be appointed 
by the chief appointing authority of the jurisdiction. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION 



[A] 103.3 Deputies. In accordance with the prescribed proce- 
dures of this jurisdiction and with the concurrence of the 
appointing authority, the code official shall have the authority 
to appoint a deputy code official, the related technical offi- 
cers, inspectors, plan examiners, and other employees. Such 
employees shall have powers as delegated by the code offi- 
cial. 



SECTION 104 
DUTIES AND POWERS OF CODE OFFICIAL 

[A] 104.1 General. The code official is hereby authorized 
and directed to enforce the provisions of this code. The code 
official shall have the authority to render interpretations of 
this code and to adopt policies and procedures in order to 
clarify the application of its provisions. Such interpretations, 
policies, and procedures shall be in compliance with the 
intent and purpose of this code. Such policies and procedures 
shall not have the effect of waiving requirements specifically 
provided for in this code. 

[A] 104.2 Applications and permits. The code official shall 
receive applications, review construction documents, and 
issue permits for the repair, alteration, addition, demolition, 
change of occupancy, and relocation of buildings; inspect the 
premises for which such permits have been issued; and 
enforce compliance with the provisions of this code. 

[A] 104.2.1 Preliminary meeting. When requested by the 
permit applicant or the code official, the code official shall 
meet with the permit applicant prior to the application for 
a construction permit to discuss plans for the proposed 
work or change of occupancy in order to establish the spe- 
cific applicability of the provisions of this code. 

Exception: Repairs and Level 1 alterations. 

[A] 104.2.1.1 Building evaluation. The code official is 
authorized to require an existing building to be investi- 
gated and evaluated by a registered design professional 
based on the circumstances agreed upon at the prelimi- 
nary meeting. The design professional shall notify the 
code official if any potential nonconformance with the 
provisions of this code is identified. 

[A] 104.3 Notices and orders. The code official shall issue 
all necessary notices or orders to ensure compliance with this 
code. 

[A] 104.4 Inspections. The code official shall make all of the 
required inspections, or the code official shall have the 
authority to accept reports of inspection by approved agen- 
cies or individuals. Reports of such inspections shall be in 
writing and be certified by a responsible officer of such 
approved agency or by the responsible individual. The code 
official is authorized to engage such expert opinion as 
deemed necessary to report upon unusual technical issues that 
arise, subject to the approval of the appointing authority. 

[A] 104.5 Identification. The code official shall carry proper 
identification when inspecting structures or premises in the 
performance of duties under this code. 



[A] 104.6 Right of entry. Where it is necessary to make an 
inspection to enforce the provisions of this code, or where the 
code official has reasonable cause to believe that there exists 
in a structure or upon a premises a condition which is con- 
trary to or in violation of this code which makes the structure 
or premises unsafe, dangerous, or hazardous, the code official 
is authorized to enter the structure or premises at reasonable 
times to inspect or to perform the duties imposed by this 
code, provided that if such structure or premises be occupied 
that credentials be presented to the occupant and entry 
requested. If such structure or premises be unoccupied, the 
code official shall first make a reasonable effort to locate the 
owner or other person having charge or control of the struc- 
ture or premises and request entry. If entry is refused, the 
code official shall have recourse to the remedies provided by 
law to secure entry. 

[A] 104.7 Department records. The code official shall keep 
official records of applications received, permits and certifi- 
cates issued, fees collected, reports of inspections, and 
notices and orders issued. Such records shall be retained in 
the official records for the period required for retention of 
public records. 

[A] 104.8 Liability. The code official, member of the Board 
of Appeals, or employee charged with the enforcement of this 
code, while acting for the jurisdiction in good faith and with- 
out malice in the discharge of the duties required by this code 
or other pertinent law or ordinance, shall not thereby be ren- 
dered liable personally and is hereby relieved from personal 
liability for any damage accruing to persons or property as a 
result of any act or by reason of an act or omission in the dis- 
charge of official duties. Any suit instituted against an officer 
or employee because of an act performed by that officer or 
employee in the lawful discharge of duties and under the pro- 
visions of this code shall be defended by legal representative 
of the jurisdiction until the final termination of the proceed- 
ings. The code official or any subordinate shall not be liable 
for cost in any action, suit, or proceeding that is instituted in 
pursuance of the provisions of this code. 

[A] 104.9 Approved materials and equipment. Materials, 
equipment, and devices approved by the code official shall be 
constructed and installed in accordance with such approval. 

[A] 104.9.1 Used materials and equipment. The use of 
used materials that meet the requirements of this code for 
new materials is permitted. Used equipment and devices 
shall be permitted to be reused subject to the approval of 
the code official. 

[A] 104.10 Modifications. Wherever there are practical diffi- 
culties involved in carrying out the provisions of this code, 
the code official shall have the authority to grant modifica- 
tions for individual cases upon application of the owner or 
owner's representative, provided the code official shall first 
find that special individual reason makes the strict letter of 
this code impractical and the modification is in compliance 
with the intent and purpose of this code, and that such modifi- 
cation does not lessen health, accessibility, life and fire 
safety, or structural requirements. The details of action grant- 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION 



ing modifications shall be recorded and entered in the files of 
the Department of Building Safety. 

[A] 104.10.1 Flood hazard areas. For existing buildings 
located in flood hazard areas for which repairs, altera- 
tions and additions constitute substantial improvement, 
the code official shall not grant modifications to provisions 
related to flood resistance unless a determination is made 
that: 

1. The applicant has presented good and sufficient 
cause that the unique characteristics of the size, con- 
figuration or topography of the site render compli- 
ance with the flood-resistant construction provisions 
inappropriate. 

2. Failure to grant the modification would result in 
exceptional hardship. 

3. The granting of the modification will not result in 
increased flood heights, additional threats to public 
safety, extraordinary public expense nor create nui- 
sances, cause fraud on or victimization of the public 
or conflict with existing laws or ordinances. 

4. The modification is the minimum necessary to 
afford relief, considering the flood hazard. 

5. A written notice will be provided to the applicant 
specifying, if applicable, the difference between the 
design flood elevation and the elevation to which the 
building is to be built, stating that the cost of flood 
insurance will be commensurate with the increased 
risk resulting from the reduced floor elevation and 
that construction below the design flood elevation 
increases risks to life and property. 

[A] 104.11 Alternative materials, design and methods of 
construction, and equipment. The provisions of this code 
are not intended to prevent the installation of any material or 
to prohibit any design or method of construction not specifi- 
cally prescribed by this code, provided that any such alterna- 
tive has been approved. An alternative material, design, or 
method of construction shall be approved where the code offi- 
cial finds that the proposed design is satisfactory and com- 
plies with the intent of the provisions of this code, and that 
the material, method, or work offered is, for the purpose 
intended, at least the equivalent of that prescribed in this code 
in quality, strength, effectiveness, fire resistance, durability, 
and safety. 

[A] 104.11.1 Research reports. Supporting data, where 
necessary to assist in the approval of materials or assem- 
blies not specifically provided for in this code, shall con- 
sist of valid research reports from approved sources. 

[A] 104.11.2 Tests. Whenever there is insufficient evi- 
dence of compliance with the provisions of this code or 
evidence that a material or method does not conform to the 
requirements of this code, or in order to substantiate 
claims for alternative materials or methods, the code offi- 
cial shall have the authority to require tests as evidence of 
compliance to be made at no expense to the jurisdiction. 
Test methods shall be as specified in this code or by other 
recognized test standards. In the absence of recognized 
and accepted test methods, the code official shall approve 



the testing procedures. Tests shall be performed by an 
approved agency. Reports of such tests shall be retained 
by the code official for the period required for retention. 



SECTION 105 

PERMITS 

[A] 105.1 Required. Any owner or authorized agent who 
intends to repair, add to, alter, relocate, demolish, or change 
the occupancy of a building or to repair, install, add, alter, 
remove, convert, or replace any electrical, gas, mechanical, or 
plumbing system, the installation of which is regulated by 
this code, or to cause any such work to be done, shall first 
make application to the code official and obtain the required 
permit. 

[A] 105.1.1 Annual permit. In lieu of an individual per- 
mit for each alteration to an already approved electrical, 
gas, mechanical, or plumbing installation, the code official 
is authorized to issue an annual permit upon application 
therefor to any person, firm, or corporation regularly 
employing one or more qualified trade persons in the 
building, structure, or on the premises owned or operated 
by the applicant for the permit. 

[A] 105.1.2 Annual permit records. The person to whom 
an annual permit is issued shall keep a detailed record of 
alterations made under such annual permit. The code offi- 
cial shall have access to such records at all times, or such 
records shall be filed with the code official as designated. 

[A] 105.2 Work exempt from permit. Exemptions from 
permit requirements of this code shall not be deemed to grant 
authorization for any work to be done in any manner in viola- 
tion of the provisions of this code or any other laws or ordi- 
nances of this jurisdiction. Permits shall not be required for 
the following: 

Building: 

1. Sidewalks and driveways not more than 30 inches 
(762 mm) above grade and not over any basement or 
story below and that are not part of an accessible 
route. 

2. Painting, papering, tiling, carpeting, cabinets, coun- 
ter tops, and similar finish work. 

3. Temporary motion picture, television, and theater 
stage sets and scenery. 

4. Shade cloth structures constructed for nursery or 
agricultural purposes, and not including service sys- 
tems. 

5. Window awnings supported by an exterior wall of 
Group R-3 or Group U occupancies. 

6. Movable cases, counters, and partitions not over 69 
inches (1753 mm) in height. 

Electrical: 

Repairs and maintenance: Minor repair work, includ- 
ing the replacement of lamps or the connection of 
approved portable electrical equipment to approved 
permanently installed receptacles. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE 6 



SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION 



Radio and television transmitting stations: The pro- 
visions of this code shall not apply to electrical equip- 
ment used for radio and television transmissions, but do 
apply to equipment and wiring for power supply, the 
installations of towers, and antennas. 

Temporary testing systems: A permit shall not be 
required for the installation of any temporary system 
required for the testing or servicing of electrical equip- 
ment or apparatus. 

€Jas: 

1. Portable heating appliance. 

2. Replacement of any minor part that does not alter 
approval of equipment or make such equipment 
unsafe. 

Mechanical: 

1 . Portable heating appliance. 

2. Portable ventilation equipment. 

3. Portable cooling unit. 

4. Steam, hot, or chilled water piping within any heat- 
ing or cooling equipment regulated by this code. 

5. Replacement of any part that does not alter its 
approval or make it unsafe. 

6. Portable evaporative cooler. 

7. Self-contained refrigeration system containing 10 
pounds (4.54 kg) or less of refrigerant and actuated 
by motors of 1 horsepower (746 W) or less. 

Plumbing: 

1 . The stopping of leaks in drains, water, soil, waste, or 
vent pipe; provided, however, that if any concealed 
trap, drainpipe, water, soil, waste, or vent pipe 
becomes defective and it becomes necessary to 
remove and replace the same with new material, 
such work shall be considered as new work, and a 
permit shall be obtained and inspection made as pro- 
vided in this code. 

2. The clearing of stoppages or the repairing of leaks in 
pipes, valves, or fixtures, and the removal and rein- 
stallation of water closets, provided such repairs do 
not involve or require the replacement or rearrange- 
ment of valves, pipes, or fixtures. 

[A] 105.2.1 Emergency repairs. Where equipment 
replacements and repairs must be performed in an emer- 
gency situation, the permit application shall be submitted 
within the next working business day to the code official. 

[A] 105.2.2 Repairs. Application or notice to the code 
official is not required for ordinary repairs to structures 
and items listed in Section 105.2. Such repairs shall not 
include the cutting away of any wall, partition, or portion 
thereof, the removal or cutting of any structural beam or 
load-bearing support, or the removal or change of any 
required means of egress or rearrangement of parts of a 
structure affecting the egress requirements; nor shall ordi- 
nary repairs include addition to, alteration of, replace- 
ment, or relocation of any standpipe, water supply, sewer, 



drainage, drain leader, gas, soil, waste, vent, or similar 
piping, electric wiring, or mechanical or other work affect- 
ing public health or general safety. 

[AJ 105.2.3 Public service agencies. A permit shall not be 
required for the installation, alteration, or repair of gener- 
ation, transmission, distribution, or metering or other 
related equipment that is under the ownership and control 
of public service agencies by established right. 

[A] 105.3 Application for permit. To obtain a permit, the 
applicant shall first file an application therefor in writing on a 
form furnished by the Department of Building Safety for that 
purpose. Such application shall: 

1. Identify and describe the work in accordance with 
Chapter 3 to be covered by the permit for which appli- 
cation is made. 

2. Describe the land on which the proposed work is to be 
done by legal description, street address, or similar 
description that will readily identify and definitely 
locate the proposed building or work. 

3. Indicate the use and occupancy for which the proposed 
work is intended. 

4. Be accompanied by construction documents and other 
information as required in Section 106.3. 

5. State the valuation of the proposed work. 

6. Be signed by the applicant or the applicant's authorized 
agent. 

7. Give such other data and information as required by the 
code official. 

[A] 105.3.1 Action on application. The code official shall 
examine or cause to be examined applications for permits 
and amendments thereto within a reasonable time after fil- 
ing. If the application or the construction documents do 
not conform to the requirements of pertinent laws, the 
code official shall reject such application in writing, stat- 
ing the reasons therefor. If the code official is satisfied that 
the proposed work conforms to the requirements of this 
code and laws and ordinances applicable thereto, the code 
official shall issue a permit therefor as soon as practicable. 

[A] 105.3.2 Time limitation of application. An applica- 
tion for a permit for any proposed work shall be deemed to 
have been abandoned 180 days after the date of filing, 
unless such application has been pursued in good faith or a 
permit has been issued; except that the code official is 
authorized to grant one or more extensions of time for 
additional periods not exceeding 90 days each. The exten- 
sion shall be requested in writing and justifiable cause 
demonstrated. 

[A] 105.4 Validity of permit. The issuance or granting of a 
permit shall not be construed to be a permit for, or an 
approval of, any violation of any of the provisions of this 
code or of any other ordinance of the jurisdiction. Permits 
presuming to give authority to violate or cancel the provi- 
sions of this code or other ordinances of the jurisdiction shall 
not be valid. The issuance of a permit based on construction 
documents and other data shall not prevent the code official 
from requiring the correction of errors in the construction 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION 



documents and other data. The code official is also authorized 
to prevent occupancy or use of a structure where in violation 
of this code or of any other ordinances of this jurisdiction. 

[A] 105.5 Expiration. Every permit issued shall become 
invalid unless the work on the site authorized by such permit 
is commenced within 180 days after its issuance, or if the 
work authorized on the site by such permit is suspended or 
abandoned for a period of 180 days after the time the work is 
commenced. The code official is authorized to grant, in writ- 
ing, one or more extensions of time for periods not more than 
180 days each. The extension shall be requested in writing 
and justifiable cause demonstrated. 

[A] 105.6 Suspension or revocation. The code official is 
authorized to suspend or revoke a permit issued under the 
provisions of this code wherever the permit is issued in error 
or on the basis of incorrect, inaccurate, or incomplete infor- 
mation or in violation of any ordinance or regulation or any 
of the provisions of this code. 

[A] 105.7 Placement of permit. The building permit or copy 
shall be kept on the site of the work until the completion of 
the project. 



SECTION 106 
CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS 

[Aj 106.1 General. Submittal documents consisting of con- 
struction documents, special inspection and structural obser- 
vation programs, investigation and evaluation reports, and 
other data shall be submitted in two or more sets with each 
application for a permit. The construction documents shall be 
prepared by a registered design professional where required 
by the statutes of the jurisdiction in which the project is to be 
constructed. Where special conditions exist, the code official 
is authorized to require additional construction documents to 
be prepared by a registered design professional. 

Exception: The code official is authorized to waive the 
submission of construction documents and other data not 
required to be prepared by a registered design professional 
if it is found that the nature of the work applied for is such 
that reviewing of construction documents is not necessary 
to obtain compliance with this code. 

[A] 106.2 Construction documents. Construction docu- 
ments shall be in accordance with Sections 106.2.1 through 
106.2.5. 

[A] 106.2.1 Construction documents. Construction doc- 
uments shall be dimensioned and drawn upon suitable 
material. Electronic media documents are permitted to be 
submitted when approved by the code official. Construc- 
tion documents shall be of sufficient clarity to indicate the 
location, nature and extent of the work proposed and show 
in detail that it will conform to the provisions of this code 
and relevant laws, ordinances, rules and regulations, as 
determined by the code official. The work areas shall be 
shown. 

[A] 106.2.2 Fire protection system(s) shop drawings. 

Shop drawings for the fire protection system(s) shall be 
submitted to indicate conformance with this code and the 
construction documents and shall be approved prior to the 



start of system installation. Shop drawings shall contain all 
information as required by the referenced installation stan- 
dards in Chapter 9 of the International Building Code. 

[A] 106.2.3 Means of egress. The construction documents 
for Alterations— Level 2, Alterations— -Level 3, additions 
and changes of occupancy shall show in sufficient detail 
the location, construction, size and character of all por- 
tions of the means of egress in compliance with the provi- 
sions of this code. The construction documents shall 
designate the number of occupants to be accommodated in 
every work area of every floor and in all affected rooms 
and spaces. 

[A] 106.2.4 Exterior wall envelope. Construction docu- 
ments for all work affecting the exterior wall envelope 
shall describe the exterior wall envelope in sufficient 
detail to determine compliance with this code. The con- 
struction documents shall provide details of the exterior 
wall envelope as required, including windows, doors, 
flashing, intersections with dissimilar materials, corners, 
end details, control joints, intersections at roof, eaves, or 
parapets, means of drainage, water-resistive membrane, 
and details around openings. 

The construction documents shall include manufac- 
turer's installation instructions that provide supporting 
documentation that the proposed penetration and opening 
details described in the construction documents maintain 
the wind and weather resistance of the exterior wall enve- 
lope. The supporting documentation shall fully describe 
the exterior wall system which was tested, where applica- 
ble, as well as the test procedure used. 

[Aj 106.2.5 Site plan. The construction documents sub- 
mitted with the application for permit shall be accompa- 
nied by a site plan showing to scale the size and location 
of new construction and existing structures on the site, dis- 
tances from lot lines, the established street grades, and the 
proposed finished grades; and it shall be drawn in accor- 
dance with an accurate boundary line survey. In the case 
of demolition, the site plan shall show construction to be 
demolished and the location and size of existing structures 
and construction that are to remain on the site or plot. The 
code official is authorized to waive or modify the require- 
ment for a site plan when the application for permit is for 
alteration, repair or change of occupancy. 

[A] 106.3 Examination of documents. The code official 
shall examine or cause to be examined the submittal docu- 
ments and shall ascertain by such examinations whether the 
construction or occupancy indicated and described is in 
accordance with the requirements of this code and other perti- 
nent laws or ordinances. 

[A] 106.3.1 Approval of construction documents. When 
the code official issues a permit, the construction docu- 
ments shall be approved in writing or by stamp as 
"Reviewed for Code Compliance." One set of construction 
documents so reviewed shall be retained by the code offi- 
cial. The other set shall be returned to the applicant, shall 
be kept at the site of work, and shall be open to inspection 
by the code official or a duly authorized representative. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE E 



SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION 



[A] 106.3.2 Previous approval. This code shall not 
require changes in the construction documents, construc- 
tion or designated occupancy of a structure for which a 
lawful permit has been issued and the construction of 
which has been pursued in good faith within 180 days 
after the effective date of this code and has not been aban- 
doned. 

[A] 106.3.3 Phased approval. The code official is autho- 
rized to issue a permit for the construction of foundations 
or any other part of a building before the construction doc- 
uments for the whole building or structure have been sub- 
mitted, provided that adequate information and detailed 
statements have been filed complying with pertinent 
requirements of this code. The holder of such permit for 
the foundation or other parts of a building shall proceed at 
the holder's own risk with the building operation and with- 
out assurance that a permit for the entire structure will be 
granted. 

[A] 106.3.4 Deferred submittals. For the purposes of this 
section, deferred submittals are defined as those portions 
of the design that are not submitted at the time of the 
application and that are to be submitted to the code official 
within a specified period. 

Deferral of any submittal items shall have the prior 
approval of the code official. The registered design profes- 
sional in responsible charge shall list the deferred submit- 
tals on the construction documents for review by the code 
official. 

Submittal documents for deferred submittal items shall 
be submitted to the registered design professional in 
responsible charge who shall review them and forward 
them to the code official with a notation indicating that the 
deferred submittal documents have been reviewed and that 
they have been found to be in general conformance to the 
design of the building. The deferred submittal items shall 
not be installed until their deferred submittal documents 
have been approved by the code official. 
[A] 106.4 Amended construction documents. Work shall 
be installed in accordance with the reviewed construction 
documents, and any changes made during construction that 
are not in compliance with the approved construction docu- 
ments shall be resubmitted for approval as an amended set of 
construction documents. 

[A] 106.5 Retention of construction documents. One set of 
approved construction documents shall be retained by the 
code official for a period of not less than the period required 
for retention of public records. 

[A] 106.6 Design professional in responsible charge. When 
it is required that documents be prepared by a registered 
design professional, the code official shall be authorized to 
require the owner to engage and designate on the building 
permit application a registered design professional who shall 
act as the registered design professional in responsible 
charge. If the circumstances require, the owner shall desig- 
nate a substitute registered design professional in responsible 
charge who shall perform the duties required of the original 
registered design professional in responsible charge. The 
code official shall be notified in writing by the owner if the 



registered design professional in responsible charge is 
changed or is unable to continue to perform the duties. The 
registered design professional in responsible charge shall be 
responsible for reviewing and coordinating submittal docu- 
ments prepared by others, including phased and deferred sub- 
mittal items, for compatibility with the design of the building. 
Where structural observation is required, the inspection pro- 
gram shall name the individual or firms who are to perform 
structural observation and describe the stages of construction 
at which structural observation is to occur. 



SECTION 107 
TEMPORARY STRUCTURES AND USES 

[A] 107.1 General. The code official is authorized to issue a 
permit for temporary uses. Such permits shall be limited as to 
time of service but shall not be permitted for more than 1 80 
days. The code official is authorized to grant extensions for 
demonstrated cause. 

[A] 107.2 Conformance. Temporary uses shall conform to 
the structural strength, fire safety, means of egress, accessi- 
bility, light, ventilation and sanitary requirements of this code 
as necessary to ensure the public health, safety and general 
welfare. 

[A] 107.3 Temporary power. The code official is authorized 
to give permission to temporarily supply and use power in 
part of an electric installation before such installation has 
been fully completed and the final certificate of completion 
has been issued. The part covered by the temporary certificate 
shall comply with the requirements specified for temporary 
lighting, heat or power in NFPA 70. 

[A] 107.4 Termination of approval. The code official is 
authorized to terminate such permit for a temporary use and 
to order the temporary use to be discontinued. 



SECTION 108 

FEES 

[A] 108.1 Payment of fees. A permit shall not be valid until 
the fees prescribed by law have been paid. Nor shall an 
amendment to a permit be released until the additional fee, if 
any, has been paid. 

[A] 108.2 Schedule of permit fees. On buildings, electrical, 
gas, mechanical, and plumbing systems or alterations requir- 
ing a permit, a fee for each permit shall be paid as required in 
accordance with the schedule as established by the applicable 
governing authority. 

[A] 108.3 Building permit valuations. The applicant for a 
permit shall provide an estimated permit value at time of 
application. Permit valuations shall include total value of 
work including materials and labor for which the permit is 
being issued, such as electrical, gas, mechanical, plumbing 
equipment, and permanent systems. If, in the opinion of the 
code official, the valuation is underestimated on the applica- 
tion, the permit shall be denied unless the applicant can show 
detailed estimates to meet the approval of the code official. 
Final building permit valuation shall be set by the code offi- 
cial. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION 



[A] 108.4 Work commencing before permit issuance. Any 
person who commences any work before obtaining the neces- 
sary permits shall be subject to an additional fee established 
by the code official that shall be in addition to the required 
permit fees. 

[A] 108.5 Related fees. The payment of the fee for the con- 
struction, alteration, removal, or demolition of work done in 
connection to or concurrently with the work authorized by a 
building permit shall not relieve the applicant or holder of the 
permit from the payment of other fees that are prescribed by 
law. 

[A] 108.6 Refunds. The code official is authorized to estab- 
lish a refund policy. 



SECTION 109 
INSPECTIONS 

[A] 109.1 General. Construction or work for which a permit 
is required shall be subject to inspection by the code official, 
and such construction or work shall remain accessible and 
exposed for inspection purposes until approved. Approval as 
a result of an inspection shall not be construed to be an 
approval of a violation of the provisions of this code or of 
other ordinances of the jurisdiction. Inspections presuming to 
give authority to violate or cancel the provisions of this code 
or of other ordinances of the jurisdiction shall not be valid. It 
shall be the duty of the permit applicant to cause the work to 
remain accessible and exposed for inspection purposes. Nei- 
ther the code official nor the jurisdiction shall be liable for 
expense entailed in the removal or replacement of any mate- 
rial required to allow inspection. 

[A] 109.2 Preliminary inspection. Before issuing a permit, 
the code official is authorized to examine or cause to be 
examined buildings and sites for which an application has 
been filed. 

[A] 109.3 Required inspections. The code official, upon 
notification, shall make the inspections set forth in Sections 
109.3.1 through 109.3.9. 

[Aj 109.3.1 Footing or foundation inspection. Footing 
and foundation inspections shall be made after excavations 
for footings are complete and any required reinforcing 
steel is in place. For concrete foundations, any required 
forms shall be in place prior to inspection. Materials for 
the foundation shall be on the job, except where concrete 
is ready-mixed in accordance with ASTM C 94, the con- 
crete need not be on the job. 

[A] 109.3.2 Concrete slab or under-floor inspection. 
Concrete slab and under-floor inspections shall be made 
after in-slab or under-floor reinforcing steel and building 
service equipment, conduit, piping accessories, and other 
ancillary equipment items are in place but before any con- 
crete is placed or floor sheathing installed, including the 
sub floor. 

[A] 109.3.3 Lowest floor elevation. For additions and 
substantial improvements to existing buildings in flood 
hazard areas, upon placement of the lowest floor, includ- 
ing basement, and prior to further vertical construction, the 



elevation documentation required in the International 
Building Code shall be submitted to the code official. 

[A] 109.3.4 Frame inspection. Framing inspections shall 
be made after the roof deck or sheathing, all framing, fire 
blocking, and bracing are in place and pipes, chimneys, 
and vents to be concealed are complete and the rough elec- 
trical, plumbing, heating wires, pipes, and ducts are 
approved. 

[A] 109.3.5 Lath or gypsum board inspection. Lath and 
gypsum board inspections shall be made after lathing and 
gypsum board, interior and exterior, is in place but before 
any plastering is applied or before gypsum board joints 
and fasteners are taped and finished. 

Exception: Gypsum board that is not part of a fire- 
resistance-rated assembly or a shear assembly. 

[A] 109.3.6 Fire and smoke-resistant penetrations. Pro- 
tection of joints and penetrations in fire-resistance-rated 
assemblies, smoke barriers and smoke partitions shall not 
be concealed from view until inspected and approved. 

[A] 109.3.7 Other inspections. In addition to the inspec- 
tions specified above, the code official is authorized to 
make or require other inspections of any construction 
work to ascertain compliance with the provisions of this 
code and other laws that are enforced by the Department 
of Building Safety. 

[A] 109.3.8 Special inspections. Special inspections shall 
be required in accordance with the International Building 
Code. 

[A] 109.3.9 Final inspection. The final inspection shall be 
made after all work required by the building permit is 
completed. 

[A] 109.4 Inspection agencies. The code official is autho- 
rized to accept reports of approved inspection agencies, pro- 
vided such agencies satisfy the requirements as to 
qualifications and reliability. 

[A] 109.5 Inspection requests. It shall be the duty of the 
holder of the building permit or their duly authorized agent to 
notify the code official when work is ready for inspection. It 
shall be the duty of the permit holder to provide access to and 
means for any inspections of such work that are required by 
this code. 

[A] 109.6 Approval required. Work shall not be done 
beyond the point indicated in each successive inspection 
without first obtaining the approval of the code official. The 
code official, upon notification, shall make the requested 
inspections and shall either indicate the portion of the con- 
struction that is satisfactory as completed or shall notify the 
permit holder or an agent of the permit holder wherein the 
same fails to comply with this code. Any portions that do not 
comply shall be corrected and such portion shall not be cov- 
ered or concealed until authorized by the code official. 



SECTION 110 
CERTIFICATE OF OCCUPANCY 

[A] 110.1 Altered area use and occupancy classification 
change. No altered area of a building and no relocated build- 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION 



ing shall be used or occupied, and no change in the existing 
occupancy classification of a building or portion thereof shall 
be made until the code official has issued a certificate of 
occupancy therefor as provided herein. Issuance of a certifi- 
cate of occupancy shall not be construed as an approval of a 
violation of the provisions of this code or of other ordinances 
of the jurisdiction. 

[A] 110.2 Certificate issued. After the code official inspects 
the building and finds no violations of the provisions of this 
code or other laws that are enforced by the Department of 
Building Safety, the code official shall issue a certificate of 
occupancy that shall contain the following: 

1 . The building permit number. 

2. The address of the structure. 

3. The name and address of the owner. 

4. A description of that portion of the structure for which 
the certificate is issued. 

5. A statement that the described portion of the structure 
has been inspected for compliance with the require- 
ments of this code for the occupancy and division of 
occupancy and the use for which the proposed occu- 
pancy is classified. 

6. The name of the code official. 

7. The edition of the code under which the permit was 
issued. 

8. The use and occupancy in accordance with the provi- 
sions of the International. Building Code. 

9. The type of construction as defined in the Interna- 
tional Building Code. 

10. The design occupant load and any impact the altera- 
tion has on the design occupant load of the area not 
within the scope of the work. 

1 1 . If fire protection systems are provided, whether the 
fire protection systems are required. 

12. Any special stipulations and conditions of the build- 
ing permit. 

[A] 110.3 Temporary occupancy. The code official is autho- 
rized to issue a temporary certificate of occupancy before the 
completion of the entire work covered by the permit, pro- 
vided that such portion or portions shall be occupied safely. 
The code official shall set a time period during which the 
temporary certificate of occupancy is valid. 

[A] 110.4 Revocation. The code official is authorized to, in 
writing, suspend or revoke a certificate of occupancy or com- 
pletion issued under the provisions of this code wherever the 
certificate is issued in error or on the basis of incorrect infor- 
mation supplied, or where it is determined that the building or 
structure or portion thereof is in violation of any ordinance or 
regulation or any of the provisions of this code. 



SECTION 111 
SERVICE UTILITIES 

[A] 111.1 Connection of service utilities. No person shall 
make connections from a utility, source of energy, fuel, or 



power to any building or system that is regulated by this code 
for which a permit is required, until approved by the code 
official. 

[A] 111.2 Temporary connection. The code official shall 
have the authority to authorize the temporary connection of 
the building or system to the utility source of energy, fuel, or 
power. 

[A] 111.3 Authority to disconnect service utilities. The 
code official shall have the authority to authorize disconnec- 
tion of utility service to the building, structure or system reg- 
ulated by this code and the referenced codes and standards in 
case of emergency where necessary to eliminate an immedi- 
ate hazard to life or property or when such utility connection 
has been made without the approval required by Section 
111.1 or 111.2. The code official shall notify the serving util- 
ity and, wherever possible, the owner and occupant of the 
building, structure or service system of the decision to dis- 
connect prior to taking such action. If not notified prior to dis- 
connecting, the owner or occupant of the building, structure 
or service system shall be notified in writing, as soon as prac- 
tical thereafter. 



SECTION 112 
BOARD OF APPEALS 

[A] 112.1 General. In order to hear and decide appeals of 
orders, decisions, or determinations made by the code official 
relative to the application and interpretation of this code, 
there shall be and is hereby created a board of appeals. The 
board of appeals shall be appointed by the governing body 
and shall hold office at its pleasure. The board shall adopt 
rules of procedure for conducting its business. 

[A] 112.2 Limitations on authority. An application for 
appeal shall be based on a claim that the true intent of this 
code or the rules legally adopted thereunder have been incor- 
rectly interpreted, the provisions of this code do not fully 
apply, or an equally good or better form of construction is 
proposed. The board shall have no authority to waive require- 
ments of this code. 

[A] 112.3 Qualifications. The board of appeals shall consist 
of members who are qualified by experience and training to 
pass on matters pertaining to building construction and are 
not employees of the jurisdiction. 



SECTION 113 
VIOLATIONS 

[A] 113.1 Unlawful acts. It shall be unlawful for any person, 
firm, or corporation to repair, alter, extend, add, move, 
remove, demolish, or change the occupancy of any building 
or equipment regulated by this code or cause same to be done 
in conflict with or in violation of any of the provisions of this 
code. 

[A] 113.2 Notice of violation. The code official is authorized 
to serve a notice of violation or order on the person responsi- 
ble for the repair, alteration, extension, addition, moving, 
removal, demolition, or change in the occupancy of a build- 
ing in violation of the provisions of this code or in violation 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION 



of a permit or certificate issued under the provisions of this 
code. Such order shall direct the discontinuance of the illegal 
action or condition and the abatement of the violation. 

[A] 1 13.3 Prosecution of violation. If the notice of violation 
is not complied with promptly, the code official is authorized 
to request the legal counsel of the jurisdiction to institute the 
appropriate proceeding at law or in equity to restrain, correct, 
or abate such violation or to require the removal or termina- 
tion of the unlawful occupancy of the building or structure in 
violation of the provisions of this code or of the order or 
direction made pursuant thereto. 

[A] 113.4 Violation penalties. Any person who violates a 
provision of this code or fails to comply with any of the 
requirements thereof or who repairs or alters or changes the 
occupancy of a building or structure in violation of the 
approved construction documents or directive of the code 
official or of a permit or certificate issued under the provi- 
sions of this code shall be subject to penalties as prescribed 
by law. 



SECTION 114 
STOP WORK ORDER 

[A] 114.1 Authority. Whenever the code official finds any 
work regulated by this code being performed in a manner 
contrary to the provisions of this code or in a dangerous or 
unsafe manner, the code official is authorized to issue a stop 
work order. 

[A] 114.2 Issuance. The stop work order shall be in writing 
and shall be given to the owner of the property involved or to 
the owner's agent, or to the person doing the work. Upon 
issuance of a stop work order, the cited work shall immedi- 
ately cease. The stop work order shall state the reason for the 
order and the conditions under which the cited work will be 
permitted to resume. 

[A] 1 14.3 Unlawful continuance. Any person who shall con- 
tinue any work after having been served with a stop work 
order, except such work as that person is directed to perform 
to remove a violation or unsafe condition, shall be subject to 
penalties as prescribed by law. 



SECTION 115 
UNSAFE BUILDINGS AND EQUIPMENT 

[A] 115.1 Conditions. Buildings, structures or equipment 
that are or hereafter become unsafe, shall be taken down, 
removed or made safe as the code official deems necessary 
and as provided for in this code. 

[A] 115.2 Record. The code official shall cause a report to be 
filed on an unsafe condition. The report shall state the occu- 
pancy of the structure and the nature of the unsafe condition. 

[A] 115.3 Notice. If an unsafe condition is found, the code 
official shall serve on the owner, agent, or person in control 
of the structure a written notice that describes the condition 
deemed unsafe and specifies the required repairs or improve- 
ments to be made to abate the unsafe condition, or that 
requires the unsafe building to be demolished within a stipu- 



lated time. Such notice shall require the person thus notified 
to declare immediately to the code official acceptance or 
rejection of the terms of the order. 

[A] 115.4 Method of service. Such notice shall be deemed 
properly served if a copy thereof is delivered to the owner 
personally; sent by certified or registered mail addressed to 
the owner at the last known address with the return receipt 
requested; or delivered in any other manner as prescribed by 
local law. If the certified or registered letter is returned show- 
ing that the letter was not delivered, a copy thereof shall be 
posted in a conspicuous place in or about the structure 
affected by such notice. Service of such notice in the forego- 
ing manner upon the owner's agent or upon the person 
responsible for the structure shall constitute service of notice 
upon the owner. 

[A] 115.5 Restoration. The building or equipment deter- 
mined to be unsafe by the code official is permitted to be 
restored to a safe condition. To the extent that repairs, altera- 
tions, or additions are made or a change of occupancy occurs 
during the restoration of the building, such repairs, altera- 
tions, additions, or change of occupancy shall comply with 
the requirements of this code. 



SECTION 116 
EMERGENCY MEASURES 

[AJ 116.1 Imminent danger. When, in the opinion of the 
code official, there is imminent danger of failure or collapse 
of a building that endangers life, or when any building or part 
of a building has fallen and life is endangered by the occupa- 
tion of the building, or when there is actual or potential dan- 
ger to the building occupants or those in the proximity of any 
structure because of explosives, explosive fumes or vapors, 
or the presence of toxic fumes, gases, or materials, or opera- 
tion of defective or dangerous equipment, the code official is 
hereby authorized and empowered to order and require the 
occupants to vacate the premises forthwith. The code official 
shall cause to be posted at each entrance to such structure a 
notice reading as follows: "This Structure Is Unsafe and Its 
Occupancy Has Been Prohibited by the Code Official." It 
shall be unlawful for any person to enter such structure 
except for the purpose of securing the structure, making the 
required repairs, removing the hazardous condition, or of 
demolishing the same. 

[A] 116.2 Temporary safeguards. Notwithstanding other 
provisions of this code, whenever, in the opinion of the code 
official, there is imminent danger due to an unsafe condition, 
the code official shall order the necessary work to be done, 
including the boarding up of openings, to render such struc- 
ture temporarily safe whether or not the legal procedure 
herein described has been instituted; and shall cause such 
other action to be taken as the code official deems necessary 
to meet such emergency. 

[A] 116.3 Closing streets. When necessary for public safety, 
the code official shall temporarily close structures and close 
or order the authority having jurisdiction to close sidewalks, 
streets, public ways, and places adjacent to unsafe structures, 
and prohibit the same from being utilized. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION 



[A] 116.4 Emergency repairs. For the purposes of this sec- 
tion, the code official shall employ the necessary labor and 
materials to perform the required work as expeditiously as 
possible. 

[A] 116.5 Costs of emergency repairs. Costs incurred in the 
performance of emergency work shall be paid by the jurisdic- 
tion. The legal counsel of the jurisdiction shall institute 
appropriate action against the owner of the premises where 
the unsafe structure is or was located for the recovery of such 
costs. 

[A] 116.6 Hearing. Any person ordered to take emergency 
measures shall comply with such order forthwith. Any 
affected person shall thereafter, upon petition directed to the 
appeals board, be afforded a hearing as described in this code. 



SECTION 117 
DEMOLITION 

[A] 117.1 General. The code official shall order the owner of 
any premises upon which is located any structure that in the 
code official's judgment is so old, dilapidated, or has become 
so out of repair as to be dangerous, unsafe, insanitary, or oth- 
erwise unfit for human habitation or occupancy, and such that 
it is unreasonable to repair the structure, to demolish and 
remove such structure; or if such structure is capable of being 
made safe by repairs, to repair and make safe and sanitary or 
to demolish and remove at the owner's option; or where there 
has been a cessation of normal construction of any structure 
for a period of more than two years, to demolish and remove 
such structure. 

[A] 117.2 Notices and orders. All notices and orders shall 
comply with Section 113. 

[A] 117.3 Failure to comply. If the owner of a premises fails 
to comply with a demolition order within the time prescribed, 
the code official shall cause the structure to be demolished 
and removed, either through an available public agency or by 
contract or arrangement with private persons, and the cost of 
such demolition and removal shall be charged against the real 
estate upon which the structure is located and shall be a lien 
upon such real estate. 

[A] 117.4 Salvage materials. When any structure has been 
ordered demolished and removed, the governing body or 
other designated officer under said contract or arrangement 
aforesaid shall have the right to sell the salvage and valuable 
materials at the highest price obtainable. The net proceeds of 
such sale, after deducting the expenses of such demolition 
and removal, shall be promptly remitted with a report of such 
sale or transaction, including the items of expense and the 
amounts deducted, for the person who is entitled thereto, sub- 
ject to any order of a court. If such a surplus does not remain 
to be turned over, the report shall so state. 



10 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



CHAPTER 2 

U? ha I 1 9^1 1 § B %d> In %d 



SECTION 201 
GENERAL 

201.1 Scope. Unless otherwise expressly stated, the follow- 
ing words and terms shall, for the purposes of this code, have 
the meanings shown in this chapter. 

201.2 Intel-changeability. Words used in the present tense 
include the future; words stated in the masculine gender 
include the feminine and neuter; the singular number includes 
the plural and the plural, the singular. 

201.3 Terms defined in other codes. Where terms are not 
defined in this code and are defined in the other International 
Codes, such terms shall have the meanings ascribed to them 
in those codes. 

201.4 Terms not defined. Where terms are not defined 
through the methods authorized by this chapter, such terms 
shall have ordinarily accepted meanings such as the context 
implies. 



SECTION 202 

GENERAL DEFINITIONS 

ADDITION. An extension or increase in floor area, number 
of stories, or height of a building or structure. 

ALTERATION. Any construction or renovation to an exist- 
ing structure other than a repair or addition. Alterations are 
classified as Level 1, Level 2 and Level 3. 

CHANGE OF OCCUPANCY. A change in the purpose or 
level of activity within a building that involves a change in 
application of the requirements of this code. 

CODE OFFICIAL. The officer or other designated authority 
charged with the administration and enforcement of this code. 

[B] DANGEROUS. Any building, structure or portion 
thereof that meets any of the conditions described below shall 
be deemed dangerous: 

1. The building or structure has collapsed, has partially 
collapsed, has moved off its foundation, or lacks the 
necessary support of the ground. 

2. There exists a significant risk of collapse, detachment 
or dislodgement of any portion, member, appurtenance 
or ornamentation of the building or structure under ser- 
vice loads. 

EQUIPMENT OR FIXTURE. Any plumbing, heating, 
electrical, ventilating, air conditioning, refrigerating, and fire 
protection equipment, and elevators, dumb waiters, escala- 
tors, boilers, pressure vessels and other mechanical facilities 
or installations that are related to building services. Equip- 
ment or fixture shall not include manufacturing, production, 
or process equipment, but shall include connections from 
building service to process equipment. 



[B] EXISTING BUILDING. A building erected prior to the 
date of adoption of the appropriate code, or one for which a 
legal building permit has been issued. 

[B] FACILITY. All or any portion of buildings, structures, 
site improvements, elements and pedestrian or vehicular 
routes located on a site. 

[B] FLOOD HAZARD AREA. The greater of the following 
two areas: 

1 . The area within a flood plain subject to a 1 -percent or 
greater chance of flooding in any year. 

2. The area designated as a flood hazard area on a com- 
munity's flood hazard map, or otherwise legally desig- 
nated. 

[B] HISTORIC BUILDING. Any building or structure that 
is listed in the State or National Register of Historic Places; 
designated as a historic property under local or state designa- 
tion law or survey; certified as a contributing resource within 
a National Register listed or locally designated historic dis- 
trict; or with an opinion or certification that the property is 
eligible to be listed on the National or State Register of His- 
toric Places either individually or as a contributing building 
to a historic district by the State Historic Preservation Officer 
or the Keeper of the National Register of Historic Places. 

LOAD-BEARING ELEMENT. Any column, girder, beam, 
joist, truss, rafter, wall, floor or roof sheathing that supports 
any vertical load in addition to its own weight or any lateral 
load. 

NONCOMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL. A material that, under 
the conditions anticipated, will not ignite or burn when sub- 
jected to fire or heat. Materials that pass ASTM E 136 are 
considered noncombustible materials. 

[B] PRIMARY FUNCTION. A primary function is a major 
activity for which the facility is intended. Areas that contain a 
primary function include, but are not limited to, the customer 
services lobby of a bank, the dining area of a cafeteria, the 
meeting rooms in a conference center, as well as offices and 
other work areas in which the activities of the public accom- 
modation or other private entity using the facility are carried 
out. Mechanical rooms, boiler rooms, supply storage rooms, 
employee lounges or locker rooms, janitorial closets, 
entrances, corridors and restrooms are not areas containing a 
primary function. 

[A] REGISTERED DESIGN PROFESSIONAL IN 
RESPONSIBLE CHARGE. A registered design profes- 
sional engaged by the owner to review and coordinate certain 
aspects of the project, as determined by the code official, for 
compatibility with the design of the building or structure, 
including submittal documents prepared by others, deferred 
submittal documents and phased submittal documents. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTiNG BUILDING CODE® 



11 



DEFINITIONS 



REHABILITATION. Any work, as described by the cate- 
gories of work defined herein, undertaken in an existing 
building. 

REHABILITATION, SEISMIC. Work conducted to 
improve the seismic lateral force resistance of an existing 
building. 

REPAIR. The restoration to good or sound condition of any 
part of an existing building for the purpose of its mainte- 
nance. 

SEISMIC LOADING. The forces prescribed herein, related 
to the response of the structure to earthquake motions, to be 
used in the analysis and design of the structure and its compo- 
nents. 

[BJ SUBSTANTIAL DAMAGE. For the purpose of deter- 
mining compliance with the flood provisions of this code, 
damage of any origin sustained by a structure whereby the 
cost of restoring the structure to its before-damaged condition 
would equal or exceed 50 percent of the market value of the 
structure before the damage occurred. 

[B] SUBSTANTIAL IMPROVEMENT. For the purpose of 
determining compliance with the flood provisions of this 
code, any repair, alteration, addition, or improvement of a 
building or structure, the cost of which equals or exceeds 50 
percent of the market value of the structure, before the 
improvement or repair is started. If the structure has sus- 
tained substantial damage, any repairs are considered sub- 
stantial improvement regardless of the actual repair work 
performed. The term does not, however, include either: 

1 . Any project for improvement of a building required to 
correct existing health, sanitary, or safety code viola- 
tions identified by the code official and that is the mini- 
mum necessary to ensure safe living conditions; or 

2. Any alteration of a historic structure, provided that the 
alteration will not preclude the structure's continued 
designation as a historic structure. 

[B] SUBSTANTIAL STRUCTURAL DAMAGE. A condi- 
tion where: 

1 . In any story, the vertical elements of the lateral force- 
resisting system have suffered damage such that the lat- 
eral load-carrying capacity of the structure in any hori- 

| zontal direction has been reduced by more than 33 

percent from its predamage condition; or 

2. The capacity of any vertical gravity load-carrying com- 
ponent, or any group of such components, that supports 
more than 30 percent of the total area of the structure's 
floor(s) and roof(s) has been reduced more than 20 per- 
cent from its predamage condition and the remaining 
capacity of such affected elements, with respect to all 
dead and live loads, is less than 75 percent of that 
required by this code for new buildings of similar struc- 
ture, purpose and location. 

[B] TECHNICALLY INFEASIBLE. An alteration of a 
facility that has little likelihood of being accomplished 
because the existing structural conditions require the removal 
or alteration of a load-bearing member that is an essential 
part of the structural frame, or because other existing physical 



or site constraints prohibit modification or addition of ele- 
ments, spaces or features which are in full and strict compli- 
ance with the minimum requirements for new construction 
and which are necessary to provide accessibility. 

UNSAFE. Buildings, structures or equipment that are unsani- 
tary, or that are deficient due to inadequate means of egress 
facilities, inadequate light and ventilation, or that constitute a 
fire hazard, or in which the structure or individual structural 
members meet the definition of "Dangerous," or that are oth- 
erwise dangerous to human life or the public welfare, or that 
involve illegal or improper occupancy or inadequate mainte- 
nance shall be deemed unsafe. A vacant structure that is not 
secured against entry shall be deemed unsafe. 
WORK AREA. That portion or portions of a building con- 
sisting of all reconfigured spaces as indicated on the con- 
struction documents. Work area excludes other portions of 
the building where incidental work entailed by the intended 
work must be performed and portions of the building where 
work not initially intended by the owner is specifically 
required by this code. 



12 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



CHAPTER 3 

COMPI IAMf*P MFTHnn^ 
%*#' w I 1^ tao 1 |H» I V ^^ Rro I M 1 Em 111 %^ ILtf' %afl 



** 



SECTION 301 
COMPLIANCE METHODS 

301.1 General. The repair, alteration, change of occupancy, 
addition or relocation of all existing buildings shall comply 
with one of the methods listed in Sections 301.1.1 through 
301.1.3 as selected by the applicant. Application of a method 
shall be the sole basis for assessing the compliance of work 
performed under a single permit unless otherwise approved 
by the code official. Sections 301.1.1 through 301.1.3 shall 
not be applied in combination with each other. Where this 
code requires consideration of the seismic force-resisting sys- 
tem of an existing building subject to repair, alteration, 
change of occupancy, addition or relocation of existing build- 
ings, the seismic evaluation and design shall be based on Sec- 
tion 301.1.4 regardless of which compliance method is used. 

Exception: Subject to the approval of the code official, 
alterations complying with the laws in existence at the 
time the building or the affected portion of the building 
was built shall be considered in compliance with the provi- 
sions of this code unless the building is undergoing more 
than a limited structural alteration as defined in Section 
907.4.3. New structural members added as part of the 
alteration shall comply with the International Building 
Code. Alterations of existing buildings in flood hazard 
areas shall comply with Section 701.3. 

301.1.1 Prescriptive compliance method. Repairs, alter- 
ations, additions and changes of occupancy complying 
with Chapter 4 of this code in buildings complying with 
the International Fire Code shall be considered in compli- 
ance with the provisions of this code. 

301.1.2 Work area compliance method. Repairs, altera- 
tions, additions, changes in occupancy and relocated 
buildings complying with the applicable requirements of 
Chapters 5 through 13 of this code shall be considered in 
compliance with the provisions of this code. 

301.1.3 Performance compliance method. Repairs, 
alterations, additions, changes in occupancy and relocated 
buildings complying with Chapter 14 of this code shall be 
considered in compliance with the provisions of this code. 



[B] 301.1.4 Evaluation and design procedures. The seis- 
mic evaluation and design shall be based on the proce- 
dures specified in the International Building Code, ASCE 
31 or ASCE 41 . The procedures contained in Appendix A 
of this code shall be permitted to be used as specified in 
Section 301.1.4.2. 

[B] 301.1.4.1 Compliance with IBC level seismic 
forces. Where compliance with the seismic design pro- 
visions of the International Building Code is required, 
the procedures shall be in accordance with one of the 
following: 

1. One-hundred percent of the values in the Interna- 
tional Building Code. Where the existing seismic 
force-resisting system is a type that can be desig- 
nated as "Ordinary," values of J?, £l and C d used 
for analysis in accordance with Chapter 16 of the 
International Building Code shall be those specified 
for structural systems classified as "Ordinary" in 
accordance with Table 12.2-1 of ASCE 7, unless it 
can be demonstrated that the structural system 
will provide performance equivalent to that of a 
"Detailed," "Intermediate" or "Special" system. 

2. Compliance with ASCE 41 using both the BSE- 1 
and BSE-2 earthquake hazard levels and the cor- 
responding performance levels shown in Table 
301.1.4.1. 

[B] 301.1.4.2 Compliance with reduced IBC level 
seismic forces. Where seismic evaluation and design is 
permitted to meet reduced International Building Code 
seismic force levels, the procedures used shall be in 
accordance with one of the following: 

1. The International Building Code using 75 per- 
cent of the prescribed forces. Values of/?, Q. and 
C cl used for analysis shall be as specified in Sec- 
tion 301.1.4.1 of this code. 

2. Structures or portions of structures that comply 
with the requirements of the applicable chapter in 
Appendix A as specified in Items 2.1 through 2.5 
and subject to the limitations of the respective 



[B] TABLE 301.1.4.1 
PERFORMANCE CRITERIA FOR IBC— LEVEL SEISMIC FORCES OCCUPANCY 



RISK 

CATEGORY 
(Based on IBC Table 1604.5) 


PERFORMANCE LEVEL 
FOR USE WITH ASCE 41 BSE-1 
EARTHQUAKE HAZARD LEVEL 


PERFORMANCE LEVEL 
FOR USE WITH ASCE 41 BSE-2 
EARTHQUAKE HAZARD LEVEL 


I 


Life safety (LS) 


Collapse prevention (CP) 


II 


Life safety (LS) 


Collapse prevention (CP) 


III 


Note a 


Note a 


IV 


Immediate occupancy (10) 


Life safety (LS) 



a. Acceptance criteria for Risk Category III shall be taken as 80 percent of the acceptance criteria specified for Risk Category II performance levels, but need not 
be less than the acceptance criteria specified for Risk Category IV performance levels. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



13 



COMPLIANCE METHODS 



Appendix A Chapters shall be deemed to comply 
with this section. 

2.1. The seismic evaluation and design of 
unreinforced masonry bearing wall build- 
ings in Risk Category I or II are permitted 
to be based on the procedures specified in 
Appendix Chapter Al . 

2.2. Seismic evaluation and design of the wall 
anchorage system in reinforced concrete 
and reinforced masonry wall buildings 
with flexible diaphragms in Risk Cate- 
gory I or II are permitted to be based on 
the procedures specified in Chapter A2. 

2.3. Seismic evaluation and design of cripple 
walls and sill plate anchorage in residen- 
tial buildings of light-frame wood con- 
struction in Risk Category I or II are 
permitted to be based on the procedures 
specified in Chapter A3. 

2.4. Seismic evaluation and design of soft, 
weak, or open-front wall conditions in 
multiunit residential buildings of wood 
construction in Risk Category I or II are 
permitted to be based on the procedures 
specified in Chapter A4. 

2.5. Seismic evaluation and design of concrete 
buildings in all risk categories are permit- 
ted to be based on the procedures speci- 
fied in Chapter A5. 

3. Compliance with ASCE 31 based on the applica- 
ble performance level as shown in Table 
301.1.4.2. It shall be permitted to use the BSE-1 
earthquake hazard level as defined in ASCE 41 
and subject to the limitations in Item 4 below. 

4. Compliance with ASCE 41 using the BSE-1 
Earthquake Hazard Level and the performance 
level shown in Table 301.1.4.2. The design spec- 
tral response acceleration parameters S xs and S X! 
specified in ASCE 41 shall not be taken less than 
75 percent of the respective design spectral 
response acceleration parameters S DS and S Dl 
defined by the International Building Code. 



301.2 Additional codes. Alterations, repairs, additions and 
changes of occupancy to, or relocation of, existing buildings 
and structures shall comply with the provisions for altera- 
tions, repairs, additions and changes of occupancy or reloca- 
tion, respectively, in this code and the International Energy 
Conservation Code, International Fire Code, International 
Fuel Gas Code, International Mechanical Code, Interna- 
tional Plumbing Code, International Property Maintenance 
Code, International Private Sewage Disposal Code, Interna- 
tional Residential Code and NFPA 70. Where provisions of 
the other codes conflict with provisions of this code, the pro- 
visions of this code shall take precedence. 



[BJ TABLE 301 .1.4.2 
PERFORMANCE CRITERIA FOR REDUCED IBC— LEVEL SEISMIC FORCES RISK CATEGORY 



RISK 

CATEGORY 

(Based on IBC Table 1604.5) 


PERFORMANCE LEVEL 
FOR USE WITH ASCE 31 


PERFORMANCE LEVEL 
FOR USE WITH ASCE 41 BSE-1 
EARTHQUAKE HAZARD LEVEL 


I 


Life safety (LS) 


Life safety (LS) 


11 


Life safety (LS) 


Life safety (LS) 


III 


Notes a, b 


Note a 


IV 


Immediate occupancy (IO) 


Immediate occupancy (IO) 



a. Acceptance criteria for Risk Category III shall be taken as 80 percent of the acceptance criteria specified for Risk Category II performance levels, but need not 
be less than the acceptance criteria specified for Risk Category IV levels. 

b. For Risk Category III. the ASCE 31 screening phase checklists shall be based on the life safety performance level. 



14 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



CHAPTER 4 

PRESCRIPTIVE COMPLIANCE METHOD 



SECTION 401 
GENERAL 

[B] 401.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall control 
the alteration, repair, addition and change of occupancy or 
relocation of existing buildings and structures, including his- 
toric buildings and structures as referenced in Section 
301.1.1. 

Exception: Existing bleachers, grandstands and folding 
and telescopic seating shall comply with ICC 300. 

[B] 401.1.1 Compliance with other methods. Altera- 
tions, repairs, additions and changes of occupancy to or 
relocation of, existing buildings and structures shall com- 
ply with the provisions of this chapter or with one of the 
methods provided in Section 301 . 1 . 

I[B] 401.2 Building materials and systems. Building materi- 
als and systems shall comply with the requirements of this 
section. 

[B] 401.2.1 Existing materials. Materials already in use 
in a building in compliance with requirements or approv- 
als in effect at the time of their erection or installation 
shall be permitted to remain in use unless determined by 
| the building official to be unsafe per Section 115. 

[B] 401.2.2 New and replacement materials. Except as 
otherwise required or permitted by this code, materials 
permitted by the applicable code for new construction 
shall be used. Like materials shall be permitted for repairs 
and alterations, provided no hazard to life, health or prop- 
erty is created. Hazardous materials shall not be used 
where the code for new construction would not permit 
their use in buildings of similar occupancy, purpose and 
location. 

[B] 401.2.3 Existing seismic force-resisting systems. 
Where the existing seismic force-resisting system is a type 
that can be designated ordinary, values of R, Q and C d for 
the existing seismic force-resisting system shall be those 
specified by the International Building Code for an ordi- 
nary system unless it is demonstrated that the existing sys- 
tem will provide performance equivalent to that of a 
detailed, intermediate or special system. 

[B] 401.3 Dangerous conditions. The building official shall 
have the authority to require the elimination of conditions 

deemed dangerous. 



SECTION 402 
ADDITIONS 

[B] 402.1 General. Additions to any building or structure 
shall comply with the requirements of the International 
Building Code for new construction. Alterations to the exist- 
ing building or structure shall be made to ensure that the 



existing building or structure together with the addition are 
no less conforming to the provisions of the International 
Building Code than the existing building or structure was 
prior to the addition. An existing building together with its 
additions shall comply with the height and area provisions of 
Chapter 5 of the International Building Code. 

[B] 402.2 Flood hazard areas. For buildings and structures 
in flood hazard areas established in Section 1612.3 of the 
International Building Code, any addition that constitutes 
substantial improvement of the existing structure, as defined 
in Section 202, shall comply with the flood design require- 
ments for new construction, and all aspects of the existing 
structure shall be brought into compliance with the require- 
ments for new construction for flood design. 

For buildings and structures in flood hazard areas estab- 
lished in Section 1612.3 of the International Building Code, 
any additions that do not constitute substantial improvement 
of the existing structure, as defined in Section 202, are not ' 
required to comply with the flood design requirements for 
new construction. 

[B] 402.3 Existing structural elements carrying gravity 
load. Any existing gravity load-carrying structural element 
for which an addition and its related alterations cause an 
increase in design gravity load of more than 5 percent shall be 
strengthened, supplemented, replaced or otherwise altered as 
needed to carry the increased gravity load required by the 
International Building Code for new structures. Any existing 
gravity load-carrying structural element whose gravity load- 
carrying capacity is decreased shall be considered an altered 
element subject to the requirements of Section 403.3. Any 
existing element that will form part of the lateral load path for 
any part of the addition shall be considered an existing lateral 
load-carrying structural element subject to the requirements 
of Section 402.4. 

[B] 402.3.1 Design live load. Where the addition does not 
result in increased design live load, existing gravity load- 
carrying structural elements shall be permitted to be evalu- 
ated and designed for live loads approved prior to the 
addition. If the approved live load is less than that required 
by Section 1607 of the International Building Code, the 
area designed for the nonconforming live load shall be 
posted with placards of approved design indicating the 
approved live load. Where the addition does result in 
increased design live load, the live load required by Sec- 
tion 1607 of the International Building Code shall be used. 

[B] 402.4 Existing structural elements carrying lateral j 
load. Where the addition is structurally independent of the 
existing structure, existing lateral load-carrying structural ele- 
ments shall be permitted to remain unaltered. Where the addi- 
tion is not structurally independent of the existing structure, 
the existing structure and its addition acting together as a sin- 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



15 



PRESCRIPTIVE COMPLIANCE METHOD 



gle structure shall be shown to meet the requirements of Sec- 
tions 1609 and 1613 of the International Building Code. 

Exception: Any existing lateral load-carrying structural 
element whose demand-capacity ratio with the addition 
considered is no more than 10 percent greater than its 
demand-capacity ratio with the addition ignored shall be 
permitted to remain unaltered. For purposes of calculating 
demand-capacity ratios, the demand shall consider appli- 
cable load combinations with design lateral loads or forces 
in accordance with Sections 1609 and 1613 of the Interna- 
tional Building Code. For purposes of this exception, com- 
parisons of demand-capacity ratios and calculation of 
design lateral loads, forces and capacities shall account for 
the cumulative effects of additions and alterations since 
original construction. 

[B] 402.5 Smoke alarms in existing portions of a building. 
Where an addition is made to a building or structure of a 
Group R or 1-1 occupancy, the existing building shall be pro- 
vided with smoke alarms in accordance with Section 1103.8 
of the International Fire Code. 



SECTION 403 
ALTERATIONS 

[B] 403.1 General. Except as provided by Section 401.2 or 
this section, alterations to any building or structure shall 
comply with the requirements of the International Building 
Code for new construction. Alterations shall be such that the 
existing building or structure is no less conforming to the pro- 
visions of the International Building Code than the existing 
building or structure was prior to the alteration. 

Exceptions: 

1 . An existing stairway shall not be required to comply 
with the requirements of Section 1009 of the Inter- 
national Building Code where the existing space and 
construction does not allow a reduction in pitch or 
slope. 

2. Handrails otherwise required to comply with Sec- 
tion 1009.12 of the International Building Code 
shall not be required to comply with the require- 
ments of Section 1012.6 of the International Build- 
ing Code regarding full extension of the handrails 
where such extensions would be hazardous due to 
plan configuration. 

[B] 403.2 Flood hazard areas. For buildings and structures 
in flood hazard areas established in Section 1612.3 of the 
International Building Code, any alteration that constitutes 
substantial improvement of the existing structure, as defined 
in Section 202, shall comply with the flood design require- 
ments for new construction, and all aspects of the existing 
structure shall be brought into compliance with the require- 
ments for new construction for flood design. 

For buildings and structures in flood hazard areas estab- 
lished in Section 1612.3 of the International Building Code, 
any alterations that do not constitute substantial improvement 
of the existing structure, as defined in Section 202, are not 
required to comply with the flood design requirements for 
new construction. 



[B] 403.3 Existing structural elements carrying gravity 
load. Any existing gravity load-carrying structural element 
for which an alteration causes an increase in design gravity 
load of more than 5 percent shall be strengthened, supple- 
mented, replaced or otherwise altered as needed to carry the 
increased gravity load required by the International Building 
Code for new structures. Any existing gravity load-carrying 
structural element whose gravity load-carrying capacity is 
decreased as part of the alteration shall be shown to have the 
capacity to resist the applicable design gravity loads required 
by the International Building Code for new structures. 

[B] 403.3.1 Design live load. Where the alteration does 
not result in increased design live load, existing gravity 
load-carrying structural elements shall be permitted to be 
evaluated and designed for live loads approved prior to the 
alteration. If the approved live load is less than that 
required by Section 1607 of the International Building 
Code, the area designed for the nonconforming live load 
shall be posted with placards of approved design indicat- 
ing the approved live load. Where the alteration does 
result in increased design live load, the live load required 
by Section 1607 of the International Building Code shall 
be used. 

[B] 403.4 Existing structural elements carrying lateral 
load. Except as permitted by Section 403.5, with the altera- 
tion increases design lateral loads in accordance with Section 
1609 or 1613 of the International Building Code, or where 
the alteration results in a structural irregularity as defined in 
ASCE 7, or where the alteration decreases the capacity of 
any existing lateral load-carrying structural element, the 
structure of the altered building or structure shall be shown to 
meet the requirements of Sections 1609 and 1613 of the 
International Building Code. 

Exception: Any existing lateral load-carrying structural 
element whose demand-capacity ratio with the alteration 
considered is no more than 10 percent greater than its 
demand-capacity ratio with the alteration ignored shall be 
permitted to remain unaltered. For purposes of calculating 
demand-capacity ratios, the demand shall consider appli- 
cable load combinations with design lateral loads or forces 
in accordance with Sections 1609 and 1613 of the Interna- 
tional Building Code. For purposes of this exception, com- 
parisons of demand-capacity ratios and calculation of 
design lateral loads, forces and capacities shall account for 
the cumulative effects of additions and alterations since 
original construction. 

[B] 403.5 Voluntary seismic improvements. Alterations to 
existing structural elements or additions of new structural 
elements that are not otherwise required by this chapter and 
are initiated for the purpose of improving the performance of 
the seismic force-resisting system of an existing structure or 
the performance of seismic bracing or anchorage of existing 
nonstructural elements shall be permitted, provided that an 
engineering analysis is submitted demonstrating the follow- 
ing: 

1. The altered structure and the altered nonstructural ele- 
ments are no less conforming to the provisions of the 



16 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



PRESCRIPTIVE COMPLIANCE METHOD 



International Building Code with respect to earthquake 
design than they were prior to the alteration. 

2. New structural elements are detailed as required for 
new construction. 

3. New or relocated nonstructural elements are detailed 
and connected to existing or new structural elements as 
required for new construction. 

4. The alterations do not create a structural irregularity as 
defined in ASCE 7 or make an existing structural irreg- 
ularity more severe. 

[B] 403.6 Smoke alarms. Individual sleeping units and indi- 
vidual dwelling units in Group R and 1-1 occupancies shall be 
provided with smoke alarms in accordance with Section 
1 103.8 of the International Fire Code. 



SECTION 404 
REPAIRS 

[B] 404.1 General. Buildings and structures, and parts 
thereof, shall be repaired in compliance with Section 401.2 
and Section 404. Work on nondamaged components that is 
necessary for the required repair of damaged components 
shall be considered part of the repair and shall not be subject 
to the requirements for alterations in this chapter. Routine 
maintenance required by Section 401.2, ordinary repairs 
exempt from permit in accordance with Section 105.2, and 
abatement of wear due to normal service conditions shall not 
be subject to the requirements for repairs in this section. 
[B] 404.2 Substantial structural damage to vertical ele- 
ments of the lateral force-resisting system. A building that 
has sustained substantial structural damage to the vertical 
elements of its lateral force-resisting system shall be evalu- 
ated and repaired in accordance with the applicable provi- 
sions of Sections 404.2.1 through 404.2.3. 

Exceptions: 

1. Buildings assigned to Seismic Design Category A, B 
or C whose substantial structural damage was not 
caused by earthquake need not be evaluated or reha- 
bilitated for load combinations that include earth- 
quake effects. 

2. One- and two-family dwellings need not be evalu- 
ated or rehabilitated for load combinations that 
include earthquake effects. 

[B] 404.2.1 Evaluation. The building shall be evaluated 
by a registered design professional, and the evaluation 
findings shall be submitted to the building official. The 
evaluation shall establish whether the damaged building, if 
repaired to its predamage state, would comply with the 
provisions of the International Building Code for wind 
and earthquake loads. 

Wind loads for this evaluation shall be those prescribed 
in Section 1609 of the International Building Code. Earth- 
quake loads for this evaluation, if required, shall be per- 
mitted to be 75 percent of those prescribed in Section 1613 
of the International Building Code. 



[B] 404.2.2 Extent of repair for compliant buildings. If 
the evaluation establishes compliance of the predamage 
building in accordance with Section 404.2.1, then repairs 
shall be permitted that restore the building to its predam- 
age state, based on material properties and design 1 
strengths applicable at the time of original construction. j 

[B] 404.2.3 Extent of repair for noncompliant build- 
ings. If the evaluation does not establish compliance of the 
predamage building in accordance with Section 404.2.1, 
then the building shall be rehabilitated to comply with 
applicable provisions of the International Building Code 
for load combinations that include wind or seismic loads. 
The wind loads for the repair shall be as required by the 
building code in effect at the time of original construction, 
unless the damage was caused by wind, in which case the 
wind loads shall be as required by the International Build- 1 
ing Code. Earthquake loads for this rehabilitation design | 
shall be those required for the design of the predamage 
building, but not less than 75 percent of those prescribed 
in Section 1613. New structural members and connections 
required by this rehabilitation design shall comply with 
the detailing provisions of the International Building Code 
for new buildings of similar structure, purpose and loca- 
tion. 

[B] 404.3 Substantial structural damage to gravity load- 
carrying components. Gravity load-carrying components 
that have sustained substantial structural damage shall be 
rehabilitated to comply with the applicable provisions of the 
International Building Code for dead and live loads. Snow 
loads shall be considered if the substantial structural damage 
was caused by or related to snow load effects. Existing grav- 
ity load-carrying structural elements shall be permitted to be 
designed for live loads approved prior to the damage. Non- 
damaged gravity load-carrying components that receive dead, 
live or snow loads from rehabilitated components shall also 
be rehabilitated or shown to have the capacity to carry the 
design loads of the rehabilitation design. New structural 
members and connections required by this rehabilitation 
design shall comply with the detailing provisions of the Inter- 
national Building Code for new buildings of similar structure, 
purpose and location. 

[B] 404.3.1 Lateral force-resisting elements. Regardless 
of the level of damage to vertical elements of the lateral 
force-resisting system, if substantial structural damage to 
gravity load-carrying components was caused primarily by 
wind or earthquake effects, then the building shall be eval- 
uated in accordance with Section 404.2. 1 and, if noncom- 
pliant, rehabilitated in accordance with Section 404.2.3. 

Exceptions: 

1. One- and two-family dwellings need not be eval- 
uated or rehabilitated for load combinations that 
include earthquake effects. 

2. Buildings assigned to Seismic Design Category 
A, B or C whose substantial structural damage 
was not caused by earthquake need not be evalu- 
ated or rehabilitated for load combinations that 
include earthquake effects. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



17 



PRESCRIPTIVE COMPLIANCE METHOD 



[B] 404.4 Less than substantial structural damage. For 
damage less than substantial structural damage, repairs shall 
be allowed that restore the building to its predamage state, 

I based on material properties and design strengths applicable 
at the time of original construction. New structural members 
and connections used for this repair shall comply with the 
detailing provisions of the International Building Code for 
new buildings of similar structure, purpose and location. 

[B] 404.5 Flood hazard areas. For buildings and structures 
in flood hazard areas established in Section 1612.3 of the 
International Building Code, any repair that constitutes sub- 
stantial improvement of the existing structure, as defined in 
Section 202, shall comply with the flood design requirements 
for new construction, and all aspects of the existing structure 
shall be brought into compliance with the requirements for 
new construction for flood design. 

For buildings and structures in flood hazard areas estab- 
lished in Section 1612.3 of the International Building Code, 
any repairs that do not constitute substantial improvement or 
repair of substantial damage of the existing structure, as 
defined in Section 202, are not required to comply with the 
flood design requirements for new construction. 

SECTION 405 
FIRE ESCAPES 

[B] 405.1 Where permitted. Fire escapes shall be permitted 
only as provided for in Sections 405.1.1 through 405.1.4. 

[B] 405.1.1 New buildings. Fire escapes shall not consti- 
tute any part of the required means of egress in new build- 
ings. 

[B] 405.1.2 Existing fire escapes. Existing fire escapes 
shall continue to be accepted as a component in the means 
of egress in existing buildings only. 

[B] 405.1.3 New fire escapes. New fire escapes for exist- 
ing buildings shall be permitted only where exterior stairs 
cannot be utilized due to lot lines limiting stair size or due 
to the sidewalks, alleys or roads at grade level. New fire 
escapes shall not incorporate ladders or access by win- 
dows. 

[B] 405.1.4 Limitations. Fire escapes shall comply with 
this section and shall not constitute more than 50 percent 
of the required number of exits nor more than 50 percent 
of the required exit capacity. 

[B] 405.2 Location. Where located on the front of the build- 
ing and where projecting beyond the building line, the lowest 
landing shall not be less than 7 feet (2134 mm) or more than 
12 feet (3658 mm) above grade, and shall be equipped with a 
counterbalanced stairway to the street. In alleyways and thor- 
oughfares less than 30 feet (9144 mm) wide, the clearance 
under the lowest landing shall not be less than 12 feet (3658 
mm). 

[B] 405.3 Construction. The fire escape shall be designed to 
support a live load of 100 pounds per square foot (4788 Pa) 
and shall be constructed of steel or other approved noncom- 



bustible materials. Fire escapes constructed of wood not less 
than nominal 2 inches (51 mm) thick are permitted on build- 
ings of Type V construction. Walkways and railings located 
over or supported by combustible roofs in buildings of Type 
III and IV construction are permitted to be of wood not less 
than nominal 2 inches (5 1 mm) thick. 

[B] 405.4 Dimensions. Stairs shall be at least 22 inches (559 
mm) wide with risers not more than, and treads not less than, 
8 inches (203 mm) and landings at the foot of stairs not less 
than 40 inches (1016 mm) wide by 36 inches (914 mm) long, 
located not more than 8 inches (203 mm) below the door. 
[B] 405.5 Opening protectives. Doors and windows along 
the fire escape shall be protected with 3 / 4 -hour opening pro- 
tectives. 



SECTION 406 
GLASS REPLACEMENT 

[B] 406.1 Conformance. The installation or replacement of 
glass shall be as required for new installations. 



SECTION 407 
CHANGE OF OCCUPANCY 

[B] 407.1 Conformance. No change shall be made in the use 
or occupancy of any building that would place the building in 
a different division of the same group of occupancy or in a 
different group of occupancies, unless such building is made 
to comply with the requirements of the International Building 
Code for such division or group of occupancy. Subject to the 
approval of the building official, the use or occupancy of 
existing buildings shall be permitted to be changed and the 
building is allowed to be occupied for purposes in other 
groups without conforming to all of the requirements of this 
code for those groups, provided the new or proposed use is 
less hazardous, based on life and fire risk, than the existing 
use. 

[B] 407.2 Certificate of occupancy. A certificate of occu- 
pancy shall be issued where it has been determined that the 
requirements for the new occupancy classification have been 
met. 

[B] 407.3 Stairways. An existing stairway shall not be 
required to comply with the requirements of Section 1009 of 
the Interntional Building Code where the existing space and 
construction does not allow a reduction in pitch or slope. 

[B] 407.4 Structural. When a change of occupancy results 
in a structure being reclassified to a higher risk category, the 
structure shall conform to the seismic requirements for a new 
structure of the higher risk category. 

Exceptions: 

1. Specific seismic detailing requirements of Section 
1613 of the International Building Code for a new 
structure shall not be required to be met where the 
seismic performance is shown to be equivalent to 
that of a new structure. A demonstration of equiva- 



18 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



PRESCRIPTIVE COMPLIANCE METHOD 



lence shall consider the regularity, overstrength, 
redundancy and ductility of the structure. 

2. When a change of use results in a structure being 
reclassified from Risk Category I or II to Risk Cate- 
gory III and the structure is located where the seis- 
mic coefficient, S DS is less than 0.33, compliance 
with the seismic requirements of Section 1613 of the 
International Building Code is not required. 



SECTION 408 
HISTORIC BUILDINGS 

[B] 408.1 Historic buildings. The provisions of this code 
relating to the construction, repair, alteration, addition, res- 
toration and movement of structures, and change of occu- 
pancy shall not be mandatory for historic buildings where 
such buildings are judged by the building official to not con- 
stitute a distinct life safety hazard. 

[B] 408.2 Flood hazard areas. Within flood hazard areas 
established in accordance with Section 1612.3 of the Interna- 
tional Building Code, where the work proposed constitutes 
substantial improvement as defined in Section 1612.2 of the 
International Building Code, the building shall be brought 
into compliance with Section 1612 of the International Build- 
ing Code. 

Exception: Historic buildings need not be brought into 
compliance that are: 

1 . Listed or preliminarily determined to be eligible for 
listing in the National Register of Historic Places; 

2. Determined by the Secretary of the U.S. Department 
of Interior as contributing to the historical signifi- 
cance of a registered historic district or a district pre- 
liminarily determined to qualify as an historic 
district; or 

3. Designated as historic under a state or local historic 
preservation program that is approved by the 
Department of Interior. 



SECTION 409 
MOVED STRUCTURES 

[B] 409.1 Conformance. Structures moved into or within the 
jurisdiction shall comply with the provisions of this code for 
new structures. 



SECTION 410 
ACCESSIBILITY FOR EXISTING BUILDINGS 

[B] 410.1 Scope. The provisions of Sections 410.1 through 
410.9 apply to maintenance, change of occupancy, additions 
and alterations to existing buildings, including those identi- 
fied as historic buildings. 

[B] 410.2 Maintenance of facilities. A facility that is con- 
structed or altered to be accessible shall be maintained acces- 
sible during occupancy. 

[B] 410.3 Extent of application. An alteration of an existing 
facility shall not impose a requirement for greater accessibil- 



ity than that which would be required for new construction. 
Alterations shall not reduce or have the effect of reducing 
accessibility of a facility or portion of a facility. 

[B] 410.4 Change of occupancy. Existing buildings that 
undergo a change of group or occupancy shall comply with 
this section. 

Exception: Type B dwelling or sleeping units required by 
Section 1107 of the International Building Code are not 
required to be provided in existing buildings and facilities 
undergoing a change of occupancy in conjunction with 
alterations where the work area is 50 percent or less of the 
aggregate area of the building. 

[B] 410.4.1 Partial change in occupancy. Where a por- 
tion of the building is changed to a new occupancy classi- 
fication, any alterations shall comply with Sections 410.6, 
410.7 and 410.8. 

[B] 410.4.2 Complete change of occupancy. Where an 
entire building undergoes a change of occupancy, it shall 
comply with Section 410.4.1 and shall have all of the fol- 
lowing accessible features: 

1 . At least one accessible building entrance. 

2. At least one accessible route from an accessible 
building entrance to primary function areas. 

3. Signage complying with Section 1110 of the Inter- 
national Building Code. 

4. Accessible parking, where parking is being pro- 
vided. 

5. At least one accessible passenger loading zone, 
when loading zones are provided. 

6. At least one accessible route connecting accessible 
parking and accessible passenger loading zones to 
an accessible entrance. 

Where it is technically infeasible to comply with the 
new construction standards for any of these requirements 
for a change of group or occupancy, the above items shall 
conform to the requirements to the maximum extent tech- 
nically feasible. 

Exception: The accessible features listed in Items 1 1 
through 6 are not required for an accessible route to j 
Type B units. | 

[B] 410.5 Additions. Provisions for new construction shall 
apply to additions. An addition that affects the accessibility 
to, or contains an area of, a primary function shall comply 
with the requirements in Section 410.7. 

[B] 410.6 Alterations. & facility that is altered shall comply 
with the applicable provisions in Chapter 1 1 of the Interna- [ 
tional Building Code, unless technically infeasible. Where 
compliance with this section is technically infeasible, the 
alteration shall provide access to the maximum extent techni- 
cally feasible. 

Exceptions: 

1 . The altered element or space is not required to be on 
an accessible route, unless required by Section 
410.7. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



19 



PRESCRIPTIVE COMPLIANCE METHOD 



2. Accessible means of egress required by Chapter 10 
of the International Building Code are not required 
to be provided in existing facilities. 

3. The alteration to Type A individually owned dwell- 
ing units within a Group R-2 occupancy shall be 
permitted to meet the provision for a Type B dwell- 
ing unit. 

4. Type B dwelling or sleeping units required by Sec- 
tion 1 107 of the International Building Code are not 
required to be provided in existing buildings and 
facilities undergoing a change of occupancy in con- 
junction with alterations where the work area is 50 
percent or less of the aggregate area of the building. 

[B] 410.7 Alterations affecting an area containing a pri- 
mary function. Where an alteration affects the accessibility 
to, or contains an area of primary function, the route to the 
primary function area shall be accessible. The accessible 
route to the primary function area shall include toilet facilities 
or drinking fountains serving the area of primary function. 

Exceptions: 

1. The costs of providing the accessible route are not 
required to exceed 20 percent of the costs of the 
alterations affecting the area of primary function. 

2. This provision does not apply to alterations limited 
solely to windows, hardware, operating controls, 
electrical outlets and signs. 

3. This provision does not apply to alterations limited 
solely to mechanical systems, electrical systems, 
installation or alteration of fire protection systems 
and abatement of hazardous materials. 

4. This provision does not apply to alterations under- 
taken for the primary purpose of increasing the 
accessibility of a facility. 

5. This provision does not apply to altered areas lim- 
ited to Type B dwelling and sleeping units. 

[B] 410.8 Scoping for alterations. The provisions of Sec- 
tions 410.8.1 through 410.8.14 shall apply to alterations to 
existing buildings and facilities. 

[B] 410.8.1 Entrances. Accessible entrances shall be pro- 
vided in accordance with Section 1 105. 

Exception: Where an alteration includes alterations to 
an entrance, and the facility has an accessible entrance, 
the altered entrance is not required to be accessible, 
unless required by Section 410.7. Signs complying with 
Section 1110 of the International Building Code shall 
be provided. 

[B] 410.8.2 Elevators. Altered elements of existing eleva- 
tors shall comply with ASME A17.1 and ICC A117.1. 
Such elements shall also be altered in elevators pro- 
grammed to respond to the same hall call control as the 
altered elevator. 

[B] 410.8.3 Platform lifts. Platform (wheelchair) lifts 
complying with ICC A117.1 and installed in accordance 
with ASME A 18.1 shall be permitted as a component of 
an accessible route. 



[B] 410.8.4 Stairs and escalators in existing buildings. 
In alterations, change of occupancy or additions where an 
escalator or stair is added where none existed previously 
and major structural modifications are necessary for instal- 
lation, an accessible route shall be provided between the 
levels served by the escalator or stairs in accordance with 
Sections 1104.4 and 1104.5 of the International Building 
Code. 

[B] 410.8.5 Ramps. Where slopes steeper than allowed by 
Section 1010.3 of the International Building Code are 
necessitated by space limitations, the slope of ramps in or 
providing access to existing facilities shall comply with 
Table 410.8.5. 

[B] TABLE 410.8.5 
RAMPS 



SLOPE 


MAXIMUM RISE 


Steeper than 1:10 but not steeper than 1 :8 


3 inches 


Steeper than 1:12 but not steeper than 1:10 


6 inches 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

[B] 410.8.6 Performance areas. Where it is technically 
infeasible to alter performance areas to be on an accessible 
route, at least one of each type of performance area shall 
be made accessible. 

[BJ 410.8.7 Accessible dwelling or sleeping units. Where 
Group 1-1, 1-2, 1-3, R-l, R-2 or R-4 dwelling or sleeping 
units are being altered or added, the requirements of Sec- 
tion 1 107 of the International Building Code for Accessi- 
ble units apply only to the quantity of spaces being altered 
or added. 

[B| 410.8.8 Type A dwelling or sleeping units. Where 
more than 20 Group R-2 dwelling or sleeping units are 
being altered or added, the requirements of Section 1107 
of the International Building Code for Type A units apply 
only to the quantity of the spaces being altered or added. 

[B] 410.8.9 Type B dwelling or sleeping units. Where 
four or more Group 1-1, 1-2, R-l, R-2, R-3 or R-4 dwelling 
or sleeping units are being added, the requirements of Sec- 
tion 1 107 of the International Building Code for Type B 
units apply only to the quantity of the spaces being added. 
Where Group 1-1, 1-2, R-l, R-2, R-3 or R-4 dwelling or 
sleeping units are being altered and where the work area is 
greater than 50 percent of the aggregate area of the build- 
ing, the requirements of Section 1 1 07 of the International 
Building Code for Type B units apply only to the quantity 
of the spaces being altered. 

[B] 410.8.10 Jury boxes and witness stands. In altera- 
tions, accessible wheelchair spaces are not required to be 
located within the defined area of raised jury boxes or wit- 
ness stands and shall be permitted to be located outside 
these spaces where the ramp or lift access restricts or proj- 
ects into the means of egress. 

[B] 410.8.11 Toilet rooms. Where it is technically infeasi- 
ble to alter existing toilet and bathing rooms to be accessi- 
ble, an accessible family or assisted-use toilet or bathing 
room constructed in accordance with Section 1109.2.1 of 
the International Building Code is permitted. The family 
or assisted-use toilet or bathing room shall be located on 



20 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



PRESCRIPTIVE COMPLIANCE METHOD 



the same floor and in the same area as the existing toilet or 
bathing rooms. 

[B] 410.8.12 Dressing, fitting and locker rooms. Where 
it is technically infeasible to provide accessible dressing, 
fitting or locker rooms at the same location as similar 
types of rooms, one accessible room on the same level 
shall be provided. Where separate-sex facilities are pro- 
vided, accessible rooms for each sex shall be provided. 
Separate-sex facilities are not required where only unisex 
rooms are provided. 

[B] 410.8.13 Fuel dispensers. Operable parts of replace- 
ment fuel dispensers shall be permitted to be 54 inches 
(1370 mm) maximum, measuring from the surface of the 
vehicular way where fuel dispensers are installed on exist- 
ing curbs. 

[B] 410.8.14 Thresholds. The maximum height of thresh- 
olds at doorways shall be 3 / 4 inch (19.1 mm). Such thresh- 
olds shall have beveled edges on each side. 

[B] 410.9 Historic buildings. These provisions shall apply to 
facilities designated as historic structures that undergo altera- 
tions or a change of occupancy, unless technically infeasible. 
Where compliance with the requirements for accessible 
routes, entrances or toilet rooms would threaten or destroy the 
historic significance of the facility, as determined by the 
applicable governing authority, the alternative requirements 
of Sections 410.9.1 through 410.9.4 for that element shall be 
permitted. 

Exception: Type B dwelling or sleeping units required by 
Section 1107 of the International Building Code are not 
required to be provided in historical buildings. 

[BJ 410.9.1 Site arrival points. At least one accessible 
route from a site arrival point to an accessible entrance 
shall be provided. 

[B] 410.9.2 Multilevel buildings and facilities. An acces- 
sible route from an accessible entrance to public spaces on 
the level of the accessible entrance shall be provided. 

[B] 410.9.3 Entrances. At least one main entrance shall 
be accessible. 

Exceptions: 

1. If a main entrance cannot be made accessible, an 
accessible nonpublic entrance that is unlocked 
while the building is occupied shall be provided; 
or 

2. If a main entrance cannot be made accessible, a 
locked accessible entrance with a notification 
system or remote monitoring shall be provided. 

Signs complying with Section 1110 of the Interna- 
tional Building Code shall be provided at the primary 
entrance and the accessible entrance. 

[B] 410.9.4 Toilet and bathing facilities. Where toilet 
rooms are provided, at least one accessible family or 
assisted-use toilet room complying with Section 1109.2.1 
of the International Building Code shall be provided. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



21 



22 2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



CHAPTER 5 



SECTION 501 
GENERAL 

501.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall be used in 
conjunction with Chapters 6 through 1 3 and shall apply to the 
alteration, repair, addition and change of occupancy of exist- 
ing structures, including historic and moved structures, as ref- 
erenced in Section 301.1.2. The work performed on an 
existing building shall be classified in accordance with this 
chapter. 

501.1.1 Compliance with other alternatives. Alterations, 
repairs, additions and changes of occupancy to existing 
structures shall comply with the provisions of Chapters 6 
through 1 3 or with one of the alternatives provided in Sec- 
tion 301.1. 

501.2 Work area. The work area, as defined in Chapter 2, 
shall be identified on the construction documents. 

501.3 Occupancy and use. When determining the appropri- 
ate application of the referenced sections of this code, the 
occupancy and use of a building shall be determined in accor- 
dance with Chapter 3 of the International Building Code. 



SECTION 502 
REPAIRS 

502.1 Scope. Repairs, as defined in Chapter 2, include the 
patching or restoration or replacement of damaged materials, 
elements, equipment or fixtures for the purpose of maintain- 
ing such components in good or sound condition with respect 
to existing loads or performance requirements. 

502.2 Application. Repairs shall comply with the provisions 
of Chapter 6. 

502.3 Related work. Work on nondamaged components that 
is necessary for the required repair of damaged components 
shall be considered part of the repair and shall not be subject 
to the provisions of Chapter 7, 8, 9, 10 or 1 1 . 



SECTION 503 
ALTERATION— LEVEL 1 

503.1 Scope. Level 1 alterations include the removal and 
replacement or the covering of existing materials, elements, 
equipment, or fixtures using new materials, elements, equip- 
ment, or fixtures that serve the same puipose. 

503.2 Application. Level 1 alterations shall comply with the 
provisions of Chapter 7. 



SECTION 504 
ALTERATION— LEVEL 2 

504.1 Scope. Level 2 alterations include the reconfiguration 
of space, the addition or elimination of any door or window, 



the reconfiguration or extension of any system, or the instal- 
lation of any additional equipment. 

504.2 Application. Level 2 alterations shall comply with the 
provisions of Chapter 7 for Level 1 alterations as well as the 
provisions of Chapter 8. 



SECTION 505 
ALTERATION— LEVEL 3 

505.1 Scope. Level 3 alterations apply where the work area 
exceeds 50 percent of the aggregate area of the building. 

505.2 Application. Level 3 alterations shall comply with the 
provisions of Chapters 7 and 8 for Level 1 and 2 alterations, 
respectively, as well as the provisions of Chapter 9. 



SECTION 506 
CHANGE OF OCCUPANCY 

506.1 Scope. Change of occupancy provisions apply where 
the activity is classified as a change of occupancy as defined 
in Chapter 2. 

506.2 Application. Changes of occupancy shall comply with 
the provisions of Chapter 10. 



SECTION 507 
ADDITIONS 

507.1 Scope. Provisions for additions shall apply where work 
is classified as an addition as defined in Chapter 2. 

507.2 Application. Additions to existing buildings shall com- 
ply with the provisions of Chapter 1 1 . 



SECTION 508 
HISTORIC BUILDINGS 

508.1 Scope. Historic building provisions shall apply to 
buildings classified as historic as defined in Chapter 2. 

508.2 Application. Except as specifically provided for in 
Chapter 12, historic buildings shall comply with applicable 
provisions of this code for the type of work being performed. 



SECTION 509 
RELOCATED BUILDINGS 

509.1 Scope. Relocated building provisions shall apply to 
relocated or moved buildings. 

509.2 Application. Relocated buildings shall comply with 
the provisions of Chapter 13. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE 6 



23 



24 201 2 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



CHAPTER 6 

RPPAIPQ 



SECTION 601 
GENERAL 

601.1 Scope. Repairs as described in Section 502 shall com- 
ply with the requirements of this chapter. Repairs to historic 
buildings need only comply with Chapter 1 2. 

601.2 Conformance. The work shall not make the building 
less conforming than it was before the repair was undertaken. 

[B] 601.3 Flood hazard areas. In flood hazard areas, repairs 
that constitute substantial improvement shall require that the 
building comply with Section 1612 of the International 
Building Code. 



SECTION 602 
BUILDING ELEMENTS AND MATERIALS 

602.1 Existing building materials. Materials already in use 
in a building in compliance with requirements or approvals in 
effect at the time of their erection or installation shall be per- 
mitted to remain in use unless determined by the code official 
to render the building or structure unsafe or dangerous as 
defined in Chapter 2. 

602.2 New and replacement materials. Except as otherwise 
required or permitted by this code, materials permitted by the 
applicable code for new construction shall be used. Like 
materials shall be permitted for repairs and alterations, pro- 
vided no dangerous or unsafe condition, as defined in Chap- 
ter 2, is created. Hazardous materials, such as asbestos and 
lead-based paint, shall not be used where the code for new 
construction would not permit their use in buildings of simi- 
lar occupancy, purpose and location. 

602.3 Glazing in hazardous locations. Replacement glazing 
in hazardous locations shall comply with the safety glazing 
requirements of the International Building Code or Interna- 
tional Residential Code as applicable. 

Exception: Glass block walls, louvered windows, and jal- 
ousies repaired with like materials. 



SECTION 603 
FIRE PROTECTION 

603.1 General. Repairs shall be done in a manner that main- 
tains the level of fire protection provided. 



SECTION 604 
MEANS OF EGRESS 

604.1 General. Repairs shall be done in a manner that main- 
tains the level of protection provided for the means of egress. 



SECTION 605 
ACCESSIBILITY 

605.1 General. Repairs shall be done in a manner that main- 
tains the level of accessibility provided. 



SECTION 606 
STRUCTURAL 

[B] 606.1 General. Structural repairs shall be in compliance 
with this section and Section 601.2. Regardless of the extent 
of structural or nonstructural damage, dangerous conditions 
shall be eliminated. Regardless of the scope of repair, new 
structural members and connections used for repair or reha- 
bilitation shall comply with the detailing provisions of the 
International Building Code for new buildings of similar 
structure, purpose and location. 

[B] 606.2 Repairs to damaged buildings. Repairs to dam- 
aged buildings shall comply with this section. 

[B] 606.2.1 Repairs for less than substantial structural 
damage. For damage less than substantial structural 
damage, the damaged elements shall be permitted to be 
restored to their predamage condition. 

[B] 606.2.2 Substantial structural damage to vertical 
elements of the lateral force-resisting system. A build- 
ing that has sustained substantial structural damage to the 
vertical elements of its lateral force-resisting system shall 
be evaluated in accordance with Section 606.2.2.1, and 
either repaired in accordance with Section 606.2.2.2 or 
repaired and rehabilitated in accordance with Section 
606.2.2.3, depending on the results of the evaluation. 

Exceptions: 

1. Buildings assigned to Seismic Design Category 
A, B, or C whose substantial structural damage 
was not caused by earthquake need not be evalu- 
ated or rehabilitated for load combinations that 
include earthquake effects. 

2. One- and two-family dwellings need not be eval- 
uated or rehabilitated for load combinations that 
include earthquake effects. 

[B] 606.2.2.1 Evaluation. The building shall be evalu- 
ated by a registered design professional, and the evalua- 
tion findings shall be submitted to the code official. 
The evaluation shall establish whether the damaged 
building, if repaired to its predamage state, would com- 
ply with the provisions of the International Building 
Code for load combinations that include wind or earth- 
quake effects, except that the seismic forces shall be the 
reduced IBC-level seismic forces. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



25 



REPAIRS 



[B] 606.2.2.2 Extent of repair for compliant build- 
ings. If the evaluation establishes that the building in its 
predamage condition complies with the provisions of 
Section 606.2.2.1, then the damaged elements shall be 
permitted to be restored to their predamage condition. 

[B] 61)6.2.2.3 Extent of repair for noncompliant 
buildings. If the evaluation does not establish that the 
building in its predamage condition complies with the 
provisions of Section 606.2.2.1, then the building shall 
be rehabilitated to comply with the provisions of this 
section. The wind loads for the repair and rehabilita- 
tion shall be those required by the building code in 
effect at the time of original construction, unless the 
damage was caused by wind, in which case the wind 
loads shall be in accordance with the International 
Building Code. The seismic loads for this rehabilitation 
design shall be those required by the building code in 
effect at the time of original construction, but not less 
than the reduced IBC-level seismic forces. 

[B] 606.2.3 Substantial structural damage to gravity 
load-carrying components. Gravity load-carrying com- 
ponents that have sustained substantial structural damage 
shall be rehabilitated to comply with the applicable provi- 
sions for dead and live loads in the International Building 
Code. Snow loads shall be considered if the substantial 
structural damage was caused by or related to snow load 
effects. Undamaged gravity load-carrying components 
that receive dead, live or snow loads from rehabilitated 
components shall also be rehabilitated if required to com- 
ply with the design loads of the rehabilitation design. 

[B] 606.2.3.1 Lateral force-resisting elements. 
Regardless of the level of damage to gravity elements 
of the lateral force-resisting system, if substantial struc- 
tural damage to gravity load-carrying components was 
caused primarily by wind or seismic effects, then the 
building shall be evaluated in accordance with Section 
606.2.2.1 and, if noncompliant, rehabilitated in accor- 
dance with Section 606.2.2.3. 

Exceptions: 

1. Buildings assigned to Seismic Design Cate- 
gory A, B, or C whose substantial structural 
damage was not caused by earthquake need 
not be evaluated or rehabilitated for load com- 
binations that include earthquake effects. 

2. One- and two-family dwellings need not be 
evaluated or rehabilitated for load combina- 
tions that include earthquake effects. 

[B] 606.2.4 Flood hazard areas. In flood hazard areas, 
buildings that have sustained substantial damage shall be 
brought into compliance with Section 1612 of the Interna- 
tional Building Code. 



SECTION 607 
ELECTRICAL 

607.1 Material. Existing electrical wiring and equipment 
undergoing repair shall be allowed to be repaired or replaced 
with like material. 

607.1.1 Receptacles. Replacement of electrical recepta- 
cles shall comply with the applicable requirements of Sec- 
tion 406.3(D) of NFPA 70. 

607.1.2 Plug fuses. Plug fuses of the Edison-base type 
shall be used for replacements only where there is no evi- 
dence of over fusing or tampering per applicable require- 
ments of Section 240.51(B) of NFPA 70. 

607.1.3 Nongrounding-type receptacles. For replace- 
ment of nongrounding-type receptacles with grounding- 
type receptacles and for branch circuits that do not have an 
equipment grounding conductor in the branch circuitry, 
the grounding conductor of a grounding-type receptacle 
outlet shall be permitted to be grounded to any accessible 
point on the grounding electrode system or to any accessi- 
ble point on the grounding electrode conductor in accor- 
dance with Section 250.130(C) of NFPA 70. 

607.1.4 Group 1-2 receptacles. Non-"hospital grade" 
receptacles in patient bed locations of Group 1-2 shall be 
replaced with "hospital grade" receptacles, as required by 
NFPA 99 and Article 5 17 of NFPA 70. 

607.1.5 Grounding of appliances. Frames of electric 
ranges, wall-mounted ovens, counter-mounted cooking 
units, clothes dryers and outlet or junction boxes that are 
part of the existing branch circuit for these appliances shall 
be permitted to be grounded to the grounded circuit con- 
ductor in accordance with Section 250.140 of NFPA 70. 



SECTION 608 
MECHANICAL 

608.1 General. Existing mechanical systems undergoing 
repair shall not make the building less conforming than it 
was before the repair was undertaken. 

608.2 Mechanical draft systems for manually fired appli- 
ances and fireplaces. A mechanical draft system shall be 
permitted to be used with manually fired appliances and fire- 
places where such a system complies with all of the following 
requirements: 

1. The mechanical draft device shall be listed and 
installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instal- 
lation instructions. 

2. A device shall be installed that produces visible and 
audible warning upon failure of the mechanical draft 
device or loss of electrical power at any time that the 
mechanical draft device is turned on. This device shall 



26 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



REPAIRS 



be equipped with a battery backup if it receives power 
from the building wiring. 

A smoke detector shall be installed in the room with the 
appliance or fireplace. This device shall be equipped 
with a battery backup if it receives power from the 
building wiring. 



SECTION 609 
PLUMBING 

609.1 Materials. Plumbing materials and supplies shall not 
be used for repairs that are prohibited in the International 
Plumbing Code. 

609.2 Water closet replacement. The maximum water con- 
sumption flow rates and quantities for all replaced water clos- 
ets shall be 1.6 gallons (6 L) per flushing cycle. 

Exception: Blowout-design water closets [3.5 gallons (13 
L) per flushing cycle]. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 27 



28 2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



CHAPTER 7 

ALTERATIONS—— LEVEL 1 



SECTION 701 
GENERAL 

701.1 Scope. Level 1 alterations as described in Section 503 
shall comply with the requirements of this chapter. Level 1 
alterations to historic buildings shall comply with this chap- 
ter, except as modified in Chapter 12. 

701.2 Conformance. An existing building or portion thereof 
shall not be altered such that the building becomes less safe 
than its existing condition. 

Exception: Where the current level of safety or sanitation 
is proposed to be reduced, the portion altered shall con- 
form to the requirements of the International Building 
Code. 

[B] 701.3 Flood hazard areas. In flood hazard areas, altera- 
tions that constitute substantial improvement shall require 
that the building comply with Section 1612 of the Interna- 
tional Building Code. 



SECTION 702 
BUILDING ELEMENTS AND MATERIALS 

702.1 Interior finishes. All newly installed interior wall and 
ceiling finishes shall comply with Chapter 8 of the Interna- 
tional Building Code. 

702.2 Interior floor finish. New interior floor finish, includ- 
ing new carpeting used as an interior floor finish material, 
shall comply with Section 804 of the International Building 
Code. 

702.3 Interior trim. All newly installed interior trim materi- 
als shall comply with Section 806 of the International Build- 
ing Code. 

702.4 Materials and methods. All new work shall comply 
with the materials and methods requirements in the Interna- 
tional Building Code, International Energy Conservation 
Code, International Mechanical Code, and International 
Plumbing Code, as applicable, that specify material stan- 
dards, detail of installation and connection, joints, penetra- 
tions, and continuity of any element, component, or system in 
the building. 

[FG] 702.4.1 International Fuel Gas Code. The follow- 
ing sections of the International Fuel Gas Code shall con- 
stitute the fuel gas materials and methods requirements for 
Level 1 alterations. 

1. All of Chapter 3, entitled "General Regulations," 
except Sections 303.7 and 306. 

2. All of Chapter 4, entitled "Gas Piping Installations," 
except Sections 401 .8 and 402.3. 

2.1. Sections 401.8 and 402.3 shall apply when 
the work being performed increases the load 
on the system such that the existing pipe 



does not meet the size required by code. 
Existing systems that are modified shall not 
require resizing as long as the load on the 
system is not increased and the system 
length is not increased even if the altered 
system does not meet code minimums. 

3. All of Chapter 5, entitled "Chimneys and Vents." 

4. All of Chapter 6, entitled "Specific Appliances." 

SECTION 703 
FIRE PROTECTION 

703.1 General. Alterations shall be done in a manner that 
maintains the level of fire protection provided. 



SECTION 704 
MEANS OF EGRESS 

704.1 General. Repairs shall be done in a manner that main- 
tains the level of protection provided for the means of egress. 



SECTION 705 
ACCESSIBILITY 

705.1 General. A facility that is altered shall comply with the 
applicable provisions in Sections 705.1.1 through 705.1.14, 
and Chapter 1 1 of the International Building Code unless it is 
technically infeasiblt. Where compliance with this section is 
technically infeasible, the alteration shall provide access to 
the maximum extent that is technically feasible. 

A facility that is constructed or altered to be accessible 
shall be maintained accessible during occupancy. 

Exceptions: 

1 . The altered element or space is not required to be on 
an accessible route unless required by Section 705.2. 

2. Accessible means of egress required by Chapter 10 
of the International Building Code are not required 
to be provided in existing facilities. 

3. Type B dwelling or sleeping units required by Sec- 
tion 1107 of the International Building Code are not 
required to be provided in existing facilities under- 
going less than a Level 3 alteration. | 

4. The alteration to Type A individually owned dwell- 
ing units within a Group R-2 occupancy shall meet 
the provisions for Type B dwelling units. | 

705.1.1 Entrances. Where an alteration includes altera- 
tions to an entrance, and the facility has an accessible 
entrance on an accessible route, the altered entrance is not 
required to be accessible unless required by Section 705.2. 
Signs complying with Section 1110 of the International 
Building Code shall be provided. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



29 



ALTERATIONS— LEVEL 1 



705.1.2 Elevators. Altered elements of existing elevators 
shall comply with ASME A17.1/CSA B44 and ICC 
All 7.1. Such elements shall also be altered in elevators 
programmed to respond to the same hall call control as the 
altered elevator. 

705.1.3 Platform lifts. Platform (wheelchair) lifts com- 
plying with ICC Al 17.1 and installed in accordance with 
ASME A18.1 shall be permitted as a component of an 
accessible route. 

705.1.4 Ramps. Where steeper slopes than allowed by 
Section 1010.3 of the International Building Code are 
necessitated by space limitations, the slope of ramps in or 
providing access to existing facilities shall comply with 
Table 705.1.4. 

TABLE 705.1 .4 

RAMPS 



SLOPE 


MAXIMUM 
RISE 


Steeper than 1:10 but not steeper than 1:8 


3 inches 


Steeper than 1:12 but not steeper than 1:10 


6 inches 



For SI: I inch = 25.4 mm. 

705.1.5 Dining areas. An accessible route to raised or 
sunken dining areas or to outdoor seating areas is not 
required provided that the same services and decor are 
provided in an accessible space usable by any occupant 
and not restricted to use by people with a disability. 

705.1.6 Performance areas. Where it is technically infea- 
sible to alter performance areas to be on an accessible 
route, at least one of each type of performance area shall 
be made accessible. 

705.1.7 jury boxes and witness stands. In alterations, 
accessible wheelchair spaces are not required to be located 
within the defined area of raised jury boxes or witness 
stands and shall be permitted to be located outside these 
spaces where ramp or lift access poses a hazard by restrict- 
ing or projecting into a required means of egress. 

705.1.8 Accessible dwelling or sleeping units. Where 
Group 1-1, 1-2, 1-3, R-l, R-2 or R-4 dwelling or sleeping 
units are being altered, the requirements of Section 1107 
of the International Building Code for accessible units and 
Chapter 9 of the International Building Code for visible 
alarms apply only to the quantity of the spaces being 
altered. 

705.1.9 Type A dwelling or sleeping units. Where more 
than 20 Group R-2 dwelling or sleeping units are being 
altered, the requirements of Section 1 107 of the Interna- 
tional Building Code for Type A units and Chapter 9 of 
the International Building Code for visible alarms apply 
only to the quantity of the spaces being altered. 

705.1.10 Toilet rooms. Where it is technically infeasible 
to alter existing toilet and bathing rooms to be accessible, 
an accessible family or assisted-use toilet or bathing room 
constructed in accordance with Section 1109.2.1 of the 
International Building Code is permitted. The family or 
assisted-use toilet or bathing room shall be located on the 



same floor and in the same area as the existing toilet or 
bathing rooms. 

705.1.11 Dressing, fitting and locker rooms. Where it is 
technically infeasible to provide accessible dressing, fit- 
ting, or locker rooms at the same location as similar types 
of rooms, one accessible room on the same level shall be 
provided. Where separate sex facilities are provided, 
accessible rooms for each sex shall be provided. Separate 
sex facilities are not required where only unisex rooms are 
provided. 

705.1.12 Fuel dispensers. Operable parts of replacement 
fuel dispensers shall be permitted to be 54 inches (1370 
mm) maximum measured from the surface of the vehicular 
way where fuel dispensers are installed on existing curbs. 

705.1.13 Thresholds. The maximum height of thresholds 
at doorways shall be 3 / 4 inch (19.1 mm). Such thresholds 
shall have beveled edges on each side. 

705.1.14 Extent of application. An alteration of an exist- 
ing element, space, or area of a facility shall not impose a 
requirement for greater accessibility than that which 
would be required for new construction. Alterations shall 
not reduce or have the effect of reducing accessibility of a 
facility or portion of a facility. 

705.2 Alterations affecting an area containing a primary 

function. Where an alteration affects the accessibility to a, or 
contains an area of, primary function, the route to the primary 
function area shall be accessible. The accessible route to the 
primary function area shall include toilet facilities or drinking 
fountains serving the area of primary function. 

Exceptions: 

1. The costs of providing the accessible route are not 
required to exceed 20 percent of the costs of the 
alterations affecting the area of primary function. 

2. This provision does not apply to alterations limited 
solely to windows, hardware, operating controls, 
electrical outlets and signs. 

3. This provision does not apply to alterations limited 
solely to mechanical systems, electrical systems, 
installation or alteration of fire protection systems 
and abatement of hazardous materials. 

4. This provision does not apply to alterations under- 
taken for the primary purpose of increasing the 
accessibility of a facility. 

5. This provision does not apply to altered areas lim- 
ited to Type B dwelling and sleeping units. 



SECTION 706 
STRUCTURAL 

[B] 706.1 General. Where alteration work includes replace- 
ment of equipment that is supported by the building or where 
a reroofing permit is required, the provisions of this section 
shall apply. 

[B] 706.2 Addition or replacement of roofing or replace- 
ment of equipment. Where addition or replacement of roof- 



30 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



ALTERATIONS— LEVEL 1 



ing or replacement of equipment results in additional dead 
loads, structural components supporting such reroofmg or 
equipment shall comply with the gravity load requirements of 
the International Building Code. 

Exceptions: 

1. Structural elements where the additional dead load 
from the roofing or equipment does not increase the 
force in the element by more than 5 percent. 

2. Buildings constructed in accordance with the Inter- 
national Residential Code or the conventional light- 
frame construction methods of the International 
Building Code and where the dead load from the 
roofing or equipment is not increased by more than 
5 percent. 

3. Addition of a second layer of roof covering weigh- 
ing 3 pounds per square foot (0.1437 kN/m 2 ) or less 
over an existing, single layer of roof covering. 

[B] 706.3 Additional requirements for reroof permits. The 
requirements of this section shall apply to alteration work 
requiring reroof permits. 

[B] 706.3.1 Bracing for unreinforced masonry bearing 

wall parapets. Where a permit is issued for reroofing for 
more than 25 percent of the roof area of a building 
assigned to Seismic Design Category D, E or F that has 
parapets constructed of unreinforced masonry, the work 
shall include installation of parapet bracing to resist the 
reduced International Building Code level seismic forces 
as specified in Section 301.1.4.2 of this code, unless an 
evaluation demonstrates compliance of such items. 

[B] 706.3.2 Roof diaphragms resisting wind loads in 
high-wind regions. Where roofing materials are removed 
from more than 50 percent of the roof diaphragm or sec- 
tion of a building located where the basic wind speed is 
greater than 90 mph or in a special wind region, as defined 
in Section 1609 of the International Building Code, roof 
diaphragms, connections of the roof diaphragm to roof 
framing members, and roof-to-wall connections shall be 
evaluated for the wind loads specified in the International 
Building Code, including wind uplift. If the diaphragms 
and connections in their current condition are not capable 
of resisting at least 75 percent of those wind loads, they 
shall be replaced or strengthened in accordance with the 
loads specified in the International Building Code. 



SECTION 707 
ENERGY CONSERVATION 

707.1 Minimum requirements. Level 1 alterations to exist- 
ing buildings or structures are permitted without requiring the 
entire building or structure to comply with the energy 
requirements of the International Energy Conservation Code 
or International Residential Code. The alterations shall con- 
form to the energy requirements of the International Energy 
Conservation Code or International Residential Code as they 
relate to new construction only. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 31 



32 2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



CHAPTER 8 

ALTERATIONS— LEVEL 2 



SECTION 801 
GENERAL 

801.1 Scope. Level 2 alterations as described in Section 404 
shall comply with the requirements of this chapter. 

Exception: Buildings in which the reconfiguration is 
exclusively the result of compliance with the accessibility 
requirements of Section 705.2 shall be permitted to com- 
ply with Chapter 7. 

801.2 Alteration Level 1 compliance. In addition to the 
requirements of this chapter, all work shall comply with the 
requirements of Chapter 7. 

801.3 Compliance. All new construction elements, compo- 
nents, systems, and spaces shall comply with the require- 
ments of the International Building Code. 

Exceptions: 

1. Windows may be added without requiring compli- 
ance with the light and ventilation requirements of 
the International Building Code. 

2. Newly installed electrical equipment shall comply 
with the requirements of Section 808. 

3. The length of dead-end corridors in newly con- 
structed spaces shall only be required to comply 
with the provisions of Section 805.6. 

4. The minimum ceiling height of the newly created 
habitable and occupiable spaces and corridors shall 

be 7 feet (2134 mm). 



SECTION 802 
SPECIAL USE AND OCCUPANCY 
802.1 General. Alteration of buildings classified as special 
use and occupancy as described in the International Building 
Code shall comply with the requirements of Section 801.1 
and the scoping provisions of Chapter 1 where applicable. 



SECTION 803 
BUILDING ELEMENTS AND MATERIALS 

803.1 Scope. The requirements of this section are limited to 
work areas in which Level 2 alterations are being performed, 
and shall apply beyond the work area where specified. 

803.2 Vertical openings. Existing vertical openings shall 
comply with the provisions of Sections 803.2.1, 803.2.2 and 
803.2.3. 



803.2.1 Existing vertical openings. All existing interior 
vertical openings connecting two or more floors shall be 
enclosed with approved assemblies having a fire-resis- 



tance rating of not less than 1 hour with approved opening 
protectives. 

Exceptions: 

1. Where vertical opening enclosure is not 
required by the International Building Code or 
the International Fire Code. 

2. Interior vertical openings other than stairways 
may be blocked at the floor and ceiling of the 
work area by installation of not less than 2 
inches (51 mm) of solid wood or equivalent 
construction. 

3. The enclosure shall not be required where: 

3.1. Connecting the main floor and mezza- 
nines; or 

3.2. All of the following conditions are met: 

3.2. 1 . The communicating area has a 
low hazard occupancy or has 
a moderate hazard occupancy 
that is protected throughout 
by an automatic sprinkler 
system. 

3.2.2. The lowest or next to the 
lowest level is a street floor. 

3.2.3. The entire area is open and 
unobstructed in a manner such 
that it may be assumed that a 
fire in any part of the 
interconnected spaces will be 
readily obvious to all of the 
occupants. 

3.2.4. Exit capacity is sufficient to 
provide egress simultaneously 
for all occupants of all levels 
by considering all areas to be 
a single floor area for the 
determination of required exit 
capacity. 

3.2.5. Each floor level, considered 
separately, has at least one- 
half of its individual required 
exit capacity provided by an 
exit or exits leading directly 
out of that level without 
having to traverse another 
communicating floor level or 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



33 



ALTERATIONS— LEVEL 2 



be exposed to the smoke or 
fire spreading from another 
communicating floor level. 

4. In Group A occupancies, a minimum 30-minute 
enclosure shall be provided to protect all verti- 
cal openings not exceeding three stories. 

5. In Group B occupancies, a minimum 30-minute 
enclosure shall be provided to protect all verti- 
cal openings not exceeding three stories. This 
enclosure, or the enclosure specified in Section 
803.2.1, shall not be required in the following 
locations: 

5.1. Buildings not exceeding 3,000 square 
feet (279 m 2 ) per floor. 

5.2. Buildings protected throughout by an 
approved automatic fire sprinkler sys- 
tem. 

6. In Group E occupancies, the enclosure shall not 
be required for vertical openings not exceeding 
three stories when the building is protected 
throughout by an approved automatic fire sprin- 
kler system. 

7. In Group F occupancies, the enclosure shall not 
be required in the following locations: 

7.1. Vertical openings not exceeding three 
stories. 

7.2. Special purpose occupancies where nec- 
essary for manufacturing operations and 
direct access is provided to at least one 
protected stairway. 

7.3. Buildings protected throughout by an 
approved automatic sprinkler system. 

8. In Group H occupancies, the enclosure shall not 
be required for vertical openings not exceeding 
three stories where necessary for manufacturing 
operations and every floor level has direct 
access to at least two remote enclosed stairways 
or other approved exits. 

9. In Group M occupancies, a minimum 30-minute 
enclosure shall be provided to protect all verti- 
cal openings not exceeding three stories. This 
enclosure, or the enclosure specified in Section 
803.2.1, shall not be required in the following 
locations: 

9.1 . Openings connecting only two floor lev- 
els. 

9.2. Occupancies protected throughout by an 
approved automatic sprinkler system. 

10. In Group R-l occupancies, the enclosure shall 
not be required for vertical openings not 
exceeding three stories in the following loca- 
tions: 

10.1. Buildings protected throughout by an 
approved automatic sprinkler system. 



10.2. Buildings with less than 25 dwelling 
units or sleeping units where every 
sleeping room above the second floor 
is provided with direct access to a fire 
escape or other approved second exit 
by means of an approved exterior door 
or window having a sill height of not 
greater than 44 inches (1118 mm) and 
where: 

10.2.1. Any exit access corridor 
exceeding 8 feet (2438 mm) 
in length that serves two 
means of egress, one of 
which is an unprotected 
vertical opening, shall have 
at least one of the means of 
egress separated from the 
vertical opening by a 1-hour 
fire barrier; and 

10.2.2. The building is protected 
throughout by an automatic 
fire alarm system, installed 
and supervised in accordance 
with the International 
Building Code. 

11. In Group R-2 occupancies, a minimum 30-min- 
ute enclosure shall be provided to protect all 
vertical openings not exceeding three stories. 
This enclosure, or the enclosure specified in 
Section 803.2. 1 , shall not be required in the fol- 
lowing locations: 

11.1. Vertical openings not exceeding two 
stories with not more than four dwell- 
ing units per floor. 

11.2. Buildings protected throughout by an 
approved automatic sprinkler system. 

11.3. Buildings with not more than four 
dwelling units per floor where every 
sleeping room above the second floor 
is provided with direct access to a fire 
escape or other approved second exit 
by means of an approved exterior door 
or window having a sill height of not 
greater than 44 inches (1118 mm) and 
the building is protected throughout by 
an automatic fire alarm system com- 
plying with Section 804.4. 

12. One- and two-family dwellings. 

13. Group S occupancies where connecting not 
more than two floor levels or where connecting 
not more than three floor levels and the struc- 
ture is equipped throughout with an approved 
automatic sprinkler system. 

14. Group S occupancies where vertical opening 
protection is not required for open parking 
garages and ramps. 



34 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE 8 



ALTERATIONS— LEVEL 2 



803.2.2 Supplemental shaft and floor opening enclo- 
sure requirements. Where the work area on any floor 
exceeds 50 percent of that floor area, the enclosure 
requirements of Section 803.2 shall apply to vertical open- 
ings other than stairways throughout the floor. 

Exception: Vertical openings located in tenant spaces 
that are entirely outside the work area. 

803.2.3 Supplemental stairway enclosure require- 
ments. Where the work area on any floor exceeds 50 per- 
cent of that floor area, stairways that are part of the means 
of egress serving the work area shall, at a minimum, be 
enclosed with smoke-tight construction on the highest 
work area floor and all floors below. 

Exception: Where stairway enclosure is not required 
by the International Building Code or the International 
Fire Code. 

803.3 Smoke barriers. Smoke barriers in Group 1-2 occu- 
pancies shall be installed where required by Sections 803.3.1 
and 803.3.2. 

803.3.1 Compartineniafion. Where the work area is on a 
story used for sleeping rooms for more than 30 patients, 
the story shall be divided into not less than two compart- 
ments by smoke barrier walls complying with Section 

803.3.2 such that each compartment does not exceed 
22,500 square feet (2093 m 2 ), and the travel distance from 
any point to reach a door in the required smoke barrier 
shall not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm). 

Exception: Where neither the length nor the width of 
the smoke compartment exceeds 150 feet (45 720 mm), 
the travel distance to reach the smoke barrier door shall 
not be limited. 

803.3.2 Fire-resistance rating. The smoke barriers shall 
be fire-resistance rated for 30 minutes and constructed in 
accordance with the International Building Code. 

803.4 Interior finish. The interior finish of walls and ceilings 
in exits and corridors in any work area shall comply with the 
requirements of the International Building Code. 

Exception: Existing interior finish materials that do not 
comply with the interior finish requirements of the Inter- 
national Building Code shall be permitted to be treated 
with an approved fire-retardant coating in accordance with 
the manufacturer's instructions to achieve the required rat- 
ing. 

803.4.1 Supplemental interior finish requirements. 
Where the work area on any floor exceeds 50 percent of 
the floor area, Section 803.4 shall also apply to the interior 
finish in exits and corridors serving the work area 
throughout the floor. 

Exception: Interior finish within tenant spaces that are 
entirely outside the work area. 

803.5 Guards. The requirements of Sections 803.5.1 and 
803.5.2 shall apply in all work areas. 

803.5.1 Minimum requirement. Every portion of a floor, 
such as a balcony or a loading dock, that is more than 30 



inches (762 mm) above the floor or grade below and is not 
provided with guards, or those in which the existing 
guards are judged to be in danger of collapsing, shall be 
provided with guards. 

803.5.2 Design. Where there are no guards or where exist- 
ing guards must be replaced, the guards shall be designed 
and installed in accordance with the International Building 
Code. 



SECTION 804 
FIRE PROTECTION 

804.1 Scope. The requirements of this section shall be limited 
to work areas in which Level 2 alterations are being per- 
formed, and where specified they shall apply throughout the 
floor on which the work areas are located or otherwise 
beyond the work area. 

804.1.1 Corridor ratings. Where an approved automatic 
sprinkler system is installed throughout the story, the 
required fire-resistance rating for any corridor located on 
the story shall be permitted to be reduced in accordance 
with the International Building Code. In order to be con- 
sidered for a corridor rating reduction, such system shall 
provide coverage for the stairwell landings serving the 
floor and the intermediate landings immediately below. 

804.2 Automatic sprinkler systems. Automatic sprinkler 
systems shall be provided in accordance with the require- 
ments of Sections 804.2.1 through 804.2.5. Installation 
requirements shall be in accordance with the International 
Building Code. 

804.2.1 High-rise buildings. In high-rise buildings, work 
areas that have exits or corridors shared by more than one 
tenant or that have exits or corridors serving an occupant 
load greater than 30 shall be provided with automatic 
sprinkler protection in the entire work area where the work 
area is located on a floor that has a sufficient sprinkler 
water supply system from an existing standpipe or a sprin- 
kler riser serving that floor. 

804.2.1.1 Supplemental automatic sprinkler system 
requirements. Where the work area on any floor 
exceeds 50 percent of that floor area, Section 804.2.1 
shall apply to the entire floor on which the work area is 
located. 

Exception: Tenant spaces that are entirely outside 
the work area. 

804.2.2 Groups A, B, E, F-l, H, 1, M, R-l, R-2, R-4, S-l 
and S-2. In buildings with occupancies in Groups A, B, E, 
F-l, H, I, M, R-l, R-2, R-4, S-l and S-2, work areas that 
have exits or corridors shared by more than one tenant or 
that have exits or corridors serving an occupant load 
greater than 30 shall be provided with automatic sprinkler 
protection where all of the following conditions occur: 

1 . The work area is required to be provided with auto- 
matic sprinkler protection in accordance with the 
International Building Code as applicable to new 
construction; and 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



35 



ALTERATIONS—LEVEL 2 



2. The work area exceeds 50 percent of the floor area. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Work areas in Group R occupancies three sto- 
ries or less in height. 

2. If the building does not have sufficient munic- 
ipal water supply for design of a fire sprinkler 
system available to the floor without installa- 
tion of a new fire pump, work areas shall be 
protected by an automatic smoke detection 
system throughout all occupiable spaces other 
than sleeping units or individual dwelling 
units that activates the occupant notification 
system in accordance with Sections 907.4, 
907.5 and 907.6 of the International Building 
Code. 

804.2.2.1 Mixed uses. In work areas containing mixed 
uses, one or more of which requires automatic sprinkler 
protection in accordance with Section 804.2.2, such 
protection shall not be required throughout the work 
area provided that the uses requiring such protection 
are separated from those not requiring protection by 
fire-resistance-rated construction having a minimum 2- 
hour rating for Group H and a minimum 1-hour rating 
for all other occupancy groups. 

804.2.3 Windowless stories. Work located in a window- 
less story, as determined in accordance with the Interna- 
tional Building Code, shall be sprinklered where the work 
area is required to be sprinklered under the provisions of 
the International Building Code for newly constructed 
buildings and the building has a sufficient municipal water 
supply without installation of a new fire pump. 

804.2.4 Other required automatic sprinkler systems. In 
buildings and areas listed in Table 903.2. 1 1 .6 of the Inter- 
national Building Code, work areas that have exits or cor- 
ridors shared by more than one tenant or that have exits or 
corridors serving an occupant load greater than 30 shall be 
provided with an automatic sprinkler system under the fol- 
lowing conditions: 

1 . The work area is required to be provided with an 
automatic sprinkler system in accordance with the 
International Building Code applicable to new con- 
struction; and 

2. The building has sufficient municipal water supply 
for design of an automatic sprinkler system avail- 
able to the floor without installation of a new fire 
pump. 

804.2.5 Supervision. Fire sprinkler systems required by 
this section shall be supervised by one of the following 
methods: 

1. Approved central station system in accordance with 
NFPA 72; 

2. Approved proprietary system in accordance with 
NFPA 72; 

3. Approved remote station system of the jurisdiction 
in accordance with NFPA 72; or 



4. When approved by the code official, approved local 
alarm service that will cause the sounding of an 
alarm in accordance with NFPA 72. 

Exception: Supervision is not required for the follow- 
ing: 

1 . Underground gate valve with roadway boxes. 

2. Halogenated extinguishing systems. 

3. Carbon dioxide extinguishing systems. 

4. Dry- and wet-chemical extinguishing systems. 

5. Automatic sprinkler systems installed in accor- 
dance with NFPA 13R where a common supply 
main is used to supply both domestic and auto- 
matic sprinkler systems and a separate shutoff 
valve for the automatic sprinkler system is not 
provided. 

804.3 Standpipes. Where the work area includes exits or 
corridors shared by more than one tenant and is located more 
than 50 feet (15 240 mm) above or below the lowest level of 
fire department access, a standpipe system shall be provided. 
Standpipes shall have an approved fire department connec- 
tion with hose connections at each floor level above or below 
the lowest level of fire department access. Standpipe systems 
shall be installed in accordance with the International Build- 
ing Code. 

Exceptions: 

1. No pump shall be required provided that the stand- 
pipes are capable of accepting delivery by fire 
department apparatus of a minimum of 250 gallons 
per minute (gpm) at 65 pounds per square inch (psi) 
(946 L/m at 448KPa) to the topmost floor in build- 
ings equipped throughout with an automatic sprin- 
kler system or a minimum of 500 gpm at 65 psi 
(1892 L/m at 448KPa) to the topmost floor in all 
other buildings. Where the standpipe terminates 
below the topmost floor, the standpipe shall be 
designed to meet (gpm/psi) (L/m/KPa) requirements 
of this exception for possible future extension of the 
standpipe. 

2. The interconnection of multiple standpipe risers 
shall not be required. 

804.4 Fire alarm and detection. An approved fire alarm sys- 
tem shall be installed in accordance with Sections 804.4.1 
through 804.4.3. Where automatic sprinkler protection is pro- 
vided in accordance with Section 804.2 and is connected to 
the building fire alarm system, automatic heat detection shall 
not be required. 

An approved automatic fire detection system shall be 
installed in accordance with the provisions of this code and 
NFPA 72. Devices, combinations of devices, appliances, and 
equipment shall be approved. The automatic fire detectors 
shall be smoke detectors, except that an approved alternative 
type of detector shall be installed in spaces such as boiler 
rooms, where products of combustion are present during nor- 
mal operation in sufficient quantity to actuate a smoke detec- 
tor. 



36 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



ALTERATIONS— LEVEL 2 



804.4.1 Occupancy requirements. A fire alarm system 
shall be installed in accordance with Sections 804.4.1.1 
through 804.4.1.7. Existing alarm-notification appliances 
shall be automatically activated throughout the building. 
Where the building is not equipped with a fire alarm sys- 
tem, alarm-notification appliances within the work area 
shall be provided and automatically activated. 

Exceptions: 

1. Occupancies with an existing, previously 
approved fire alarm system. 

2. Where selective notification is permitted, alarm- 
notification appliances shall be automatically 
activated in the areas selected. 

804.4.1.1 Group E. A fire alarm system shall be 
installed in work areas of Group E occupancies as 
required by the International Fire Code for existing 
Group E occupancies. 

804.4.1.2 Group 1-1. A fire alarm system shall be 
installed in work areas of Group 1-1 residential care/ 
assisted living facilities as required by the International 
Fire Code for existing Group 1-1 occupancies. 

804.4.1.3 Group 1-2. A fire alarm system shall be 
installed in work areas of Group 1-2 occupancies as 
required by the International Fire Code for existing 
Group 1-2 occupancies. 

804.4.1.4 Group 1-3. A fire alarm system shall be 
installed in work areas of Group 1-3 occupancies as 
required by the International Fire Code for existing 
Group 1-3 occupancies. 

804.4.1.5 Group R-l. A fire alarm system shall be 
installed in Group R-l occupancies as required by the 
International Fire Code for existing Group R-l occu- 
pancies. 

804.4.1.6 Group R-2. A fire alarm system shall be 
installed in work areas of Group R-2 apartment build- 
ings as required by the International Fire Code for 
existing Group R-2 occupancies. 

804.4.1.7 Group R-4. A fire alarm system shall be 
installed in work areas of Group R-4 residential care/ 
assisted living facilities as required by the International 
Fire Code for existing Group R-4 occupancies. 

804.4.2 Supplemental fire alarm system requirements. 
Where the work area on any floor exceeds 50 percent of 
that floor area, Section 804.4.1 shall apply throughout the 
floor. 

Exception: Alarm-initiating and notification appli- 
ances shall not be required to be installed in tenant 
spaces outside of the work area. 

804.4.3 Smoke alarms. Individual sleeping units and indi- 
vidual dwelling units in any work area in Group R and 1-1 
occupancies shall be provided with smoke alarms in accor- 
dance with the International Fire Code. 

Exception: Interconnection of smoke alarms outside of 
the work area shall not be required. 



SECTION 805 
MEANS OF EGRESS 

805.1 Scope. The requirements of this section shall be limited 
to work areas that include exits or corridors shared by more 
than one tenant within the work area in which Level 2 altera- 
tions are being performed, and where specified they shall 
apply throughout the floor on which the work areas are 
located or otherwise beyond the work area. 

805.2 General. The means of egress shall comply with the 
requirements of this section. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Where the work area and the means of egress serv- 
ing it complies with NFPA 101 . 

2. Means of egress conforming to the requirements of 
the building code under which the building was con- 
structed shall be considered compliant means of 
egress if, in the opinion of the code official, they do 
not constitute a distinct hazard to life. 

805.3 Number of exits. The number of exits shall be in 
accordance with Sections 805.3.1 through 805.3.3. 

805.3.1 Minimum number. Every story utilized for 
human occupancy on which there is a work area that 
includes exits or corridors shared by more than one tenant 
within the work area shall be provided with the minimum 
number of exits based on the occupancy and the occupant 
load in accordance with the International Building Code. 
In addition, the exits shall comply with Sections 805.3. 1 . 1 
and 805.3.1.2. 

805.3.1.1 Single-exit buildings. Only one exit is 
required from buildings and spaces of the following 
occupancies: 

1 . In Group A, B, E, F, M, U and S occupancies, a 
single exit is permitted in the story at the level 
of exit discharge when the occupant load of the 
story does not exceed 50 and the exit access 
travel distance does not exceed 75 feet (22 860 
mm). 

2. Group B, F-2, and S-2 occupancies not more 
than two stories in height that are not greater 
than 3,500 square feet per floor (326 m 2 ), when 
the exit access travel distance does not exceed 
75 feet (22 860 mm). The minimum fire-resis- 
tance rating of the exit enclosure and of the 
opening protection shall be 1 hour. 

3. Open parking structures where vehicles are 
mechanically parked. 

4. In community residences for the developmen- 
tally disabled, the maximum occupant load 
excluding staff is 12. 

5. Groups R-l and R-2 not more than two stories 
in height, when there are not more than four 
dwelling units per floor and the exit access 
travel distance does not exceed 50 feet (15 240 
mm). The minimum fire-resistance rating of the 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



37 



ALTERATIONS— LEVEL 2 



exit enclosure and of the opening protection 
shall be I hour. 

6. In multilevel dwelling units in buildings of 
occupancy Group R-l or R-2, an exit shall not 
be required from every level of the dwelling 
unit provided that one of the following condi- 
tions is met: 

6.1. The travel distance within the dwelling 
unit does not exceed 75 feet (22 860 mm); 
or 

6.2. The building is not more than three stories 
in height and all third-floor space is part 
of one or more dwelling units located in 
part on the second floor; and no habitable 
room within any such dwelling unit shall 
have a travel distance that exceeds 50 feet 
(15 240 mm) from the outside of the hab- 
itable room entrance door to the inside of 
the entrance door to the dwelling unit. 

7. In Group R-2, H-4, H-5 and I occupancies and 
in rooming houses and child care centers, a sin- 
gle exit is permitted in a one-story building with 
a maximum occupant load of 10 and the exit 
access travel distance does not exceed 75 feet 
(22 860 mm). 

8. In buildings of Group R-2 occupancy that are 
equipped throughout with an automatic fire 
sprinkler system, a single exit shall be permitted 
from a basement or story below grade if every 
dwelling unit on that floor is equipped with an 
approved window providing a clear opening of 
at least 5 square feet (0.47 m 2 ) in area, a mini- 
mum net clear opening of 24 inches (610 mm) 
in height and 20 inches (508 mm) in width, and 
a sill height of not more than 44 inches (1118 
mm) above the finished floor. 

9. In buildings of Group R-2 occupancy of any 
height with not more than four dwelling units 
per floor; with a smokeproof enclosure or out- 
side stair as an exit; and with such exit located 
within 20 feet (6096 mm) of travel to the 
entrance doors to all dwelling units served 
thereby. 

10. In buildings of Group R-3 occupancy equipped 
throughout with an automatic fire sprinkler sys- 
tem, only one exit shall be required from base- 
ments or stories below grade. 

805.3.1.2 Fire escapes required. When more than one 
exit is required, an existing or newly constructed fire 
escape complying with Section 805.3.1.2.1 shall be 
accepted as providing one of the required means of 

egress. 



805.3.1.2.1 Fire escape access and details. Fire 
escapes shall comply with all of the following 
requirements: 

1. Occupants shall have unobstructed access to 
the fire escape without having to pass through 
a room subject to locking. 

2. Access to a new fire escape shall be through a 
door, except that windows shall be permitted 
to provide access from single dwelling units or 
sleeping units in Group R-l, R-2 and 1-1 occu- 
pancies or to provide access from spaces hav- 
ing a maximum occupant load of 10 in other 
occupancy classifications. 

2.1. The window shall have a minimum net 
clear opening of 5.7 square feet (0.53 
m 2 ) or 5 square feet (0.46 m 2 ) where 
located at grade. 

2.2. The minimum net clear opening height 
shall be 24 inches (610 mm) and net 
clear opening width shall be 20 inches 
(508 mm). 

2.3. The bottom of the clear opening shall 
not be greater than 44 inches (1118 
mm) above the floor. 

2.4. The operation of the window shall 
comply with the operational 
constraints of the International 
Building Code. 

3. Newly constructed fire escapes shall be per- 
mitted only where exterior stairs cannot be uti- 
lized because of lot lines limiting the stair size 
or because of the sidewalks, alleys, or roads at 
grade level. 

4. Openings within 10 feet (3048 mm) of fire 
escape stairs shall be protected by fire assem- 
blies having minimum 3 / 4 -hour fire-resistance 
ratings. 

Exception: Opening protection shall not be 
required in buildings equipped throughout 
with an approved automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem. 

5. In all buildings of Group E occupancy, up to 
and including the 12th grade, buildings of 
Group I occupancy, rooming houses and 
childcare centers, ladders of any type are pro- 
hibited on fire escapes used as a required 
means of egress. 

805.3.1.2.2 Construction. The fire escape shall be 
designed to support a live load of 100 pounds per 
square foot (4788 Pa) and shall be constructed of 



38 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



ALTERATIONS— LEVEL 2 



steel or other approved noncombustible materials. 
Fire escapes constructed of wood not less than nom- 
inal 2 inches (51 mm) thick are permitted on build- 
ings of Type V construction. Walkways and railings 
located over or supported by combustible roofs in 
buildings of Types III and IV construction are per- 
mitted to be of wood not less than nominal 2 inches 
(5 1 mm) thick. 

805.3.1.2.3 Dimensions. Stairs shall be at least 22 
inches (559 mm) wide with risers not more than, and 
treads not less than, 8 inches (203 mm). Landings at 
the foot of stairs shall not be less than 40 inches 
(1016 mm) wide by 36 inches (914 mm) long and 
located not more than 8 inches (203 mm) below the 
door. 

805.3.2 Mezzanines. Mezzanines in the work area and 
with an occupant load of more than 50 or in which the 
travel distance to an exit exceeds 75 feet (22 860 mm) 
shall have access to at least two independent means of 
egress. 

Exception: Two independent means of egress are not 
required where the travel distance to an exit does not 
exceed 100 feet (30 480 mm) and the building is pro- 
tected throughout with an automatic sprinkler system. 

805.3.3 Main entrance— Group A. All buildings of 
Group A with an occupant load of 300 or more shall be 
provided with a main entrance capable of serving as the 
main exit with an egress capacity of at least one-half of the 
total occupant load. The remaining exits shall be capable 
of providing one-half of the total required exit capacity. 

Exception: Where there is no well-defined main exit or 
where multiple main exits are provided, exits shall be 
permitted to be distributed around the perimeter of the 
building provided that the total width of egress is not 
less than 100 percent of the required width. 

805.4 Egress doorways. Egress doorways in any work area 
shall comply with Sections 805.4.1 through 805.4.5. 

805.4.1 Two egress doorways required. Work areas shall 
be provided with two egress doorways in accordance with 
the requirements of Sections 805 .4.1.1 and 805.4. 1 .2. 

805.4.1.1 Occupant load and travel distance. In any 
work area, all rooms and spaces having an occupant 
load greater than 50 or in which the travel distance to 
an exit exceeds 75 feet (22 860 mm) shall have a mini- 
mum of two egress doorways. 

Exceptions: 

1. Storage rooms having a maximum occupant 
load of 10. 

2. Where the work area is served by a single exit 
in accordance with Section 805.3.1.1. 

805.4.1.2 Group 1-2. In buildings of Group 1-2 occu- 
pancy, any patient sleeping room or suite of patient 
rooms greater than 1,000 square feet (93 m 2 ) within the 
work area shall have a minimum of two egress door- 
ways. 



805.4.2 Door swing. In the work area and in the egress 
path from any work area to the exit discharge, all egress 
doors serving an occupant load greater than 50 shall swing 
in the direction of exit travel. 

805.4.2.1 Supplemental requirements for door 
swing. Where the work area exceeds 50 percent of the 
floor area, door swing shall comply with Section 
805.4.2 throughout the floor. 

Exception: Means of egress within or serving only a 
tenant space that is entirely outside the work area. 

805.4.3 Door closing. In any work area, all doors opening 
onto an exit passageway at grade or an exit stair shall be 
self-closing or automatic-closing by listed closing devices. 

Exceptions: 

1. Where exit enclosure is not required by the Inter- 
national Building Code. 

2. Means of egress within or serving only a tenant 
space that is entirely outside the work area. 

805.4.3.1 Supplemental requirements for door clos- 
ing. Where the work area exceeds 50 percent of the 
floor area, doors shall comply with Section 805.4.3 
throughout the exit stair from the work area to, and 
including, the level of exit discharge. 

805.4.4 Panic hardware. In any work area, and in the 
egress path from any work area to the exit discharge, in 
buildings or portions thereof of Group A assembly occu- 
pancies with an occupant load greater than 100, all 
required exit doors equipped with latching devices shall be 
equipped with approved panic hardware. 

805.4.4.1 Supplemental requirements for panic 
hardware. Where the work area exceeds 50 percent of 
the floor area, panic hardware shall comply with Sec- 
tion 805.4.4 throughout the floor. 

Exception: Means of egress within a tenant space 
that is entirely outside the work area. 

805.4.5 Emergency power source in Group 1-3. Work 
areas in buildings of Group 1-3 occupancy having remote 
power unlocking capability for more than 10 locks shall be 
provided with an emergency power source for such locks. 
Power shall be arranged to operate automatically upon 
failure of normal power within 10 seconds and for a dura- 
tion of not less than 1 hour. 

805.5 Openings in corridor walls. Openings in corridor 
walls in any work area shall comply with Sections 805.5.1 
through 805.5.4. 

Exception: Openings in corridors where such corridors 
are not required to be rated in accordance with the Interna- 
tional Building Code. 

805.5.1 Corridor doors. Corridor doors in the work area 
shall not be constructed of hollow core wood and shall not 
contain louvers. All dwelling unit or sleeping unit corridor 
doors in work areas in buildings of Groups R-l, R-2, and 
1-1 shall be at least lV s -inch (35 mm) solid core wood or 
approved equivalent and shall not have any glass panels, 
other than approved wired glass or other approved glazing 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



39 



ALTERATIONS— LEVEL 2 



material in metal frames. All dwelling unit or sleeping unit 
corridor doors in work areas in buildings of Groups R-l, 
R-2, and 1-1 shall be equipped with approved door closers. 
All replacement doors shall be l 3 / 4 -inch (45 mm) solid 
bonded wood core or approved equivalent, unless the 
existing frame will accommodate only a l 3 / 8 -inch (35 mm) 
door. 

Exceptions: 

1. Corridor doors within a dwelling unit or sleeping 
unit. 

2. Existing doors meeting the requirements of 
Guidelines on Fire Ratings of Archaic Materials 
and Assemblies (IEBC Resource A) for a rating 
of 15 minutes or more shall be accepted as meet- 
ing the provisions of this requirement. 

3. Existing doors in buildings protected throughout 
with an approved automatic sprinkler system 
shall be required only to resist smoke, be reason- 
ably tight fitting, and shall not contain louvers. 

4. In group homes with a maximum of 15 occupants 
and that are protected with an approved auto- 
matic detection system, closing devices may be 
omitted. 

5. Door assemblies having a fire protection rating of 
at least 20 minutes. 

805.5.2 Transoms. In all buildings of Group 1-1, R-l and 
R-2 occupancy, all transoms in corridor walls in work 
areas shall either be glazed with 7 4 -inch (6.4 mm) wired 
glass set in metal frames or other glazing assemblies hav- 
ing a fire protection rating as required for the door and 
permanently secured in the closed position or sealed with 
materials consistent with the corridor construction. 

805.5.3 Other corridor openings. In any work area, any 
other sash, grille, or opening in a corridor and any window 
in a corridor not opening to the outside air shall be sealed 
with materials consistent with the corridor construction. 

805.5.3.1 Supplemental requirements for other cor- 
ridor opening. Where the work area exceeds 50 per- 
cent of the floor area, Section 805.5.3 shall be 
applicable to all corridor windows, grills, sashes, and 
other openings on the floor. 

Exception: Means of egress within or serving only a 
tenant space that is entirely outside the work area. 

805.5.4 Supplemental requirements for corridor open- 
ings. Where the work area on any floor exceeds 50 per- 
cent of the floor area, the requirements of Sections 805.5. 1 
through 805.5.3 shall apply throughout the floor. 

805.6 Dead-end corridors. Dead-end corridors in any work 
area shall not exceed 35 feet (10 670 mm). 

Exceptions: 

1 . Where dead-end corridors of greater length are per- 
mitted by the International Building Code. 

2. In other than Group A and H occupancies, the maxi- 
mum length of an existing dead-end corridor shall 
be 50 feet (15 240 mm) in buildings equipped 



throughout with an automatic fire alarm system 
installed in accordance with the International Build- 
ing Code. 

3. In other than Group A and H occupancies, the maxi- 
mum length of an existing dead-end corridor shall 
be 70 feet (21 356 mm) in buildings equipped 
throughout with an automatic sprinkler system 
installed in accordance with the International Build- 
ing Code. 

4. In other than Group A and H occupancies, the maxi- 
mum length of an existing, newly constructed, or 
extended dead-end corridor shall not exceed 50 feet 
(15 240 mm) on floors equipped with an automatic 
sprinkler system installed in accordance with the 
International Building Code. 

805.7 Means-of-egress lighting. Means-of-egress lighting 
shall be in accordance with this section, as applicable. 

805.7.1 Artificial lighting required. Means of egress in 
all work areas shall be provided with artificial lighting in 
accordance with the requirements of the International 
Building Code. 

805.7.2 Supplemental requirements for means-of- 
egress lighting. Where the work area on any floor 
exceeds 50 percent of that floor area, means of egress 
throughout the floor shall comply with Section 805.7.1. 

Exception: Means of egress within or serving only a 
tenant space that is entirely outside the work area. 

805.8 Exit signs. Exit signs shall be in accordance with this 
section, as applicable. 

805.8.1 Work areas. Means of egress in all work areas 
shall be provided with exit signs in accordance with the 
requirements of the International Building Code. 

805.8.2 Supplemental requirements for exit signs. 
Where the work area on any floor exceeds 50 percent of 
that floor area, means of egress throughout the floor shall 
comply with Section 805.8.1. 

Exception: Means of egress within a tenant space that 
is entirely outside the work area. 

805.9 Handrails. The requirements of Sections 805.9.1 and 
805.9.2 shall apply to handrails from the work area floor to, 
and including, the level of exit discharge. 

805.9.1 Minimum requirement. Every required exit 
stairway that is part of the means of egress for any work 
area and that has three or more risers and is not provided 
with at least one handrail, or in which the existing hand- 
rails are judged to be in danger of collapsing, shall be pro- 
vided with handrails for the full length of the run of steps 
on at least one side. All exit stairways with a required 
egress width of more than 66 inches ( 1 676 mm) shall have 
handrails on both sides. 

805.9.2 Design. Handrails required in accordance with 
Section 805.9.1 shall be designed and installed in accor- 
dance with the provisions of the International Building 
Code. 



40 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE e 



ALTERATIONS— LEVEL 2 



805.10 Guards. The requirements of Sections 805.10.1 and 
805.10.2 shall apply to guards from the work area floor to, 
and including, the level of exit discharge but shall be con- 
fined to the egress path of any work area. 

805.10.1 Minimum requirement. Every open portion of 
a stair, landing, or balcony that is more than 30 inches 
(762 mm) above the floor or grade below and is not pro- 
vided with guards, or those portions in which existing 
guards are judged to be in danger of collapsing, shall be 
provided with guards. 

805.10.2 Design. Guards required in accordance with Sec- 
tion 805.10.1 shall be designed and installed in accordance 
with the International Building Code. 



SECTION 806 

ACCESSIBILITY 

806.1 General. A building, facility, or element that is altered 
shall comply with this section and Section 705. 

806.2 Stairs and escalators in existing buildings. In altera- 
tions where an escalator or stair is added where none existed 
previously, an accessible route shall be provided in accor- 
dance with Sections 1104.4 and 1104.5 of the International 
Building Code. 

806.3 Accessible dwelling units and sleeping units. Where 
Group 1-1, 1-2, 1-3, R-l, R-2 or R-4 dwelling or sleeping units 
are being added, the requirements of Section 1107 of the 
International Building Code for accessible units and Chapter 
9 of the International Building Code for visible alarms apply 
only to the quantity of spaces being added. 

806.4 Type A dwelling or sleeping units. Where more than 
20 Group R-2 dwelling or sleeping units are being added, the 
requirements of Section 1107 of the International Building 
Code for Type A units and Chapter 9 of the International 
Building Code for visible alarms apply only to the quantity of 
the spaces being added. 

806.5 Type B dwelling or sleeping units. Where four or 
more Group 1-1, 1-2, R-l, R-2, R-3 or R-4 dwelling or sleep- 
ing units are being added, the requirements of Section 1107 
of the International Building Code for Type B units and 
Chapter 9 of the International Building Code for visible 
alarms apply only to the quantity of the spaces being added. 



SECTION 807 
STRUCTURAL 

[B] 807.1 General. Structural elements and systems within 
buildings undergoing Level 2 alterations shall comply with 
this section. 

[B] 807.2 New structural elements. New structural elements 
in alterations, including connections and anchorage, shall 
comply with the International Building Code. 

[B] 807.3 Minimum design loads. The minimum design 
loads on existing elements of a structure that do not support 
additional loads as a result of an alteration shall be the loads 
applicable at the time the building was constructed. 



[Bj 807.4 Existing structural elements carrying gravity 

loads. Alterations shall not reduce the capacity of existing 
gravity load-carrying structural elements unless it is demon- 
strated that the elements have the capacity to carry the appli- 
cable design gravity loads required by the International 
Building Code. Existing structural elements supporting any 
additional gravity loads as a result of the alterations, includ- 
ing the effects of snow drift, shall comply with the Interna- 
tional Building Code. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Structural elements whose stress is not increased by 
more than 5 percent. 

2. Buildings of Group R occupancy with not more than 
five dwelling or sleeping units used solely for resi- 
dential purposes where the existing building and its 
alteration comply with the conventional light-frame 
construction methods of the International Building 
Code or the provisions of the International Residen- 
tial Code. 

[B] 807.5 Existing structural elements resisting lateral 
loads. Alterations affecting the demands or capacities of 
existing elements of the lateral load-resisting system shall be 
evaluated using the wind provisions of the International 
Building Code and the reduced lBC-level seismic forces. Any 
existing lateral load-resisting structural elements whose 
demand-capacity ratio with the alteration considered is more 
than 10 percent greater than its demand-capacity ratio with 
the alteration ignored shall be brought into compliance with 
those wind and seismic provisions. In addition, the alteration 
shall not create a structural irregularity prohibited by ASCE 7 
unless the entire structure complies with Section 
301.1.4.2. For the purposes of this section, comparisons of 
demand-capacity ratios and calculation of design lateral 
loads, forces and capacity shall account for the cumulative 
effects of additions and alterations since the original con- 
struction. 

[B] 807.6 Voluntary lateral force-resisting system altera- 
tions. Alterations of existing structural elements and addi- 
tions of new structural elements that are initiated for the 
purpose of increasing the lateral force-resisting strength or 
stiffness of an existing structure and that are not required by 
other sections of this code shall not be required to be 
designed for forces conforming to the International Building 
Code, provided that an engineering analysis is submitted to 
show that: 

1. The capacity of existing structural elements required to 
resist forces is not reduced; 

2. The lateral loading to existing structural elements is not 
increased either beyond its capacity or more than 10 
percent; 

3. New structural elements are detailed and connected to 
the existing structural elements as required by the Inter- 
national Building Code; 

4. New or relocated nonstructural elements are detailed 
and connected to existing or new structural elements as 
required by the International Building Code; and 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



41 



ALTERATIONS— LEVEL 2 



A dangerous condition as defined in this code is not 
created. Voluntary alterations to lateral force-resisting 
systems conducted in accordance with Appendix A and 
the referenced standards of this code shall be permitted. 



SECTION 808 
ELECTRICAL 

808.1 New installations. All newly installed electrical equip- 
ment and wiring relating to work done in any work area shall 
comply with the materials and methods requirements of 
Chapter 7. 

Exception: Electrical equipment and wiring in newly 
installed partitions and ceilings shall comply with all 
applicable requirements of NFPA 70. 

808.2 Existing installations. Existing wiring in all work 
areas in Group A-l, A-2, A-5, H and I occupancies shall be 
upgraded to meet the materials and methods requirements of 
Chapter 7. 

808.3 Residential occupancies. In Group R-2, R-3 and R-4 
occupancies and buildings regulated by the International 
Residential Code, the requirements of Sections 808.3.1 
through 808.3.7 shall be applicable only to work areas 
located within a dwelling unit. 

808.3.1 Enclosed areas. All enclosed areas, other than 
closets, kitchens, basements, garages, hallways, laundry 
areas, utility areas, storage areas and bathrooms shall have 
a minimum of two duplex receptacle outlets or one duplex 
receptacle outlet and one ceiling or wall-type lighting out- 
let. 

808.3.2 Kitchens. Kitchen areas shall have a minimum of 
two duplex receptacle outlets. 

808.3.3 Laundry areas. Laundry areas shall have a mini- 
mum of one duplex receptacle outlet located near the laun- 
dry equipment and installed on an independent circuit. 

808.3.4 Ground fault circuit interruption. Newly 
installed receptacle outlets shall be provided with ground 
fault circuit interruption as required by NFPA 70. 

808.3.5 Minimum lighting outlets. At least one lighting 
outlet shall be provided in every bathroom, hallway, stair- 
way, attached garage, and detached garage with electric 
power, and to illuminate outdoor entrances and exits. 

808.3.6 Utility rooms and basements. At least one light- 
ing outlet shall be provided in utility rooms and basements 
where such spaces are used for storage or contain equip- 
ment requiring service. 

808.3.7 Clearance for equipment. Clearance for electri- 
cal service equipment shall be provided in accordance 
with the NFPA 70. 



vided with natural or mechanical ventilation in accordance 
with the International Mechanical Code. 

Exception: Existing mechanical ventilation systems shall 
comply with the requirements of Section 809.2. 

809.2 Altered existing systems. In mechanically ventilated 
spaces, existing mechanical ventilation systems that are 
altered, reconfigured, or extended shall provide not less than 
5 cubic feet per minute (cfm) (0.0024 m 3 /s) per person of out- 
door air and not less than 1 5 cfm (0.007 1 m 3 /s) of ventilation 
air per person; or not less than the amount of ventilation air 
determined by the Indoor Air Quality Procedure of ASHRAE 
62. 

809.3 Local exhaust. All newly introduced devices, equip- 
ment, or operations that produce airborne particulate matter, 
odors, fumes, vapor, combustion products, gaseous contami- 
nants, pathogenic and allergenic organisms, and microbial 
contaminants in such quantities as to affect adversely or 
impair health or cause discomfort to occupants shall be pro- 
vided with local exhaust. 



SECTION 810 
PLUMBING 

810.1 Minimum fixtures. Where the occupant load of the 
story is increased by more than 20 percent, plumbing fixtures 
for the story shall be provided in quantities specified in the 
International Plumbing Code based on the increased occu- 
pant load. 



SECTION 811 
ENERGY CONSERVATION 

811.1 Minimum requirements. Level 2 alterations to exist- 
ing buildings or structures are permitted without requiring the 
entire building or structure to comply with the energy 
requirements of the International Energy Conservation Code 
or International Residential Code. The alterations shall con- 
form to the energy requirements of the International Energy 
Consetyation Code or International Residential Code as they 
relate to new construction only. 



SECTION 809 
MECHANICAL 

809.1 Reconfigured or converted spaces. All reconfigured 
spaces intended for occupancy and all spaces converted to 
habitable or occupiable space in any work area shall be pro- 



42 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



Ori/^r I Era y 

ALTERATIONS-— LEVEL 3 



SECTION 901 
GENERAL 

901.1 Scope. Level 3 alterations as described in Section 505 
shall comply with the requirements of this chapter. 

901.2 Compliance. In addition to the provisions of this chap- 
ter, work shall comply with all of the requirements of Chap- 
ters 7 and 8. The requirements of Sections 803, 804 and 805 
shall apply within all work areas whether or not they include 
exits and corridors shared by more than one tenant and 
regardless of the occupant load. 

Exception: Buildings in which the reconfiguration of 
space affecting exits or shared egress access is exclusively 
the result of compliance with the accessibility require- 
ments of Section 705.2 shall not be required to comply 
with this chapter. 



SECTION 902 

SPECIAL USE AND OCCUPANCY 

902.1 High-rise buildings. Any building having occupied 
floors more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) above the lowest level 
of fire department vehicle access shall comply with the 
requirements of Sections 902.1.1 and 902.1.2. 

902.1.1 Recirculating air or exhaust systems. When a 
floor is served by a recirculating air or exhaust system 
with a capacity greater than 15,000 cubic feet per minute 
(701 m 3 /s), that system shall be equipped with approved 
smoke and heat detection devices installed in accordance 
with the International Mechanical Code. 

902.1.2 Elevators. Where there is an elevator or elevators 
for public use, at least one elevator serving the work area 
shall comply with this section. Existing elevators with a 
travel distance of 25 feet (7620 mm) or more above or 
below the main floor or other level of a building and 
intended to serve the needs of emergency personnel for 
fire-fighting or rescue purposes shall be provided with 
emergency operation in accordance with ASME A17.3. 
New elevators shall be provided with Phase I emergency 
recall operation and Phase II emergency in-car operation 
in accordance with ASME A17.1. 

902.2 Boiler and furnace equipment rooms. Boiler and fur- 
nace equipment rooms adjacent to or within the following 
facilities shall be enclosed by 1-hour fire-resistance-rated 
construction: day nurseries, children's shelter facilities, resi- 
dential childcare facilities, and similar facilities with children 
below the age of 2'/ 2 years or that are classified as Group 1-2 
occupancies, shelter facilities, residences for the develop- 
mentally disabled, group homes, teaching family homes, tran- 



sitional living homes, rooming and boarding houses, hotels, 
and multiple dwellings. 

Exceptions: 

1. Furnace and boiler equipment of low-pressure type, 
operating at pressures of 1 5 pounds per square inch 
gauge (psig) (103.4 KPa) or less for steam equip- 
ment or 170 psig (1171 KPa) or less for hot water 
equipment, when installed in accordance with manu- 
facturer recommendations. 

2. Furnace and boiler equipment of residential R-3 
type with 200,000 British thermal units (Btu) (2. 1 1 
x 108 J) per hour input rating or less is not required 
to be enclosed. 

3. Furnace rooms protected with automatic sprinkler 
protection. 

902.2.1 Emergency controls. Emergency controls for 
boilers and furnace equipment shall be provided in accor- 
dance with the International Mechanical Code in all build- 
ings classified as day nurseries, children's shelter 
facilities, residential childcare facilities, and similar facili- 
ties with children below the age of 2'/ 2 years or that are 
classified as Group 1-2 occupancies, and in group homes, 
teaching family homes, and supervised transitional living 
homes in accordance with the following: 

1. Emergency shutoff switches for furnaces and boilers 
in basements shall be located at the top of the stairs 
leading to the basement; and 

2. Emergency shutoff switches for furnaces and boilers 
in other enclosed rooms shall be located outside of 
such room. 



SECTION 903 
BUILDING ELEMENTS AND MATERIALS 

903.1 Existing shafts and vertical openings. Existing stair- 
ways that are part of the means of egress shall be enclosed in 
accordance with Section 803.2.1 from the highest work area 
floor to, and including, the level of exit discharge and all 
floors below. 

903.2 Fire partitions in Group R-3. Fire separation in 
Group R-3 occupancies shall be in accordance with Section 
903.2.1. 

903.2.1 Separation required. Where the work area is in 
any attached dwelling unit in Group R-3 or any multiple 
single-family dwelling (townhouse), walls separating the 
dwelling units that are not continuous from the foundation 
to the underside of the roof sheathing shall be constructed 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



43 



ALTERATIONS— LEVEL 3 



to provide a continuous fire separation using construction 
materials consistent with the existing wall or complying 
with the requirements for new structures. All work shall be 
performed on the side of the dwelling unit wall that is part 
of the work area. 

Exception: Where alterations or repairs do not result 
in the removal of wall or ceiling finishes exposing the 
structure, walls are not required to be continuous 
through concealed floor spaces. 

903.3 Interior finish. Interior finish in exits serving the work 
area shall comply with Section 803.4 between the highest 
floor on which there is a work area to the floor of exit dis- 
charge. 



SECTION 904 

FIRE PROTECTION 

904.1 Automatic sprinkler systems. Automatic sprinkler 
systems shall be provided in all work areas when required by 
Section 804.2 or this section. 

904.1.1 High-rise buildings. In high-rise buildings, work 
areas shall be provided with automatic sprinkler protection 
where the building has a sufficient municipal water supply 
system to the site. Where the work area exceeds 50 per- 
cent of floor area, sprinklers shall be provided in the spec- 
ified areas where sufficient municipal water supply for 
design and installation of a fire sprinkler system is avail- 
able at the site. 

904.1.2 Rubbish and linen chutes. Rubbish and linen 
chutes located in the work area shall be provided with 
automatic sprinkler system protection or an approved 
automatic fire-extinguishing system where protection of 
the rubbish and linen chute would be required under the 
provisions of the International Building Code for new 
construction. 

904.2 Fire alarm and detection systems. Fire alarm and 
detection systems complying with Sections 804.4.1 and 
804.4.3 shall be provided throughout the building in accor- 
dance with the International Building Code. 

904.2.1 Manual fire alarm systems. Where required by 
the International Building Code, a manual fire alarm sys- 
tem shall be provided throughout the work area. Alarm 
notification appliances shall be provided on such floors 
and shall be automatically activated as required by the 
International Building Code. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Alarm-initiating and notification appliances shall 
not be required to be installed in tenant spaces 
outside of the work area. 

2. Visual alarm notification appliances are not 
required, except where an existing alarm system 
is upgraded or replaced or where a new fire alarm 
system is installed. 

904.2.2 Automatic fire detection. Where required by the 
International Building Code for new buildings, automatic 
fire detection systems shall be provided throughout the 
work area. 



SECTION 905 
MEANS OF EGRESS 

905.1 General. The means of egress shall comply with the 
requirements of Section 805 except as specifically required in 
Sections 905.2 and 905.3. 

905.2 Means-of-egress lighting. Means of egress from the 
highest work area floor to the floor of exit discharge shall be 
provided with artificial lighting within the exit enclosure in 
accordance with the requirements of the International Build- 
ing Code. 

905.3 Exit signs. Means of egress from the highest work area 
floor to the floor of exit discharge shall be provided with exit 
signs in accordance with the requirements of the Interna- 
tional Building Code. 



SECTION 906 
ACCESSIBILITY 

906.1 General. A building, facility or element that is altered 
shall comply with this section and Sections 705 and 806. 

906.2 Type B dwelling or sleeping units. Where four or 
more Group 1-1, 1-2, R-l, R-2, R-3 or R-4 dwelling or sleep- 
ing units are being altered or added, the requirements of Sec- 
tion 1 107 of the International Building Code for Type B units 
and Chapter 9 of the International Building Code for visible 
alarms apply only to the quantity of the spaces being altered 
or added. 



SECTION 907 
STRUCTURAL 

[B] 907.1 General. Where buildings are undergoing Level 3 
alterations including structural alterations, the provisions of 
this section shall apply. 

[B] 907.2 New structural elements. New structural elements 
shall comply with Section 807.2. 

[B] 907.3 Existing structural elements carrying gravity 
loads. Existing structural elements carrying gravity loads 
shall comply with Section 807.4. 

[B] 907.4 Existing structural elements resisting lateral 
loads. All existing elements of the lateral force-resisting sys- 
tem shall comply with this section. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Buildings of Group R occupancy with no more than 
five dwelling or sleeping units used solely for resi- 
dential purposes that are altered based on the con- 
ventional light-frame construction methods of the 
International Building Code or in compliance with 
the provisions of the International Residential Code. 

2. Where such alterations involve only the lowest 
story of a building and the change of occupancy pro- 
visions of Chapter 10 do not apply, only the lateral 
force-resisting components in and below that story 
need comply with this section. 

[B] 907.4.1 Evaluation and analysis. An engineering 
evaluation and analysis that establishes the structural ade- 



44 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



ALTERATIONS—LEVEL 3 



** 



quacy of the altered structure shall be prepared by a regis- 
tered design professional and submitted to the code 
official. 

[B] 907.4.2 Substantial structural alteration. Where 
more than 30 percent of the total floor and roof areas of 
the building or structure have been or are proposed to be 
involved in structural alteration within a five-year period, 
the evaluation and analysis shall demonstrate that the 
altered building or structure complies with the Interna- 
tional Building Code for wind loading and with reduced 
IBC-level seismic forces. The areas to be counted toward 
the 30 percent shall be those areas tributary to the vertical 
load-carrying components, such as joists, beams, columns, 
walls and other structural components that have been or 
will be removed, added or altered, as well as areas such as 
mezzanines, penthouses, roof structures and in-filled 
courts and shafts. 

[B] 907.4.3 Limited structural alteration. Where the 
work does not involve a substantial structural alteration, 
the existing elements of the lateral load-resisting system 
shall comply with Section 807.5. 

[B] 907.4.4 Wall anchors for concrete and masonry 
buildings. For any building assigned to Seismic Design 
Category D, E or F with a structural system consisting of 
concrete or reinforced masonry walls with a flexible roof 
diaphragm or unreinforced masonry walls with any type of 
roof diaphragm, the alteration work shall include installa- 
tion of wall anchors at the roof line to resist the reduced 
IBC-level seismic forces, unless an evaluation demon- 
strates compliance of existing wall anchorage. 

[B] 907.4.5 Bracing for unreinforced masonry para- 
pets. Parapets constructed of unreinforced masonry in 
buildings assigned to Seismic Design Category D, E or F 
shall have bracing installed as needed to resist the reduced 
IBC-level seismic forces, unless an evaluation demon- 
strates compliance of such items. 



SECTION 908 
ENERGY CONSERVATION 
908.1 Minimum requirements. Level 3 alterations to exist- 
ing buildings or structures are permitted without requiring the 
entire building or structure to comply with the energy 
requirements of the International Energy Conservation Code 
or International Residential Code. The alterations shall con- 
form to the energy requirements of the International Energy 
Conservation Code or International Residential Code as they 
relate to new construction only. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



45 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 
46 



CHAPTER 10 

CHANGE OF OCCUPANCY 



SECTION 1001 
GENERAL 

1001.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall apply 
where a change of occupancy occurs, as defined in Section 
202, including: 

1. Where the occupancy classification is not changed; or 

2. Where there is a change in occupancy classification or 
the occupancy group designation changes. 

1001.2 Change in occupancy with no change of occupancy 
classification. A change in occupancy, as defined in Section 
202, with no change of occupancy classification shall not be 
made to any structure that will subject the structure to any 
special provisions of the applicable International Codes, 
including the provisions of Sections 1002 through 1011, 
without the approval of the code official. A certificate of 
occupancy shall be issued where it has been determined that 
the requirements for the change in occupancy have been met. 

1001.2.1 Repair and alteration with no change of occu- 
pancy classification. Any repair or alteration work 
undertaken in connection with a change of occupancy that 
does not involve a change of occupancy classification 
shall conform to the applicable requirements for the work 
as classified in Chapter 4 and to the requirements of Sec- 
tions 1002 through 1011. 

Exception: As modified in Section 1205 for historic 
buildings. 

1001.3 Change of occupancy classification. Where the 
occupancy classification of a building changes, the provisions 
of Sections 1002 through 1012 shall apply. This includes a 
change of occupancy classification within a group as well as 
a change of occupancy classification from one group to a dif- 
ferent group. 

1001.3.1 Partial change of occupancy classification. 
Where a portion of an existing building is changed to a 
new occupancy classification, Section 1012 shall apply. 

1001.4 Certificate of occupancy required. A certificate of 
occupancy shall be issued where a change of occupancy 
occurs that results in a different occupancy classification as 
determined by the International Building Code. 



SECTION 1002 
SPECIAL USE AND OCCUPANCY 

1002.1 Compliance with the building code. Where the char- 
acter or use of an existing building or part of an existing 
building is changed to one of the following special use or 
occupancy categories as defined in the International Building 
Code, the building shall comply with all of the applicable 
requirements of the International Building Code: 

1. Covered and open mall buildings. 



2. Atriums. 

3. Motor vehicle-related occupancies. 

4. Aircraft-related occupancies. 

5. Motion picture projection rooms. 

6. Stages and platforms. 

7. Special amusement buildings. 

8. Incidental use areas. 

9. Hazardous materials. 

10. Ambulatory care facilities. | 

1002.2 Underground buildings. An underground building in 
which there is a change of use shall comply with the require- 
ments of the International Building Code applicable to under- 
ground structures. 



SECTION 1003 
BUILDING ELEMENTS AND MATERIALS 

1003.1 General. Building elements and materials in portions 
of buildings undergoing a change of occupancy classification 
shall comply with Section 1012, 



SECTION 1004 
FIRE PROTECTION 

1004.1 General. Fire protection requirements of Section 
1012 shall apply where a building or portions thereof undergo 
a change of occupancy classification. 



SECTION 1005 

MEANS OF EGRESS 

1005.1 General. Means of egress in portions of buildings 
undergoing a change of occupancy classification shall com- 
ply with Section 1012. 



SECTION 1006 
ACCESSIBILITY 

1006.1 General. Accessibility in portions of buildings under- 
going a change of occupancy classification shall comply with 
Section 1012.8. 



SECTION 1007 
STRUCTURAL 

[B] 1007.1 Gravity loads. Buildings or portions thereof sub- 
ject to a change of occupancy where such change in the 
nature of occupancy results in higher uniform or concentrated 
loads based on Table 1607.1 of the International Building 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



47 



CHANGE OF OCCUPANCY 



Code shall comply with the gravity load provisions of the 
International Building Code. 

Exception: Structural elements whose stress is not 
increased by more than 5 percent. 

[B] 1007.2 Snow and wind loads. Buildings and structures 
subject to a change of occupancy where such change in the 
| nature of occupancy results in higher wind or snow risk cate- 
gories based on Table 1604.5 of the International Building 
Code shall be analyzed and shall comply with the applicable 
wind or snow load provisions of the International Building 
Code. 

I Exception: Where the new occupancy with a higher risk 
category is less than or equal to 10 percent of the total 
building floor area. The cumulative effect of the area of 
occupancy changes shall be considered for the purposes of 
this exception. 

[B] 1007.3 Seismic loads. Existing buildings with a change 
of occupancy shall comply with the seismic provisions of 
Sections 1007.3.1 and 1007.3.2. 

[B] 1007.3.1 Compliance with the International Build- 
ing Code level seismic forces. Where a building or por- 
tion thereof is subject to a change of occupancy that 

| results in the building being assigned to a higher risk cate- 
gory based on Table 1604.5 of the International Building 
Code; or where such change of occupancy results in a 
reclassification of a building to a higher hazard category as 
shown in Table 1012.4; or where a change of a Group M 
occupancy to a Group A, E, 1-1, R-l, R-2 or R-4 occu- 
pancy with two-thirds or more of the floors involved in 
Level 3 alteration work, the building shall comply with 
the requirements for International Building Code level 
seismic forces as specified in Section 301.1.4.1 for the 

| new risk category. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Group M occupancies being changed to Group A, 
E, 1-1, R-l , R-2 or R-4 occupancies for buildings 
less than six stories in height and in Seismic 
Design Category A, B or C. 

2. Where approved by the code official, specific 
detailing provisions required for a new structure 
are not required to be met where it can be shown 
that an equivalent level of performance and seis- 

1 mic safety is obtained for the applicable risk cate- 

gory based on the provision for reduced 
International Building Code level seismic forces 
as specified in Section 301.1.4.2. 

3. Where the area of the new occupancy with a 
higher hazard category is less than or equal to 10 
percent of the total building floor area and the 

| new occupancy is not classified as Risk Category 

IV. For the purposes of this exception, buildings 
occupied by two or more occupancies not 

| included in the same Risk category, shall be sub- 

ject to the provisions of Section 1604.5.1 of the 
International Building Code. The cumulative 
effect of the area of occupancy changes shall be 
considered for the purposes of this exception. 



4. Unreinforced masonry bearing wall buildings in 
Risk Category III when assigned to Seismic 
Design Category A or B shall be allowed to be 
strengthened to meet the requirements of Appen- 
dix Chapter Al of this code [Guidelines for the 
Seismic Retrofit of Existing Buildings 
(GSREB)]. 

[B] 1007.3.2 Access to Risk Category IV. Where a 
change of occupancy is such that compliance with Section 
1007.3.1 is required and the building is assigned to Risk 
Category IV, the operational access to the building shall 
not be through an adjacent structure, unless that structure 
conforms to the requirements for Risk Category IV struc- 
tures. Where operational access is less than 10 feet (3048 
mm) from either an interior lot line or from another struc- 
ture, access protection from potential falling debris shall be 
provided by the owner of the Risk Category IV structure. 

SECTION 1008 
ELECTRICAL 

1008.1 Special occupancies. Where the occupancy of an 
existing building or part of an existing building is changed to 
one of the following special occupancies as described in 
NFPA 70, the electrical wiring and equipment of the building 
or portion thereof that contains the proposed occupancy shall 
comply with the applicable requirements of NFPA 70 
whether or not a change of occupancy group is involved: 

1. Hazardous locations. 

2. Commercial garages, repair, and storage. 

3. Aircraft hangars. 

4. Gasoline dispensing and service stations. 

5. Bulk storage plants. 

6. Spray application, dipping, and coating processes. 

7. Health care facilities. 

8. Places of assembly. 

9. Theaters, audience areas of motion picture and televi- 
sion studios, and similar locations. 

10. Motion picture and television studios and similar 
locations. 

1 1 . Motion picture projectors. 

12. Agricultural buildings. 

1008.2 Unsafe conditions. Where the occupancy of an exist- 
ing building or part of an existing building is changed, all 
unsafe conditions shall be corrected without requiring that all 
parts of the electrical system comply with NFPA 70. 

1008.3 Service upgrade. Where the occupancy of an existing 
building or part of an existing building is changed, electrical 
service shall be upgraded to meet the requirements of NFPA 
70 for the new occupancy. 

1008.4 Number of electrical outlets. Where the occupancy 
of an existing building or part of an existing building is 
changed, the number of electrical outlets shall comply with 
NFPA 70 for the new occupancy. 



48 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



CHANGE OF OCCUPANCY 



SECTION 1009 
MECHANICAL 

1009.1 Mechanical requirements. Where the occupancy of 
an existing building or part of an existing building is changed 
such that the new occupancy is subject to different kitchen 
exhaust requirements or to increased mechanical ventilation 
requirements in accordance with the International Mechani- 
cal Code, the new occupancy shall comply with the intent of 
the respective International Mechanical Code provisions. 



SECTION 1010 
PLUMBING 

1010.1 Increased demand. Where the occupancy of an exist- 
ing building or part of an existing building is changed such 
that the new occupancy is subject to increased or different 
plumbing fixture requirements or to increased water supply 
requirements in accordance with the International Plumbing 
Code, the new occupancy shall comply with the intent of the 
respective International Plumbing Code provisions. 

1010.2 Food-handling occupancies. If the new occupancy is 
a food-handling establishment, all existing sanitary waste 
lines above the food or drink preparation or storage areas 
shall be panned or otherwise protected to prevent leaking 
pipes or condensation on pipes from contaminating food or 
drink. New drainage lines shall not be installed above such 
areas and shall be protected in accordance with the Interna- 
tional Plumbing Code. 

1010.3 Interceptor required. If the new occupancy will pro- 
duce grease or oil-laden wastes, interceptors shall be pro- 
vided as required in the International Plumbing Code. 

1010.4 Chemical wastes. If the new occupancy will produce 
chemical wastes, the following shall apply: 

1 . If the existing piping is not compatible with the chemi- 
cal waste, the waste shall be neutralized prior to enter- 
ing the drainage system, or the piping shall be changed 
to a compatible material. 

2. No chemical waste shall discharge to a public sewer 
system without the approval of the sewage authority. 

1010.5 Group 1-2. If the occupancy group is changed to 
Group 1-2, the plumbing system shall comply with the appli- 
cable requirements of the International Plumbing Code. 

SECTION 1011 

OTHER REQUIREMENTS 

1011.1 Light and ventilation. Light and ventilation shall 
comply with the requirements of the International Building 
Code for the new occupancy. 



SECTION 1012 
CHANGE OF OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 

1012.1 General. The provisions of this section shall apply to 
buildings or portions thereof undergoing a change of occu- 
pancy classification. This includes a change of occupancy 
classification within a group as well as a change of occu- 



pancy classification from one group to a different group. 
Such buildings shall also comply with Sections 1002 through 
101 1. The application of requirements for the change of occu- 
pancy shall be as set forth in Sections 1012.1.1 through 
1012.1.4. A change of occupancy, as defined in Section 202, 
without a corresponding change of occupancy classification 
shall comply with Section 1001 .2. 

1012.1.1 Compliance with Chapter 9. The requirements 
of Chapter 9 shall be applicable throughout the building 
for the new occupancy classification based on the separa- 
tion conditions set forth in Sections 1012.1.1.1 and 
1012.1.1.2. 

1012.1.1.1 Change of occupancy classification with- 
out separation. Where a portion of an existing building 
is changed to a new occupancy classification and that 
portion is not separated from the remainder of the 
building with fire barriers having a fire-resistance rat- 
ing as required in the International Building Code for 
the separate occupancy, the entire building shall com- 
ply with all of the requirements of Chapter 9 applied 
throughout the building for the most restrictive occu- 
pancy classification in the building and with the 
requirements of this chapter. 

1012.1.1.2 Change of occupancy classification with 
separation. Where a portion of an existing building 
that is changed to a new occupancy classification and 
that portion is separated from the remainder of the 
building with fire barriers having a fire-resistance rat- 
ing as required in the International Building Code for 
the separate occupancy, that portion shall comply with 
all of the requirements of Chapter 9 for the new occu- 
pancy classification and with the requirements of this 
chapter. 

1012.1.2 Fire protection and interior finish. The provi- 
sions of Sections 1012.2 and 1012.3 for fire protection and 
interior finish, respectively, shall apply to all buildings 
undergoing a change of occupancy classification. 

1012.1.3 Change of occupancy classification based on 
hazard category. The relative degree of hazard between 
different occupancy classifications shall be determined in 
accordance with the categories specified in Tables 1012.4, 
1012.5 and 1012.6. Such a determination shall be the basis 
for the application of Sections 1012.4 through 1012.7. 

1012.1.4 Accessibility. All buildings undergoing a change 
of occupancy classification shall comply with Section 
1012.8. 

1012.2 Fire protection systems. Fire protection systems 
shall be provided in accordance with Sections 1012.2.1 and 
1012.2.2. 

1012.2.1 Fire sprinkler system. Where a change in occu- 
pancy classification occurs that requires an automatic fire 
sprinkler system to be provided based on the new occu- 
pancy in accordance with Chapter 9 of the International 
Building Code, such system shall be provided throughout 
the area where the change of occupancy occurs. 

1012.2.2 Fire alarm and detection system. Where a 
change in occupancy classification occurs that requires a 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



49 



CHANGE OF OCCUPANCY 



fire alarm and detection system to be provided based on 
the new occupancy in accordance with Chapter 9 of the 
International Building Code, such system shall be pro- 
vided throughout the area where the change of occupancy 
occurs. Existing alarm notification appliances shall be 
automatically activated throughout the building. Where 
the building is not equipped with a fire alarm system, 
alarm notification appliances shall be provided throughout 
the area where the change of occupancy occurs and shall 
be automatically activated. 

1012.3 Interior finish. In areas of the building undergoing 
the change of occupancy classification, the interior finish of 
walls and ceilings shall comply with the requirements of the 
International Building Code for the new occupancy classifi- 
cation. 

1012.4 Means of egress, general. Hazard categories in 
regard to life safety and means of egress shall be in accor- 
dance with Table 1012.4. 

TABLE 1012.4 
MEANS OF EGRESS HAZARD CATEGORIES 



RELATIVE HAZARD 


OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATIONS 


1 (Highest Hazard) 


H 


2 


1-2, 1-3, 1-4 


3 


A,E,I-1,M, R-l,R-2,R-4 


4 


B, F-l,R-3, S-l 


5 (Lowest Hazard) 


F-2, S-2, U 



1012.4.1 Means of egress for change to higher hazard 
category. When a change of occupancy classification is 
made to a higher hazard category (lower number) as 
shown in Table 1012.4, the means of egress shall comply 
with the requirements of Chapter 10 of the International 
Building Code. 

Exceptions: 

1. Stairways shall be enclosed in compliance with 
the applicable provisions of Section 903.1. 

2. Existing stairways including handrails and guards 
complying with the requirements of Chapter 9 
shall be permitted for continued use subject to 
approval of the code official. 

3. Any stairway replacing an existing stairway 
within a space where the pitch or slope cannot be 
reduced because of existing construction shall not 
be required to comply with the maximum riser 
height and minimum tread depth requirements. 

4. Existing corridor walls constructed on both sides 
of wood lath and plaster in good condition or V 2 - 
inch-thick (12.7 mm) gypsum wallboard shall be 
permitted. Such walls shall either terminate at the 
underside of a ceiling of equivalent construction 
or extend to the underside of the floor or roof 
next above. 

5. Existing corridor doorways, transoms and other 
corridor openings shall comply with the require- 
ments in Sections 805.5.1, 805.5.2 and 805.5.3. 



6. Existing dead-end corridors shall comply with 
the requirements in Section 805.6. 

7. An existing operable window with clear opening 
area no less than 4 square feet (0.38 m 2 ) and min- 
imum opening height and width of 22 inches (559 
mm) and 20 inches (508 mm), respectively, shall 
be accepted as an emergency escape and rescue 
opening. 

1012.4.2 Means of egress for change of use to equal or 
lower hazard category. When a change of occupancy 
classification is made to an equal or lesser hazard category 
(higher number) as shown in Table 1012.4, existing ele- 
ments of the means of egress shall comply with the 
requirements of Section 905 for the new occupancy classi- 
fication. Newly constructed or configured means of egress 
shall comply with the requirements of Chapter 10 of the 
International Building Code. 

Exception: Any stairway replacing an existing stair- 
way within a space where the pitch or slope cannot be 
reduced because of existing construction shall not be 
required to comply with the maximum riser height and 
minimum tread depth requirements. 

1012.4.3 Egress capacity. Egress capacity shall meet or 
exceed the occupant load as specified in the International 
Building Code for the new occupancy. 

1012.4.4 Handrails. Existing stairways shall comply with 
the handrail requirements of Section 805.9 in the area of 
the change of occupancy classification. 

1012.4.5 Guards. Existing guards shall comply with the 
requirements in Section 805.10 in the area of the change of 
occupancy classification. 

1012.5 Heights and areas. Hazard categories in regard to 
height and area shall be in accordance with Table 1012.5. 

TABLE 1012.5 
HEIGHTS AND AREAS HAZARD CATEGORIES 



RELATIVE HAZARD 


OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATIONS 


1 (Highest Hazard) 


H 


2 


A-l, A-2, A-3, A-4, 1, R-l , R-2, R-4 


3 


E,F-1,S-1,M 


4 (Lowest Hazard) 


B, F-2, S-2, A-5, R-3, U 



1012.5.1 Height and area for change to higher hazard 
category. When a change of occupancy classification is 
made to a higher hazard category as shown in Table 
1012.5, heights and areas of buildings and structures shall 
comply with the requirements of Chapter 5 of the Interna- 
tional Building Code for the new occupancy classification. 

Exception: In other than Groups H, F-l and S-l, in lieu 
of fire walls, use of fire barriers having a fire-resistance 
rating of not less than that specified in Table 706.4 of 
the International Building Code, constructed in accor- 
dance with Section 707 of the International Building 
Code, shall be permitted to meet area limitations 
required for the new occupancy in buildings protected 
throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in 



50 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



CHANGE OF OCCUPANCY 



accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 of the International 
Fire Code. 

1012.5.1.1 Fire wall alternative. In other than Groups 
H, F-l and S-l, fire barriers and horizontal assemblies 
constructed in accordance with Sections 707 and 711, 
respectively, of the International Building Code shall 
be permitted to be used in lieu of fire walls to subdivide 
the building into separate buildings for the purpose of 
complying with the area limitations required for the 
new occupancy where all of the following conditions 
are met: 

1. The buildings are protected throughout with an 
automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 
Section 903.3. 1 . 1 of the International Fire Code. 

2. The maximum allowable area between fire barri- 
ers, horizontal assemblies, or any combination 
thereof shall not exceed the maximum allowable 
area determined in accordance with Chapter 5 of 
the International Building Code without an 
increase allowed for an automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem in accordance with Section 506 of the Inter- 
national Building Code. 

3. The fire-resistance rating of the fire barriers and 
horizontal assemblies shall not be less than that 
specified for fire walls in Table 706.4 of the 
International Building Code. 

Exception: Where horizontal assemblies are used to 
limit the maximum allowable area, the required fire- 
resistance rating of the horizontal assemblies shall 
be permitted to be reduced by 1 hour provided the 
height and number of stories increases allowed for 
an automatic sprinkler system by Section 504.2 of 
the International Building Code are not used for the 
buildings. 

1012.5.2 Height and area for change to equal or lesser 

hazard category. When a change of occupancy classifica- 
tion is made to an equal or lesser hazard category as 
shown in Table 1012.5, the height and area of the existing 
building shall be deemed acceptable. 

1012.5.3 Fire barriers. When a change of occupancy 
classification is made to a higher hazard category as 
shown in Table 1012.5, fire barriers in separated mixed 
use buildings shall comply with the fire-resistance require- 
ments of the International Building Code. 

Exception: Where the fire barriers are required to have 
a 1-hour fire-resistance rating, existing wood lath and 
plaster in good condition or existing V 2 -inch-thick (12.7 
mm) gypsum wallboard shall be permitted. 
1012.6 Exterior wall fire-resistance ratings. Hazard cate- 
gories in regard to fire-resistance ratings of exterior walls 
shall be in accordance with Table 1012.6. 



TABLE 1012.6 
EXPOSURE OF EXTERIOR WALLS HAZARD CATEGORIES 



RELATIVE HAZARD 



1 (Highest Hazard) 



4 (Lowest Hazard) 



OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 



H 



F-l, M, S-l 



A, B, E, I, R 



F-2, S-2, U 



1012.6.1 Exterior wall rating for change of occupancy 
classification to a higher hazard category. When a 
change of occupancy classification is made to a higher 
hazard category as shown in Table 1012.6, exterior walls 
shall have fire resistance and exterior opening protectives 
as required by the International Building Code. 

Exception: A 2-hour fire-resistance rating shall be 
allowed where the building does not exceed three sto- 
ries in height and is classified as one of the following 
groups: A-2 and A-3 with an occupant load of less than 
300, B, F, M or S. 

1012.6.2 Exterior wall rating for change of occupancy 
classification to an equal or lesser hazard category. 
When a change of occupancy classification is made to an 
equal or lesser hazard category as shown in Table 1012.6, 
existing exterior walls, including openings, shall be 
accepted. 

1012.6.3 Opening protectives. Openings in exterior walls 
shall be protected as required by the International Build- 
ing Code. Where openings in the exterior walls are 
required to be protected because of their distance from the 
lot line, the sum of the area of such openings shall not 
exceed 50 percent of the total area of the wall in each 
story. 

Exceptions: 

1. Where the International Building Code permits 
openings in excess of 50 percent. 

2. Protected openings shall not be required in build- 
ings of Group R occupancy that do not exceed 
three stories in height and that are located not less 
than 3 feet (914 mm) from the lot line. 

3. Where exterior opening protectives are required, 
an automatic sprinkler system throughout may be 
substituted for opening protection. 

4. Exterior opening protectives are not required 
when the change of occupancy group is to an 
equal or lower hazard classification in accor- 
dance with Table 1012.6. 

1012.7 Enclosure of vertical shafts. Enclosure of vertical 
shafts shall be in accordance with Sections 1012.7.1 through 
1012.7.4. 

1012.7.1 Minimum requirements. Vertical shafts shall 
be designed to meet the International Building Code 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



51 



CHANGE OF OCCUPANCY 



requirements for atriums or the requirements of this sec- 
tion. 

1012.7.2 Stairways. When a change of occupancy classi- 
ficiation is made to a higher hazard category as shown in 
Table 1012.4, interior stairways shall be enclosed as 
required by the International Building Code. 

Exceptions: 

1. In other than Group I occupancies, an enclosure 
shall not be required for openings serving only 
one adjacent floor and that are not connected with 
corridors or stairways serving other floors. 

2. Unenclosed existing stairways need not be 
enclosed in a continuous vertical shaft if each 
story is separated from other stories by 1-hour 
fire-resistance-rated construction or approved 
wired glass set in steel frames and all exit corri- 
dors are sprinklered. The openings between the 
corridor and the occupant space shall have at 
least one sprinkler head above the openings on 
the tenant side. The sprinkler system shall be per- 
mitted to be supplied from the domestic water- 
supply systems, provided the system is of ade- 
quate pressure, capacity, and sizing for the com- 
bined domestic and sprinkler requirements. 

3. Existing penetrations of stairway enclosures shall 
be accepted if they are protected in accordance 
with the International Building Code. 

1012.7.3 Other vertical shafts. Interior vertical shafts 
other than stairways, including but not limited to elevator 
hoistways and service and utility shafts, shall be enclosed 
as required by the International Building Code when there 
is a change of use to a higher hazard category as specified 
in Table 1012.4. 

Exceptions: 

1. Existing 1-hour interior shaft enclosures shall be 
accepted where a higher rating is required. 

2. Vertical openings, other than stairways, in build- 
ings of other than Group I occupancy and con- 
necting less than six stories shall not be required 
to be enclosed if the entire building is provided 
with an approved automatic sprinkler system. 

1012.7.4 Openings. All openings into existing vertical 
shaft enclosures shall be protected by fire assemblies hav- 
ing a fire protection rating of not less than 1 hour and shall 
be maintained self-closing or shall be automatic-closing 
by actuation of a smoke detector. All other openings shall 
be fire protected in an approved manner. Existing fusible 
link-type automatic door-closing devices shall be permit- 
ted in all shafts except stairways if the fusible link rating 
does not exceed 135°F(57°C). 

1012.8 Accessibility. Existing buildings that undergo a 
change of group or occupancy classification shall comply 
with this section. 

Exception: Type B dwelling or sleeping units required by 
Section 1 107 of the International Building Code are not 
required to be provided in existing buildings and facilities 



undergoing a change of occupancy in conjunction with 
less than a Level 3 alteration. 

1012.8.1 Partial change in occupancy. Where a portion 
of the building is changed to a new occupancy classifica- 
tion, any alteration shall comply with Sections 705, 806 
and 906, as applicable. 

1012.8.2 Complete change of occupancy. Where an 
entire building undergoes a change of occupancy, it shall 
comply with Section 1012.8.1 and shall have all of the fol- 
lowing accessible features: 

1. At least one accessible building entrance. 

2. At least one accessible route from an accessible 
building entrance to primary function areas. 

3. Signage complying with Section 1110 of the Inter- 
national Building Code. 

4. Accessible parking, where parking is provided. 

5. At least one accessible passenger loading zone, 
where loading zones are provided. 

6. At least one accessible route connecting accessible 
parking and accessible passenger loading zones to 
an accessible entrance. 

Where it is technically infeasible to comply with the 
new construction standards for any of these requirements 
for a change of group or occupancy, the above items shall 
conform to the requirements to the maximum extent tech- 
nically feasible. 

Exception: The accessible features listed in Items 1 
through 6 are not required for an accessible route to 
Type B units. 



I 



52 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



CHAPTER 11 



SECTION 1101 
GENERAL 

1101.1 Scope. An addition to a building or structure shall 
comply with the International Codes as adopted for new con- 
struction without requiring the existing building or structure 
to comply with any requirements of those codes or of these 
provisions, except as required by this chapter. Where an addi- 
tion impacts the existing building or structure, that portion 
shall comply with this code. 

1101.2 Creation or extension of nonconformity. An addi- 
tion shall not create or extend any nonconformity in the exist- 
ing building to which the addition is being made with regard 
to accessibility, structural strength, fire safety, means of 
egress, or the capacity of mechanical, plumbing, or electrical 
systems. 

1101.3 Other work. Any repair or alteration work within an 
existing building to which an addition is being made shall 
comply with the applicable requirements for the work as clas- 
sified in Chapter 5. 



SECTION 1102 
HEIGHTS AND AREAS 

1102.1 Height limitations. No addition shall increase the 
height of an existing building beyond that permitted under the 
applicable provisions of Chapter 5 of the International Build- 
ing Code for new buildings. 

1102.2 Area limitations. No addition shall increase the area 
of an existing building beyond that permitted under the appli- 
cable provisions of Chapter 5 of the International Building 
Code for new buildings unless fire separation as required by 
the International Building Code is provided. 

Exception: In-filling of floor openings and nonoccupiable 
appendages such as elevator and exit stair shafts shall be 
permitted beyond that permitted by the International 
Building Code. 

1102.3 Fire protection systems. Existing fire areas increased 
by the addition shall comply with Chapter 9 of the Interna- 
tional Building Code. 



SECTION 1103 
STRUCTURAL 

[B] 1103.1 Compliance with the international Building 

Code. Additions to existing buildings or structures are new 
construction and shall comply with the International Building 
Code. 



[B] 1103.2 Additional gravity loads. Existing structural ele- 
ments supporting any additional gravity loads as a result of 
additions shall comply with the International Building Code. 

Exceptions: 

1. Structural elements whose stress is not increased by 
more than 5 percent. 

2. Buildings of Group R occupancy with no more than 
five dwelling units or sleeping units used solely for 
residential purposes where the existing building and 
the addition comply with the conventional light- 
frame construction methods of the International 
Building Code or the provisions of the International 
Residential Code. 

[B] 1103.3 Lateral force-resisting system. The lateral force- 
resisting system of existing buildings to which additions are 
made shall comply with Sections 1103.3.1, 1103.3.2 and 
1103.3.3. 

Exceptions: 

1. Buildings of Group R occupancy with no more than 
five dwelling or sleeping units used solely for resi- 
dential purposes where the existing building and the 
addition comply with the conventional light-frame 
construction methods of the International Building 
Code or the provisions of the International Residen- 
tial Code. 

2. In other existing buildings where the lateral-force 
story shear in any story is not increased by more 
than 10 percent cumulative. 

[B] 1103.3.1 Vertical addition. Any element of the lateral 
force-resisting system of an existing building subjected to 
an increase in vertical or lateral loads from the vertical 
addition shall comply with the International Building 
Code wind provisions and the IBC-level seismic forces 
specified in Section 301.1.4. 1 of this code. 

[B] 1103.3.2 Horizontal addition. Where horizontal 
additions are structurally connected to an existing struc- 
ture, all lateral force-resisting elements of the existing 
structure affected by such addition shall comply with the 
International Building Code wind provisions and the IBC- 
level seismic forces specified in Section 301.1.4.1 of this 
code. 

[B] 1103.3.3 Voluntary addition of structural elements 
to improve the lateral force-resisting system. Voluntary 
addition of structural elements to improve the lateral 
force-resisting system of an existing building shall comply 
with Section 807.6. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



53 



ADDITIONS 



[B] 1103.4 Snow drift loads. Any structural element of an 
existing building subjected to additional loads from the 
effects of snow drift as a result of an addition shall comply 
with the International Building Code. 

Exceptions: 

1. Structural elements whose stress is not increased by 
more than 5 percent. 

2. Buildings of Group R occupancy with no more than 
five dwelling units or sleeping units used solely for 
residential purposes where the existing building and 
the addition comply with the conventional light- 
frame construction methods of the International 
Building Code or the provisions of the International 
Residential Code. 

[B] 1103.5 Flood hazard areas. Additions and foundations 
in flood hazard areas shall comply with the following 
requirements: 

1. For horizontal additions that are structurally intercon- 
nected to the existing building: 

1.1. If the addition and all other proposed work, 
when combined, constitute substantial 
improvement, the existing building and the 
addition shall comply with Section 1612 of the 
International Building Code. 

1.2. If the addition constitutes substantial improve- 
ment, the existing building and the addition 
shall comply with Section 1612 of the Interna- 
tional Building Code. 

2. For horizontal additions that are not structurally inter- 
connected to the existing building: 

2.1. The addition shall comply with Section 1612 of 
the International Building Code. 

2.2. If the addition and all other proposed work, 
when combined, constitute substantial 
improvement, the existing building and the 
addition shall comply with Section 1612 of the 
International Building Code. 

3. For vertical additions and all other proposed work that, 
when combined, constitute substantial improvement, 
the existing building shall comply with Section 1 6 1 2 of 
the International Building Code. 

4. For a new, replacement, raised, or extended foundation, 
if the foundation work and all other proposed work, 
when combined, constitute substantial improvement, 
the existing building shall comply with Section 161 2 of 
the International Building Code. 



International Fire Code or Section R314 of the International | 
Residential Code as applicable. 



SECTION 1105 
ACCESSIBILITY 

1105.1 Minimum requirements. Accessibility provisions 
for new construction shall apply to additions. An addition that 
affects the accessibility to, or contains an area of, primary 
function shall comply with the requirements of Sections 705, 
806 and 906, as applicable. 



SECTION 1106 
ENERGY CONSERVATION 

1106.1 Minimum requirements. Additions to existing build- 
ings shall conform to the energy requirements of the Interna- 
tional Energy Conservation Code or International 
Residential Code as they relate to new construction. 



SECTION 1104 

SMOKE ALARMS IN OCCUPANCY 

GROUPS R AND 1-1 

1104.1 Smoke alarms in existing portions of a building. 
Where an addition is made to a building or structure of a 
Group R or 1-1 occupancy, the existing building shall be pro- 
vided with smoke alarms as required by Section 1 103.8 of the 



54 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



CHAPTER 12 

HISTORIC BUILDINGS 



SECTION 1201 
GENERAL 

1201.1 Scope. It is the intent of this chapter to provide means 
for the preservation of historic buildings. Historical buildings 
shall comply with the provisions of this chapter relating to 
their repair; alteration, relocation and change of occupancy. 

[B] 1201.2 Report. A historic building undergoing repair, 
alteration, or change of occupancy shall be investigated and 
evaluated. If it is intended that the building meet the require- 
ments of this chapter, a written report shall be prepared and 
filed with the code official by a registered design professional 
when such a report is necessary in the opinion of the code 
official. Such report shall be in accordance with Chapter 1 
and shall identify each required safety feature that is in com- 
pliance with this chapter and where compliance with other 
chapters of these provisions would be damaging to the con- 
tributing historic features. For buildings assigned to Seismic 
Design Category D, E or F, a structural evaluation describing, 
at a minimum, the vertical and horizontal elements of the lat- 
eral force-resisting system and any strengths or weaknesses 
therein shall be prepared. Additionally, the report shall 
describe each feature that is not in compliance with these pro- 
visions and shall demonstrate how the intent of these provi- 
sions is complied with in providing an equivalent level of 
safety. 

1201.3 Special occupancy exceptions — museums. When a 
building in Group R-3 is also used for Group A, B, or M pur- 
poses such as museum tours, exhibits, and other public 
assembly activities, or for museums less than 3,000 square 
feet (279 m 2 ), the code official may determine that the occu- 
pancy is Group B when life-safety conditions can be demon- 
strated in accordance with Section 1201.2. Adequate means 
of egress in such buildings, which may include a means of 
maintaining doors in an open position to permit egress, a limit 
on building occupancy to an occupant load permitted by the 
means of egress capacity, a limit on occupancy of certain 
areas or floors, or supervision by a person knowledgeable in 
the emergency exiting procedures, shall be provided. 

[B] 1201.4 Flood hazard areas. In flood hazard areas, if all 
proposed work, including repairs, work required because of a 
change of occupancy, and alterations, constitutes substantial 
improvement, then the existing building shall comply with 
Section 1612 of the International Building Code. 

Exception: If an historic building will continue to be an 
historic building after the proposed work is completed, 
then the proposed work is not considered a substantial 
improvement. For the purposes of this exception, an his- 
toric building is: 

1 . Listed or preliminarily determined to be eligible for 
listing in the National Register of Historic Places; 

2. Determined by the Secretary of the U.S. Department 
of Interior to contribute to the historical significance 



of a registered historic district or a district prelimi- 
narily determined to qualify as a historic district; or 

3. Designated as historic under a state or local historic 
preservation program that is approved by the 
Department of Interior. 



SECTION 1202 

REPAIRS 

1202.1 General. Repairs to any portion of an historic build- 
ing or structure shall be permitted with original or like mate- 
rials and original methods of construction, subject to the 
provisions of this chapter. Hazardous materials, such as 
asbestos and lead-based paint, shall not be used where the 
code for new construction would not permit their use in 
buildings of similar occupancy, purpose and location. 

1202.2 Unsafe conditions. Conditions determined by the 
code official to be unsafe shall be remedied. No work shall be 
required beyond what is required to remedy the unsafe condi- 
tions. 

1202.3 Relocated buildings. Foundations of relocated his- 
toric buildings and structures shall comply with the Interna- 
tional Building Code. Relocated historic buildings shall 
otherwise be considered an historic building for the purposes 
of this code. Relocated historic buildings and structures shall 
be sited so that exterior wall and opening requirements com- 
ply with the International Building Code or with the compli- 
ance alternatives of this code. 

1202.4 Replacement. Replacement of existing or missing 
features using original materials shall be permitted. Partial 
replacement for repairs that match the original in configura- 
tion, height, and size shall be permitted. 

Replacement glazing in hazardous locations shall comply 
with the safety glazing requirements of Chapter 24 of the 
International Building Code. 

Exception: Glass block walls, louvered windows, and jal- 
ousies repaired with like materials. 



SECTION 1203 
FIRE SAFETY 

1203.1 Scope. Historic buildings undergoing alterations, 
changes of occupancy, or that are moved shall comply with 
Section 1203. 

1203.2 General. Every historic building that does not con- 
form to the construction requirements specified in this code 
for the occupancy or use and that constitutes a distinct fire 
hazard as defined herein shall be provided with an approved 
automatic fire-extinguishing system as determined appropri- 
ate by the code official. However, an automatic fire-extin- 
guishing system shall not be used to substitute for, or act as 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



55 



HISTORIC BUILDINGS 



an alternative to, the required number of exits from any facil- 
ity. 

1203.3 Means of egress. Existing door openings and corridor 
and stairway widths less than those specified elsewhere in 
this code may be approved, provided that, in the opinion of 
the code official, there is sufficient width and height for a per- 
son to pass through the opening or traverse the means of 
egress. When approved by the code official, the front or main 
exit doors need not swing in the direction of the path of exit 
travel, provided that other approved means of egress having 
sufficient capacity to serve the total occupant load are pro- 
vided. 

1203.4 Transoms. In fully sprinklered buildings of Group R- 
1 , R-2 or R-3 occupancy, existing transoms in corridors and 
other fire-resistance-rated walls may be maintained if fixed in 
the closed position. A sprinkler shall be installed on each side 
of the transom. 

1203.5 Interior finishes. The existing finishes of walls and 
ceilings shall be accepted when it is demonstrated that they 
are the historic finishes. 

1203.6 Stairway enclosure. In buildings of three stories or 
less, exit enclosure construction shall limit the spread of 
smoke by the use of tight-fitting doors and solid elements. 
Such elements are not required to have a fire-resistance rat- 
ing. 

1203.7 One-hour fire-resistant assemblies. Where 1-hour 
fire-resistance-rated construction is required by these provi- 
sions, it need not be provided, regardless of construction or 
occupancy, where the existing wall and ceiling finish is wood 
or metal lath and plaster. 

1203.8 Glazing in fire-resistance-rated systems. Historic 
glazing materials are permitted in interior walls required to 
have a 1-hour fire-resistance rating where the opening is pro- 
vided with approved smoke seals and the area affected is pro- 
vided with an automatic sprinkler system. 

1203.9 Stairway railings. Grand stairways shall be accepted 
without complying with the handrail and guard requirements. 
Existing handrails and guards at all stairs shall be permitted 
to remain, provided they are not structurally dangerous. 

1203.10 Guards. Guards shall comply with Sections 
1203.10.1 and 1203.10.2. 

1203.10.1 Height. Existing guards shall comply with the 
requirements of Section 605. 

1203.10.2 Guard openings. The spacing between existing 
intermediate railings or openings in existing ornamental 
patterns shall be accepted. Missing elements or members 
of a guard may be replaced in a manner that will preserve 
the historic appearance of the building or structure. 

1203.11 Exit signs. Where exit sign or egress path marking 
location would damage the historic character of the building, 
alternative exit signs are permitted with approval of the code 
official. Alternative signs shall identify the exits and egress 
path. 

1203.12 Automatic fire-extinguishing systems. Every his- 
torical building that cannot be made to conform to the con- 
struction requirements specified in the International Building 



Code for the occupancy or use and that constitutes a distinct 
fire hazard shall be deemed to be in compliance if provided 
with an approved automatic fire-extinguishing system. 

Exception: When the code official approves an alternative 
life-safety system. 



SECTION 1204 
ALTERATIONS 

1204.1 Accessibility requirements. The provisions of Sec- 
tions 705, 806 and 906, as applicable, shall apply to facilities 
designated as historic structures that undergo alterations, 
unless technically infeasible. Where compliance with the 
requirements for accessible routes, entrances or toilet rooms 
would threaten or destroy the historic significance of the 
building or facility, as determined by the code official, the 
alternative requirements of Sections 1204.1.1 through 
1204.1.4 for that element shall be permitted. 

Exception: Type B dwelling or sleeping units required by 
Section 1107 of the International Building Code are not 
required to be provided in historical buildings. 

1204.1.1 Site arrival points. At least one main entrance 
shall be accessible. 

1204.1.2 Multilevel buildings and facilities. An accessi- 
ble route from an accessible entrance to public spaces on 
the level of the accessible entrance shall be provided. 

1204.1.3 Entrances. At least one main entrance shall be 
accessible. 

Exceptions: 

1 . If a main entrance cannot be made accessible, an 
accessible nonpublic entrance that is unlocked 
while the building is occupied shall be provided; 
or 

2. If a main entrance cannot be made accessible, a 
locked accessible entrance with a notification 
system or remote monitoring shall be provided. 

1204.1.4 Toilet and bathing facilities. Where toilet 
rooms are provided, at least one accessible family or 
assisted-use toilet room complying with Section 1 109.2.1 
of the International Building Code shall be provided. 



SECTION 1205 
CHANGE OF OCCUPANCY 

1205.1 General. Historic buildings undergoing a change of 
occupancy shall comply with the applicable provisions of 
Chapter 10, except as specifically permitted in this chapter. 
When Chapter 10 requires compliance with specific require- 
ments of Chapter 7, Chapter 8 or Chapter 9 and when those 
requirements are subject to the exceptions in Section 1102, 
the same exceptions shall apply to this section. 

1205.2 Building area. The allowable floor area for historic 
buildings undergoing a change of occupancy shall be permit- 
ted to exceed by 20 percent the allowable areas specified in 
Chapter 5 of the International Building Code. 



56 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



HISTORIC BUILDINGS 



1205.3 Location on property. Historic structures undergo- 
ing a change of use to a higher hazard category in accordance 
with Section 1012.6 may use alternative methods to comply 
with the fire-resistance and exterior opening protective 
requirements. Such alternatives shall comply with Section 
1201.2. 

1205.4 Occupancy separation. Required occupancy separa- 
tions of 1 hour may be omitted when the building is provided 
with an approved automatic sprinkler system throughout. 

1205.5 Roof covering. Regardless of occupancy or use 
group, roof-covering materials not less than Class C shall be 
permitted where a fire-retardant roof covering is required. 

1205.6 Means of egress. Existing door openings and corridor 
and stairway widths less than those that would be acceptable 
for nonhistone buildings under these provisions shall be 
approved, provided that, in the opinion of the code official, 
there is sufficient width and height for a person to pass 
through the opening or traverse the exit and that the capacity 
of the exit system is adequate for the occupant load, or where 
other operational controls to limit occupancy are approved by 
the code official. 

1205.7 Door swing. When approved by the code official, 
existing front doors need not swing in the direction of exit 
travel, provided that other approved exits having sufficient 
capacity to serve the total occupant load are provided. 

1205.8 Transoms. In corridor walls required by these provi- 
sions to be fire-resistance rated, existing transoms may be 
maintained if fixed in the closed position, and fixed wired 
glass set in a steel frame or other approved glazing shall be 
installed on one side of the transom. 

Exception: Transoms conforming to Section 1203.4 shall 
be accepted. 

1205.9 Finishes. Where interior finish materials are required 
to have a flame spread index of Class C or better, existing 
nonconforming materials shall be surfaced with approved 
fire-retardant paint or finish. 

Exception: Existing nonconforming materials need not be 
surfaced with an approved fire-retardant paint or finish 
where the building is equipped throughout with an auto- 
matic sprinkler system installed in accordance with the 
International Building Code and the nonconforming mate- 
rials can be substantiated as being historic in character. 

1205.10 One-hour fire-resistant assemblies. Where 1-hour 
fire-resistance-rated construction is required by these provi- 
sions, it need not be provided, regardless of construction or 
occupancy, where the existing wall and ceiling finish is wood 
lath and plaster. 

1205.11 Stairs and railings. Existing stairways shall comply 
with the requirements of these provisions. The code official 
shall grant alternatives for stairways and railings if alternative 
stairways are found to be acceptable or are judged to meet the 
intent of these provisions. Existing stairways shall comply 
with Section 1203. 

Exception: For buildings less than 3,000 square feet (279 
m 2 ), existing conditions are permitted to remain at all 
stairs and rails. 



1205.12 Exit signs. The code official may accept alternative 
exit sign locations where such signs would damage the his- 
toric character of the building or structure. Such signs shall 
identify the exits and exit path. 

[B] 1205.13 Exit stair live load. Existing historic stairways 
in buildings changed to a Group R-l or R-2 occupancy shall 
be accepted where it can be shown that the stairway can sup- 
port a 75-pounds-per-square-foot (366 kg/m 2 ) live load. 

1205.14 Natural light. When it is determined by the code 
official that compliance with the natural light requirements of 
Section 1011.1 will lead to loss of historic character or his- 
toric materials in the building, the existing level of natural 
lighting shall be considered acceptable. 

1205.15 Accessibility requirements. The provisions of Sec- 
tion 1012.8 shall apply to facilities designated as historic 
structures that undergo a change of occupancy, unless techni- 
cally infeasible. Where compliance with the requirements for 
accessible routes, ramps, entrances, or toilet rooms would 
threaten or destroy the historic significance of the building or 
facility, as determined by the authority having jurisdiction, 
the alternative requirements of Sections 1204.1.1 through 
1204.1.4 for those elements shall be permitted 

Exception: Type B dwelling or sleeping units required by I 
Section 1107 of the International Building Code are not I 
required to be provided in historical buildings. | 

SECTION 1206 

STRUCTURAL 
[B] 1206.1 General. Historic buildings shall comply with the 
applicable structural provisions for the work as classified in 
Chapter 5. 

Exception: The code official shall be authorized to accept 
existing floors and approve operational controls that limit 
the live load on any such floor. 

[B] 1206.2 Dangerous conditions. Conditions determined by 
the code official to be dangerous shall be remedied. No work 
shall be required beyond what is required to remedy the dan- 
gerous condition. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



57 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



CHAPTER 13 

RELOCATED OR MOVED BUILDINGS 



SECTION 1301 

GENERAL 

1301.1 Scope. This chapter provides requirements for relo- 
cated or moved structures. 

1301.2 Conformance. The building shall be safe for human 
occupancy as determined by the International Fire Code and 
the International Property Maintenance Code. Any repair, 
alteration, or change of occupancy undertaken within the 
moved structure shall comply with the requirements of this 
code applicable to the work being performed. Any field-fabri- 
cated elements shall comply with the requirements of the 
International Building Code or the International Residential 
Code as applicable. 



SECTION 1302 
REQUIREMENTS 

1302.1 Location on the lot. The building shall be located on 
the lot in accordance with the requirements of the Interna- 
tional Building Code or the International Residential Code as 
applicable. 

[B] 1302.2 Foundation. The foundation system of relocated 
buildings shall comply with the International Building Code 
or the International Residential Code as applicable. 

[B] 1302.2.1 Connection to the foundation. The connec- 
tion of the relocated building to the foundation shall com- 
ply with the International Building Code or the 
International Residential Code as applicable. 

[B] 1302.3 Wind loads. Buildings shall comply with Interna- 
tional Building Code or International Residential Code wind 
provisions as applicable. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Detached one- and two-family dwellings and Group 
U occupancies where wind loads at the new location 
are not higher than those at the previous location. 

2. Structural elements whose stress is not increased by 
more than 10 percent. 

[B] 1302.4 Seismic loads. Buildings shall comply with Inter- 
national Building Code or International Residential Code 
seismic provisions at the new location as applicable. 

Exceptions: 

1. Structures in Seismic Design Categories A and B 
and detached one- and two-family dwellings in Seis- 
mic Design Categories A, B and C where the seis- 
mic loads at the new location are not higher than 
those at the previous location. 

2. Structural elements whose stress is not increased by 
more than 1 percent. 



[B] 1302.5 Snow loads. Structures shall comply with Inter- 
national Building Code or International Residential Code 
snow loads as applicable where snow loads at the new loca- 
tion are higher than those at the previous location. 



Exception: Structural elements whose stress 
increased by more than 5 percent. 



is not 



[B] 1302.6 Flood hazard areas. If relocated or moved into a 
flood hazard area, structures shall comply with Section 1612 
of the International Building Code. 

[B] 1302.7 Required inspection and repairs. The code offi- 
cial shall be authorized to inspect, or to require approved pro- 
fessionals to inspect at the expense of the owner, the various 
structural parts of a relocated building to verify that structural 
components and connections have not sustained structural 
damage. Any repairs required by the code official as a result 
of such inspection shall be made prior to the final approval. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



59 



60 201 2 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



CHAPTER 14 

IFORMANCE COMPLIANCE 



lETHODS 



SECTION 1401 
GENERAL 

[B] 1401.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall apply 
to the alteration, repair, addition and change of occupancy of 
existing structures, including historic and moved structures, 
as referenced in Section 301.1.3. The provisions of this chap- 
ter are intended to maintain or increase the current degree of 
public safety, health and general welfare in existing buildings 
while permitting repair, alteration, addition and change of 
occupancy without requiring full compliance with Chapters 5 
through 13, except where compliance with other provisions 
of this code is specifically required in this chapter. 

[B] 1401.1.1 Compliance with other methods. Altera- 
tions, repairs, additions and changes of occupancy to 
existing structures shall comply with the provisions of this 
chapter or with one of the methods provided in Section 
301.1. 

[BJ 1401.2 Applicability. Structures existing prior to [date 
TO BE INSERTED BY THE JURISDICTION. Note: it is recommended 

THAT THIS DATE COINCIDE WITH THE EFFECTIVE DATE OF BUILDING CODES 

within the jurisdiction], in which there is work involving addi- 
tions, alterations or changes of occupancy shall be made to 
conform to the requirements of this chapter or the provisions 
of Chapters 5 through 13. The provisions of Sections 
1401.2.1 through 1401.2.5 shall apply to existing occupan- 
cies that will continue to be, or are proposed to be, in Groups 
A, B, E, F, M, R and S. These provisions shall not apply to 
buildings with occupancies in Group H or I. 

[BJ 1401.2.1 Change in occupancy. Where an existing 
building is changed to a new occupancy classification and 
this section is applicable, the provisions of this section for 
the new occupancy shall be used to determine compliance 
with this code. 

[B] 1401.2.2 Partial change in occupancy. Where a por- 
tion of the building is changed to a new occupancy classi- 
fication and that portion is separated from the remainder of 
the building with fire barrier or horizontal assemblies hav- 
ing a fire-resistance rating as required by Table 508.4 of 
the International Building Code or Section R317 of the 
International Residential Code for the separate occupan- 
cies, or with approved compliance alternatives, the portion 
changed shall be made to conform to the provisions of this 
section. 

Where a portion of the building is changed to a new 
occupancy classification and that portion is not separated 
from the remainder of the building with fire barriers or 
horizontal assemblies having a fire-resistance rating as 
required by Table 508.4 of the International Building 
Code or Section R317 of the International Residential 
Code for the separate occupancies, or with approved com- 
pliance alternatives, the provisions of this section which 
apply to each occupancy shall apply to the entire building. 
Where there are conflicting provisions, those requirements 



which secure the greater public safety shall apply to the 
entire building or structure. 

[B] 1401.2.3 Additions. Additions to existing buildings 
shall comply with the requirements of the International 
Building Code, International Residential Code, and this 
code for new construction. The combined height and area 
of the existing building and the new addition shall not 
exceed the height and area allowed by Chapter 5 of the 
International Building Code. Where a fire wall that com- 
plies with Section 706 of the International Building Code 
is provided between the addition and the existing building, 
the addition shall be considered a separate building. 

[B] 1401.2.4 Alterations and repairs. An existing build- 
ing or portion thereof that does not comply with the 
requirements of this code for new construction shall not be 
altered or repaired in such a manner that results in the 
building being less safe or sanitary than such building is 
currently. If, in the alteration or repair, the current level of 
safety or sanitation is to be reduced, the portion altered or 
repaired shall conform to the requirements of Chapters 2 
through 12 and Chapters 14 through 33 of the Interna- 
tional Building Code. 

[B] 1401.2.5 Accessibility requirements. All portions of 
the buildings proposed for change of occupancy shall con- 
form to the accessibility provisions of Section 410. 

[B] 1401.3 Acceptance. For repairs, alterations, additions, 
and changes of occupancy to existing buildings that are eval- 
uated in accordance with this section, compliance with this 
section shall be accepted by the code official. 

[B] 1401.3.1 Hazards. Where the code official determines 
that an unsafe condition exists as provided for in Section 
115, such unsafe condition shall be abated in accordance 
with Section 115. 

[B] 1401.3.2 Compliance with other codes. Buildings 
that are evaluated in accordance with this section shall 
comply with the International Fire Code and International 
Property Maintenance Code. 

[B] 1401.3.3 Compliance with flood hazard provisions. 
In flood hazard areas, buildings that are evaluated in 
accordance with this section shall comply with Section 
1612 of the International Building Code if the work cov- 
ered by this section constitutes substantial improvement. 

[B] 1401.4 Investigation and evaluation. For proposed 
work covered by this chapter, the building owner shall cause 
the existing building to be investigated and evaluated in 
accordance with the provisions of Sections 1401.4 through 
1401.9. 

[B] 1401.4.1 Structural analysis. The owner shall have a 
structural analysis of the existing building made to deter- 
mine adequacy of structural systems for the proposed 
alteration, addition or change of occupancy. The analysis 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



61 



PERFORMANCE COMPLIANCE METHODS 



shall demonstrate that the building with the work com- 
pleted is capable of resisting the loads specified in Chapter 
16 of the International Building Code, 

[B] 1401.4.2 Submittal. The results of the investigation 
and evaluation as required in Section 1401.4, along with 
proposed compliance alternatives, shall be submitted to 
the code official. 

[B] 1401.4.3 Determination of compliance. The code 
official shall determine whether the existing building, with 
the proposed addition, alteration, or change of occupancy, 
complies with the provisions of this section in accordance 
with the evaluation process in Sections 1401.5 through 
1401.9. 

[B] 1401.5 Evaluation. The evaluation shall be comprised of 
three categories: fire safety, means of egress, and general 
safety, as defined in Sections 1401.5.1 through 1401.5.3. 

[B] 1401.5.1 Fire safety. Included within the fire safety 
category are the structural fire resistance, automatic fire 
detection, fire alarm, automatic sprinkler system and fire 
suppression system features of the facility. 

[B] 1401.5.2 Means of egress. Included within the means 
of egress category are the configuration, characteristics, 
and support features for means of egress in the facility. 

[B] 1401.5.3 General safety. Included within the general 
safety category are the fire safety parameters and the 
means-of-egress parameters. 

[BJ 1401.6 Evaluation process. The evaluation process spec- 
ified herein shall be followed in its entirety to evaluate exist- 
ing buildings. Table 1401.7 shall be utilized for tabulating the 
results of the evaluation. References to other sections of this 
code indicate that compliance with those sections is required 
in order to gain credit in the evaluation herein outlined. In 
applying this section to a building with mixed occupancies, 
where the separation between the mixed occupancies does 
not qualify for any category indicated in Section 1401.6.16, 
the score for each occupancy shall be determined, and the 
lower score determined for each section of the evaluation 
process shall apply to the entire building. 

Where the separation between the mixed occupancies 
qualifies for any category indicated in Section 1401.6.16, the 
score for each occupancy shall apply to each portion of the 
building based on the occupancy of the space. 

[B] 1401.6.1 Building height. The value for building 
height shall be the lesser value determined by the formula 
in Section 1401.6.1.1. Chapter 5 of the International 
Building Code, including allowable increases due to auto- 
matic sprinklers as provided for in Section 504.2 of the 
International Building Code, shall be used to determine 
the allowable height of the building. Subtract the actual 
building height from the allowable height and divide by 
12V 2 feet (3810 mm). Enter the height value and its sign 
(positive or negative) in Table 1401.7 under Safety Param- 
eter 1401.6.1, Building Height, for fire safety, means of 
egress, and general safety. The maximum score for a 
building shall be 10. 



[B] 1401.6.1.1 Height formula. The following formu- 
las shall be used in computing the building height 
value. 

, r (AH)-{EBH) nT7 
Height value, feet =* '-^- x CF 



(Equation 14-1) 



Height value, stories = (AS-EBS) x CF 



(Equation 14-2) 



where: 



AH = Allowable height in feet (mm) from Table 503 
of the International Building Code. 

EBH = Existing building height in feet (mm). 

AS - Allowable height in stories from Table 503 of 
the International Building Code. 

EBS = Existing building height in stories. 

CF = 1 if (AH) -(EBH) is positive. 

CF = Construction-type factor shown in Table 
1401.6.6(2) if (AH) - (EBH) is negative. 

Note: Where mixed occupancies are separated and 
individually evaluated as indicated in Section 1401.6, 
the values AH, AS, EBH and EBS shall be based on the 
height of the occupancy being evaluated. 

[B] 1401.6.2 Building area. The value for building area 
shall be determined by the formula in Section 1401.6.2.2. 
Section 503 of the International Building Code and the 
formula in Section 1401.6.2.1 shall be used to determine 
the allowable area of the building. This shall include any 
allowable increases due to frontage and automatic sprin- 
klers as provided for in Section 506 of the International 
Building Code. Subtract the actual building area from the 
allowable area and divide by 1,200 square feet (112 m 2 ). 
Enter the area value and its sign (positive or negative) in 
Table 1401.7 under Safety Parameter 1401.6.2, Building 
Area, for fire safety, means of egress and general safety. In 
determining the area value, the maximum permitted posi- 
tive value for area is 50 percent of the fire safety score as 
listed in Table 1401.8, Mandatory Safety Scores. 

[B] 1401.6.2.1 Allowable area formula. The follow- 
ing formula shall be used in computing allowable area: 

A a = {A, + [A, x l f ] + [A, x 7J } (Equation 14-3) 

where: 

A = Allowable building area per story (square feet). 

A, = Tabular building area per story (square feet) in 
accordance with Table 503 of the International 
Building Code. 



62 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



PERFORMANCE COMPLIANCE METHODS 



/ t = Area increase factor due to sprinkler protection 
as calculated in accordance with Section 506.3 of 
the International Building Code. 

I f = Area increase factor due to frontage as calculated 
in accordance with Section 506.2 of the 
International Building Code. 

[B] 1401.6.2.2 Area formula. The following formula 
shall be used in computing the area value. Determine 
the area value for each occupancy floor area on a floor- 
by-floor basis. For each occupancy, choose the mini- 
mum area value of the set of values obtained for the 
particular occupancy. 



Area value. = 



where: 



Allowable 
area. 



1 200 square feet 



1 - 



Actual 

area. 
i 

Allowable 
area. 



Actual 
area 



Allowable 

area 



(Equation 14-4) 



i = Value for an individual separated occupancy on a 
floor. 

n = Number of separated occupancies on a floor. 

[B] 1401.6.3 Compartmentation. Evaluate the compart- 
ments created by fire barriers or horizontal assemblies 
which comply with Sections 1401.6.3.1 and 1401.6.3.2 
and which are exclusive of the wall elements considered 
under Sections 1401.6.4 and 1401.6.5. Conforming com- 
partments shall be figured as the net area and do not 
include shafts, chases, stairways, walls, or columns. Using 
Table 1401.6.3, determine the appropriate compartmenta- 
tion value (CV) and enter that value into Table 1401.7 
under Safety Parameter 1401.6.3, Compartmentation, for 
fire safety, means of egress, and general safety. 

[B] 1401.6.3.1 Wall construction. A wall used to cre- 
ate separate compartments shall be a fire barrier con- 
forming to Section 707 of the International Building 
Code with a fire-resistance rating of not less than 2 
hours. Where the building is not divided into more than 
one compartment, the compartment size shall be taken 
as the total floor area on all floors. Where there is more 



than one compartment within a story, each compart- 
mented area on such story shall be provided with a hor- 
izontal exit conforming to Section 1025 of the 
International Building Code. The fire door serving as 
the horizontal exit between compartments shall be so 
installed, fitted, and gasketed that such fire door will 
provide a substantial barrier to the passage of smoke. 

[B] 1401.6.3.2 Floor/ceiling construction. A floor/ 
ceiling assembly used to create compartments shall 
conform to Section 711 of the International Building 
Code and shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less 
than 2 hours. 

[B] 1401.6.4 Tenant and dwelling unit separations. 
Evaluate the fire-resistance rating of floors and walls sepa- 
rating tenants, including dwelling units, and not evaluated 
under Sections 1401.6.3 and 1401.6.5. Under the catego- 
ries and occupancies in Table 1401.6.4, determine the 
appropriate value and enter that value in Table 1401.7 
under Safety Parameter 1401.6.4, Tenant and Dwelling 
Unit Separation, for fire safety, means of egress, and gen- 
eral safety. 

[B] TABLE 1401.6.4 
SEPARATION VALUES 



OCCUPANCY 


CATEGORIES 


a 


b 


c 


d 


e 


A-l 














1 


A-2 


-5 


-3 





1 


3 


R 


-4 


-2 





2 


4 


A-3, A-4,B, E, F, M, S-l 


-4 


-3 





2 


4 


S-2 


-5 


-2 





2 


4 



[B] TABLE 1401.6.3 
COMPARTMENTATION VALUES 



[B] 1401.6.4.1 Categories. The categories for tenant 
and dwelling unit separations are: 

1. Category a — No fire partitions; incomplete fire 
partitions; no doors; doors not self-closing or 
automatic-closing. 

2. Category b — Fire partitions or floor assemblies 
with less than 1-hour fire-resistance ratings or not 
constructed in accordance with Section 708 or 
711 of the International Building Code, respec- 
tively. 

3. Category c— Fire partitions with 1-hour or 
greater fire-resistance ratings constructed in 
accordance with Section 708 of the International 
Building Code and floor assemblies with 1-hour 
but less than 2-hour fire-resistance ratings con- 



OCCUPANCY 


CATEGORIES 


Compartment size equal 

to or greater than 15,000 

square feet 


b 

Compartment size of 

10,000 square feet 


c 

Compartment size of 

7,500 square feet 


d 

Compartment size of 

5,000 square feet 


e 

Compartment size of 

2,500 square feet or less 


A-l, A-3 





6 


10 


14 


18 


A-2 





4 


10 


14 


18 


A-4, B, E, S-2 





5 


10 


15 


20 


F, M,R, S-l 





4 


10 


16 


22 



For SI: 1 square foot - 0.0929 m 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



63 



PERFORMANCE COMPLIANCE METHODS 



structed in accordance with Section 711 of the 
International Building Code or with only one ten- 
ant within the floor area. 

4. Category d — Fire barriers with 1-hour but less 
than 2-hour fire-resistance ratings constructed in 
accordance with Section 707 of the International 
Building Code and floor assemblies with 2-hour 
or greater fire-resistance ratings constructed in 
accordance with Section 711 of the International 
Building Code. 

5. Category e — Fire barriers and floor assemblies 
with 2-hour or greater fire-resistance ratings and 
constructed in accordance with Sections 707 and 
711 of the International Building Code, respec- 
tively. 

[B] 1401.6.5 Corridor walls. Evaluate the fire-resistance 
rating and degree of completeness of walls which create 
corridors serving the floor and that are constructed in 
accordance with Section 1018 of the International Build- 
ing Code. This evaluation shall not include the wall ele- 
ments considered under Sections 1401.6.3 and 1401.6.4. 
Under the categories and groups in Table 1401.6.5, deter- 
mine the appropriate value and enter that value into Table 
1401.7 under Safety Parameter 1401.6.5, Corridor Walls, 
for fire safety, means of egress, and general safety. 

[B] TABLE 1401 .6.5 
CORRIDOR WALL VALUES 



OCCUPANCY 


CATEGORIES 


a 


b 


c a 


d» 


A-l 


-10 


-4 





2 


A-2 


-30 


-12 





2 


A-3, F, M, R, S-l 


-7 


-3 





2 


A-4, B, E, S-2 


-5 


-2 





5 



a Corridors not providing at least one-half the travel distance for all 
occupants on a floor shall use Category b. 

[B] 1401.6.5.1 Categories. The categories for corridor 
walls are: 

1. Category a — No fire partitions; incomplete fire 
partitions; no doors; or doors not self-closing. 

2. Category b— Less than 1-hour fire-resistance rat- 
ing or not constructed in accordance with Section 
708.4 of the International Building Code. 

3. Category c — 1-hour to less than 2-hour fire-resis- 
tance rating, with doors conforming to Section 
716 of the International Building Code or with- 
out corridors as permitted by Section 1018 of the 
International Building Code. 

4. Category d — 2-hour or greater fire-resistance rat- 
ing, with doors conforming to Section 716 of the 
International Building Code. 

[B] 1401.6.6 Vertical openings. Evaluate the fire-resis- 
tance rating of exit enclosures, hoistways, escalator open- 
ings, and other shaft enclosures within the building, and 
openings between two or more floors. Table 1401.6.6(1) 
contains the appropriate protection values. Multiply that 
value by the construction-type factor found in Table 



1401.6.6(2). Enter the vertical opening value and its sign 
(positive or negative) in Table 1401.7 under Safety Param- 
eter 1401.6.6, Vertical Openings, for fire safety, means of 
egress, and general safety. If the structure is a one-story 
building or if all the unenclosed vertical openings within 
the building conform to the requirements of Section 713 of 
the International Building Code, enter a value of 2. The 
maximum positive value for this requirement shall be 2. 

[B] TABLE 1401 .6.6(1) 
VERTICAL OPENING PROTECTION VALUE 



PROTECTION 


VALUE 


None (unprotected opening) 


-2 times number of floors connected 


Less than 1 hour 


-1 times number of floors connected 


1 to less than 2 hours 


1 


2 hours or more 


2 



[B] TABLE 1401 .6.6(2) 
CONSTRUCTION-TYPE FACTOR 



F 
A 
C 
T 
O 
R 


TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION 




IA 


IB 


HA 


IIB 


IIIA 


IIIB 


IV 


VA 


VB 


1.2 


1.5 


2.2 


3.5 


2.5 


3.5 


2.3 


3.3 


7 



[B] 1401.6.6.1 Vertical opening formula. The follow- 
ing formula shall be used in computing vertical opening 
value. 
VO = PV x CF (Equation 14-5) 

where: 

VO = Vertical opening value. 

PV = Protection value from Table 1401.6.6.(1). 

CF = Construction-type factor from Table 1401 .6.6.(2). 
[B] 1401.6.7 HVAC systems. Evaluate the ability of the 
HVAC system to resist the movement of smoke and fire 
beyond the point of origin. Under the categories in Section 
1401.6.7.1, determine the appropriate value and enter that 
value into Table 1401.7 under Safety Parameter 1401.6.7, 
HVAC Systems, for fire safety, means of egress, and gen- 
eral safety. 

[B] 1401.6.7.1 Categories. The categories for HVAC 

systems are: 

1. Category a — Plenums not in accordance with 
Section 602 of the International Mechanical 
Code. -10 points. 

2. Category b — Air movement in egress elements 
not in accordance with Section 1018.5 of the 
International Building Code. -5 points. 

3. Category c— Both Categories a and b are applica- 
ble. -15 points. 

4. Category d— Compliance of the HVAC system 
with Section 1018.5 of the International Building 
Code and Section 602 of the International 
Mechanical Code. points. 

5. Category e— Systems serving one story, or a cen- 
tral boiler/chiller system without ductwork con- 
necting two or more stories. +5 points. 



64 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



PERFORMANCE COMPLIANCE METHODS 



[B] 1401.6.8 Automatic tire detection. Evaluate the 
smoke detection capability based on the location and oper- 
ation of automatic fire detectors in accordance with Sec- 
tion 907 of the International Building Code and the 
International Mechanical Code. Under the categories and 
occupancies in Table 1401.6.8, determine the appropriate 
value and enter that value into Table 1401.7 under Safety 
Parameter 1401.6.8, Automatic Fire Detection, for fire 
safety, means of egress, and general safety. 

[B] TABLE 1401 .6.8 
AUTOMATIC FIRE DETECTION VALUES 



OCCUPANCY 


CATEGORIES 


a 


b 


c 


d 


e 


A-1,A-3,F,M,R, S-l 


-10 


-5 





2 


6 


A-2 


-25 


-5 





5 


9 


A-4, B, E, S-2 


-4 


-2 





4 


8 



[B] 1401.6.8.1 Categories. The categories for auto- 
matic fire detection are: 

1 . Category a — None. 

2. Category b — Existing smoke detectors in HVAC 
systems and maintained in accordance with the 
International Fire Code. 

3. Category c — Smoke detectors in HVAC systems. 
The detectors are installed in accordance with the 
requirements for new buildings in the Interna- 
tional Mechanical Code. 

4. Category d — Smoke detectors throughout all 
floor areas other than individual sleeping units, 
tenant spaces and dwelling units. 

5. Category e — Smoke detectors installed through- 
out the floor area. 

[B] 1401.6.9 Fire alarm systems. Evaluate the capability 
of the fire alarm system in accordance with Section 907 of 
the International Building Code. Under the categories and 
occupancies in Table 1401.6.9, determine the appropriate 
value and enter that value into Table 1401.7 under Safety 
Parameter 1401.6.9, Fire Alarm System, for fire safety, 
means of egress, and general safety. 

[B] TABLE 1401.6.9 
FIRE ALARM SYSTEM VALUES 



OCCUPANCY 


CATEGORIES 


a 


b« 


c 


d 


A-l.A-2, A-3, A-4, B, E, R 


-10 


-5 





5 


F,M,S 





5 


10 


15 



For buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system, 
add 2 points for activation by a sprinkler water-flow device. 

[B] 1401.6.9.1 Categories. The categories for fire 
alarm systems are: 

1 . Categoiy a — None. 

2. Category b — Fire alarm system with manual fire 
alarm boxes in accordance with Section 907.4 of 
the International Building Code and alarm notifi- 



cation appliances in accordance with Section 
907.5.2 of the International Building Code. 

3. Category c — Fire alarm system in accordance 
with Section 907 of the International Building 
Code. 

4. Category d — Category c plus a required emer- 
gency voice/alarm communications system and a 
fire command station that conforms to Section 
911 of the International Building Code and con- 
tains the emergency voice/alarm communications 
system controls, fire department communication 
system controls, and any other controls specified 
in Section 91 1 of the International Building Code 
where those systems are provided. 

[B] 1401.6.10 Smoke control. Evaluate the ability of a 
natural or mechanical venting, exhaust, or pressurization 
system to control the movement of smoke from a fire. 
Under the categories and occupancies in Table 1401.6.10, 
determine the appropriate value and enter that value into 
Table 1401.7 under Safety Parameter 1401.6.10, Smoke 
Control, for means of egress and general safety. 

[B] TABLE 1401.6.10 
SMOKE CONTROL VALUES 



OCCUPANCY 


CATEGORIES 


a 


b 


c 


d 


e 


f 


A-l, A-2, A-3 





1 


2 


3 


6 


6 


A-4, E 











1 


3 


5 


B,M, R 





2 a 


3" 


3 a 


3" 


4" 


F, S 





T 


2" 


3 a 


3" 


3" 



a. This value shall be if compliance with Category d or e in Section 
1401.6.8.1 has not been obtained. 

[B] 1401.6.10.1 Categories. The categories for smoke 
control are: 

1 . Category a — None. 

2. Category b — The building is equipped through- 
out with an automatic sprinkler system. Openngs 
are provided in exterior walls at the rate of 20 
square feet (1.86 m 2 ) per 50 linear feet (15 240 
mm) of exterior wall in each story and distributed 
around the building perimeter at intervals not 
exceeding 50 feet (15 240 mm). Such openings 
shall be readily openable from the inside without 
a key or separate tool and shall be provided with 
ready access thereto. In lieu of operable open- 
ings, clearly and permanently marked tempered 
glass panels shall be used. 

3. Category c — One enclosed exit stairway, with 
ready access thereto, from each occupied floor of 
the building. The stairway has operable exterior 
windows, and the building has openings in accor- 
dance with Category b. 

4. Category d — One smokeproof enclosure and the 
building has openings in accordance with Cate- 
gory b. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



65 



PERFORMANCE COMPLIANCE METHODS 



5. Category e — The building is equipped through- 
out with an automatic sprinkler system. Each 
floor area is provided with a mechanical air-han- 
dling system designed to accomplish smoke con- 
tainment. Return and exhaust air shall be moved 
directly to the outside without recirculation to 
other floor areas of the building under fire condi- 
tions. The system shall exhaust not less than six 
air changes per hour from the floor area. Supply 
air by mechanical means to the floor area is not 
required. Containment of smoke shall be consid- 
ered as confining smoke to the floor area 
involved without migration to other floor areas. 
Any other tested and approved design that will 
adequately accomplish smoke containment is 
permitted. 

6. Category f — Each stairway shall be one of the 
following: a smokeproof enclosure in accordance 
with Section 1022.10 of the International Build- 
ing Code; pressurized in accordance with Section 
909.20.5 of the International Building Code; or 
shall have operable exterior windows. 

[B] 1401.6.11 Means of egress capacity and number. 
Evaluate the means of egress capacity and the number of 
exits available to the building occupants. In applying this 
section, the means of egress are required to conform to the 
following sections of the International Building Code: 
1003.7, 1004, 1005.1, 1014.2, 1014.3, 1015.2, 1021, 
1024.1, 1027.2, 1027.5, 1028.2, 1028.3, 1028.4 and 1029. 
The number of exits credited is the number that is avail- 
able to each occupant of the area being evaluated. Existing 
fire escapes shall be accepted as a component in the means 
of egress when conforming to Section 405. 

Under the categories and occupancies in Table 
1401.6.11, determine the appropriate value and enter that 
value into Table 1401.7 under Safety Parameter 
1401.6.1 1, Means of Egress Capacity, for means of egress 
and general safety. 

[B] TABLE 1401.6.11 
MEANS OF EGRESS VALUES 3 



OCCUPANCY 


CATEGORIES 


a 


b 


c 


d 


e 


A-l, A-2, A-3,A-4,E 


-10 





2 


8 


10 


M 


-3 





1 


2 


4 


B,F,S 


-1 














R 


-3 















a. The values indicated are for buildings six stories or less in height. For 
buildings over six stories above grade plane, add an additional -10 points. 

[B] 1401.6.11.1 Categories. The categories for means- 
of-egress capacity and number of exits are: 

1. Category a — Compliance with the minimum 
required means-of-egress capacity or number of 
exits is achieved through the use of a fire escape 
in accordance with Section 405. 



2. Category b — Capacity of the means of egress 
complies with Section 1004 of the International 
Building Code, and the number of exits complies 
with the minimum number required by Section 
1021 of the International Building Code. 

3. Category c — Capacity of the means of egress is 
equal to or exceeds 125 percent of the required 
means-of-egress capacity, the means of egress 
complies with the minimum required width 
dimensions specified in the International Build- 
ing Code, and the number of exits complies with 
the minimum number required by Section 1021 
of the International Building Code. 

4. Category d — The number of exits provided 
exceeds the number of exits required by Section 
1021 of the International Building Code. Exits 
shall be located a distance apart from each other 
equal to not less than that specified in Section 
1015.2 of the International Building Code. 

5. Category e — The area being evaluated meets 
both Categories c and d. 

[B] 1401.6.12 Dead ends. In spaces required to be served 
by more than one means of egress, evaluate the length of 
the exit access travel path in which the building occupants 
are confined to a single path of travel. Under the catego- 
ries and occupancies in Table 1401.6.12, determine the 
appropriate value and enter that value into Table 1401.7 
under Safety Parameter 1401.6.12, Dead Ends, for means 
of egress and general safety. 

[B] TABLE 1401 .6.12 
DEAD-END VALUES 



OCCUPANCY 


CATEGORIES" 


a 


b 


c 


A-1,A-3,A-4,B,F,M,R, S 


-2 





2 


A-2.E 


-2 





2 



For dead-end distances between categories, the dead-end value shall be 
obtained by linear interpolation. 

[B] 1401.6.12.1 Categories. The categories for dead 
ends are: 

1 . Category a — Dead end of 35 feet (10 670 mm) in 
nonsprinklered buildings or 70 feet (21 340 mm) 
in sprinklered buildings. 

2. Category b — Dead end of 20 feet (6096 mm); or 
50 feet (15 240 mm) in Group B in accordance 
with Section 1018.4, Exception 2, of the Interna- 
tional Building Code. 

3. Category c — No dead ends; or ratio of length to 
width (l/w) is less than 2.5:1. 

[B] 1401.6.13 Maximum exit access travel distance to 
an exit. Evaluate the length of exit access travel to an 
approved exit. Determine the appropriate points in accor- 
dance with the following equation and enter that value into 
Table 1401.7 under Safety Parameter 1401.6.13, Maxi- 



66 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



PERFORMANCE COMPLIANCE METHODS 



mum Exit Access Travel Distance for means of egress and 
general safety. The maximum allowable exit access travel 
distance shall be determined in accordance with Section 
1016. 1 of the International Building Code. 



Points = 20 x 



Maximum allowable _ Maximum actual 
travel distance travel distance 

Maximum allowable travel distance 



(Equation 14-6) 

[B] 1401.6.14 Elevator control. Evaluate the passenger- 
elevator equipment and controls that are available to the 
fire department to reach all occupied floors. Emergency 
recall and in-car operation of elevators shall be provided in 
accordance with the International Fire Code. Under the 
categories and occupancies in Table 1401.6.14, determine 
the appropriate value and enter that value into Table 
1401.7 under Safety Parameter 1401.6.14, Elevator Con- 
trol, for fire safety, means of egress and general safety. 
The values shall be zero for a single-story building. 

[B] TABLE 1401.6.14 
ELEVATOR CONTROL VALUES 



ELEVATOR TRAVEL 


CATEGORIES 


a 


b 


c 


d 


Less than 25 feet of travel above or below the 
primary level of elevator access for 
emergency fire-fighting or rescue personnel 


-2 








+2 


Travel of 25 feet or more above or below the 
primary level of elevator access for 
emergency fire-fighting or rescue personnel 


-4 


NP 





+4 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 
NP = Not permitted. 

[B] 1401.6.14.1 Categories. The categories for eleva- 
tor controls are: 

1 . Category a — No elevator. 

2. Category b — Any elevator without Phase I emer- 
gency recall operation and Phase II emergency 
in-car operation. 

3. Category c — All elevators with Phase I emer- 
gency recall operation and Phase II emergency 
in-car operation as required by the International 
Fire Code. 

4. Category d — All meet Category c; or Category b 
where permitted to be without Phase I emergency 
recall operation and Phase II emergency in-car 
operation; and at least one elevator that complies 
with new construction requirements serves all 
occupied floors. 

[B] 1401.6.15 Means-of-egress emergency lighting. 
Evaluate the presence of and reliability of means-of-egress 
emergency lighting. Under the categories and occupancies 
in Table 1401.6.15, determine the appropriate value and 
enter that value into Table 1401.7 under Safety Parameter 



1401.6.15, Means-of-Egress Emergency Lighting, for 
means of egress and general safety. 

[B] 1401.6.15.1 Categories. The categories for means- 
of-egress emergency lighting are: 

1. Category a — Means-of-egress lighting and exit 
signs not provided with emergency power in 
accordance with Section 2702 of the Interna- 
tional Building Code. 

2. Category b— Means-of-egress lighting and exit 
signs provided with emergency power in accor- 
dance with Section 2702 of the International 
Building Code. 

3. Category c — Emergency power provided to 
means-of-egress lighting and exit signs, which 
provides protection in the event of power failure 
to the site or building. 

[B] TABLE 1401.6.15 
MEANS-OF-EGRESS EMERGENCY LIGHTING VALUES 



NUMBER OF EXITS REQUIRED BY 

SECTION 1015 OF THE 
INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE 


CATEGORIES 


a 


b 


c 


Two or more exits 


NP 





4 


Minimum of one exit 

— 





I 


l 



NP = Not permitted. 

[B] 1401.6.16 Mixed occupancies. Where a building has 
two or more occupancies that are not in the same occu- 
pancy classification, the separation between the mixed 
occupancies shall be evaluated in accordance with this 
section. Where there is no separation between the mixed 
occupancies or the separation between mixed occupancies 
does not qualify for any of the categories indicated in Sec- 
tion 1401.6.16.1, the building shall be evaluated as indi- 
cated in Section 1401.6, and the value for mixed 
occupancies shall be zero. Under the categories and occu- 
pancies in Table 1401.6.16, determine the appropriate 
value and enter that value into Table 1401.7 under Safety 
Parameter 1401.6.16, Mixed Occupancies, for fire safety 
and general safety. For buildings without mixed occupan- 
cies, the value shall be zero. 

[B] TABLE 1401.6.16 
MIXED OCCUPANCY VALUES 3 



OCCUPANCY 


CATEGORIES 


a 


b 


C 


A-1,A-2,R 


-10 





10 


A-3, A-4, B, E, F, M, S 


-5 





5 



a. For fire-resistance ratings between categories, the value shall be obtained 
by linear interpolation. 

[B] 1401.6.16.1 Categories. The categories for mixed 
occupancies are: 

1 . Category a — Occupancies separated by minimum 
1-hour fire barriers or minimum 1-hour horizon- 
tal assemblies, or both. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



67 



PERFORMANCE COMPLIANCE METHODS 



2. Category b — Separations between occupancies in 
accordance with Section 508.4 of the Interna- 
tional Building Code. 

3. Category c— Separations between occupancies 
having a fire-resistance rating of not less than 
twice that required by Section 508.4 of the Inter- 
national Building Code. 

[B] 1401.6.17 Automatic sprinklers. Evaluate the ability 
to suppress a fire based on the installation of an automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 of 
the International Building Code. "Required sprinklers" 
shall be based on the requirements of this code. Under the 
categories and occupancies in Table 1401.6.17, determine 
the appropriate value and enter that value into Table 
1401.7 under Safety Parameter 1401.6.17, Automatic 
Sprinklers, for fire safety, means of egress divided by 2, 
and general safety. High-rise buildings defined in Chapter 
2 of the International Building Code that undergo a 
change of occupancy to Group R shall be equipped 
throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accor- 
dance with Section 403 of the International Building Code 
and Chapter 9 of the International Building Code. 

[B] TABLE 1401 .6.17 
SPRINKLER SYSTEM VALUES 



OCCUPANCY 


CATEGORIES 


a a 


b a 


c 


d 


e 


f 


A-1.A-3, F, M, R, S-1 


-6 


-3 





2 


4 


6 


A-2 


-4 


_2 





1 


2 


4 


A-4, B, E, S-2 


-12 


-6 





3 


6 


12 



These options cannot be taken if Category a in Section 1 401 .6. 18 is used. 

[B] 1401.6.17.1 Categories. The categories for auto- 
matic sprinkler system protection are: 

1. Category a — Sprinklers are required throughout; 
sprinkler protection is not provided or the sprin- 
kler system design is not adequate for the hazard 
protected in accordance with Section 903 of the 
International Building Code. 

2. Category b — Sprinklers are required in a portion 
of the building; sprinkler protection is not pro- 
vided or the sprinkler system design is not ade- 
quate for the hazard protected in accordance with 
Section 903 of the International Building Code. 

3. Category c — Sprinklers are not required; none 
are provided. 

4. Category d — Sprinklers are required in a portion 
of the building; sprinklers are provided in such 
portion; the system is one that complied with the 
code at the time of installation and is maintained 
and supervised in accordance with Section 903 of 
the International Building Code. 

5. Category e — Sprinklers are required throughout; 
sprinklers are provided throughout in accordance 
with Chapter 9 of the International Building 
Code. 



6. Category f — Sprinklers are not required through- 
out; sprinklers are provided throughout in accor- 
dance with Chapter 9 of the International 
Building Code. 

[B] 1401.6.18 Standpipes. Evaluate the ability to initiate 
attack on a fire by a making supply of water available 
readily through the installation of standpipes in accor- 
dance with Section 905 of the International Building 
Code. "Required Standpipes" shall be based on the 
requirements of the International Building Code. Under 
the categories and occupancies in Table 1401.6.18, deter- 
mine the appropriate value and enter that value into Table 
1401.7 under Safety Parameter 1401.6.18, Standpipes, for 
fire safety, means of egress, and general safety. 

[B] TABLE 1401.6.18 
STANDPIPE SYSTEM VALUES 



OCCUPANCY 


CATEGORIES 


a a 


b 


c 


d 


A-1,A-3,F,M,R,S-1 


-6 





4 


L 6 


A-2 


-4 





2 


4 


A-4, B, E, S-2 


-12 





6 


12 



a. This option cannot be taken if Category a or Category b in Section 
1401.6.17 is used. 

[B] 1401.6.18.1 Standpipe categories. The categories 
for standpipe systems are: 

1. Category a — Standpipes are required; standpipe 
is not provided or the standpipe system design is 
not in compliance with Section 905.3 of the 
International Building Code. 

2. Category b — Standpipes are not required; none 
are provided. 

3. Category c — Standpipes are required; standpipes 
are provided in accordance with Section 905 of 
the International Building Code. 

4. Category d — Standpipes are not required; stand- 
pipes are provided in accordance with Section 
905 of the International Building Code. 

[B] 1401.6.19 Incidental uses. Evaluate the protection of 
incidental uses in accordance with Section 509.4.2 of the 
International Building Code. Do not include those where 
this code requires automatic sprinkler systems throughout 
the building including covered and open mall buildings, 
high-rise buildings, public garages and unlimited area 
buildings. Assign the lowest score from Table 1401.6.19 
for the building or floor area being evaluated and enter 
that value into Table 1401.7 under Safety Parameter 
1401.6.19, Incidental Uses, for fire safety, means of egress 
and general safety. If there are no specific occupancy areas 
in the building or floor area being evaluated, the value 
shall be zero. 

[B] 1401.7 Building score. After determining the appropriate 
data from Section 1401.6, enter those data in Table 1401.7 
and total the building score. 



68 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



PERFORMANCE COMPLIANCE METHODS 



[B] 1401.8 Safety scores. The values in Table 1401 .8 are the 
required mandatory safety scores for the evaluation process 
listed in Section 1401.6. 





[B] TABLE 1401.8 
MANDATORY SAFETY SCORES 


a 


OCCUPANCY 


FIRE SAFETY 
(MFS) 


MEANS OF 
EGRESS (MME) 


GENERAL 
SAFETY (MGS) 


A-1 


20 


31 


31 


A-2 


21 


32 


32 


A-3 


22 


33 


33 


A-4.E 


29 


40 


40 


B 


30 


40 


40 


F 


24 


34 


34 


M 


23 


40 


40 


R 


21 


38 


38 


S-l 


19 


29 


29 


S-2 


29 


39 


39 



a. MFS = Mandatory Fire Safety 

MME = Mandatory Means of Egress 
MGS = Mandatory General Safety 

[B] 1401.9 Evaluation of building safety. The mandatory 
safety score in Table 1401.8 shall be subtracted from the 
building score in Table 1401.7 for each category. Where the 
final score for any category equals zero or more, the building 
is in compliance with the requirements of this section for that 
category. Where the final score for any category is less than 
zero, the building is not in compliance with the requirements 
of this section. 

[B] 1401.9.1 Mixed occupancies. For mixed occupancies, 
the following provisions shall apply: 

1. Where the separation between mixed occupancies 
does not qualify for any category indicated in Sec- 
tion 1401.6.16, the mandatory safety scores for the 
occupancy with the lowest general safety score in 
Table 1401.8 shall be utilized. (See Section 1401.6.) 

2. Where the separation between mixed occupancies 
qualifies for any category indicated in Section 
1401.6.16, the mandatory safety scores for each 
occupancy shall be placed against the evaluation 
scores for the appropriate occupancy. 



[B] TABLE 1401.6.19 
INCIDENTAL USE AREA VALUES 3 



PROTECTION REQUIRED 

BY TABLE 508.2.5 OF THE 

INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE 


PROTECTION PROVIDED 


None 


1 hour 


AS 


AS with SP 


1 hour and 
AS 


2 hours 


2 hours and 
AS 


2 hours and AS 


-4 


-3 


-2 


-2 


-1 


-2 





2 hours, or 1 hour and AS 


-3 


-2 


-1 


-1 











1 hour and AS 


-3 


-2 


-1 


-1 





-1 





1 hour 


-1 





-1 


-1 











1 hour, or AS with SP 


-1 





-1 


-1 











AS with SP 


-1 


-1 


-1 


-1 





-1 


j 


1 hour or AS 


-1 





















a. AS = Automatic sprinkler system; SP = Smoke partitions (See IBC Section 508.2.2). 
Note: For Table 1401 .7, see page 68. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



69 



PERFORMANCE COMPLIANCE METHODS 



[B] TABLE 1401.7 
SUMMARY SHEET-BUILDING CODE 



Existing occupancy 



Year building was constructed _ 



Proposed occupancy . 
Number of stories 



Height in feet 



Type of construction 

Percentage of open perimeter increase 
Completely suppressed: Yes _ 



Area per floor 



% 



No 



Corridor wall rating. 



Compartmentation: Yes No _ 

Fire-resistance rating of vertical opening enclosures. 

Type of HVAC system 

Automatic fire detection: 



Required door closers: 



Yes 



No 



, serving number of floors . 



Fire alarm system: 
Smoke control: 
Adequate exit routes: 



Yes 
Yes 
Yes 

Yes 



No. 
No. 
No 
No 



Type and location 



Type. 
Type. 



Deadends:. 



Maximum exit access travel distance. 



Means of egress emergency lighting: Yes 



No 



Elevator controls: 
Mixed occupancies: 



Yes. 

Yes_ 
Yes 



No_ 
No. 
No 



SAFETY PARAMETERS 


FIRE SAFETY (FS) 


MEANS OF EGRESS (ME) 


GENERAL SAFETY (GS) 


1401.6.1 Building Height 








1401.6.2 Building Area 








1401.6.3 Compartmentation 








1401.6.4 Tenant and Dwelling Unit Separations 

1401 .6.5 Corridor Walls 

1401.6.6 Vertical Openings 








1401.6.7 HVAC Systems 

1401.6.8 Automatic Fire Detection 








1401 .6.9 Fire Alarm System 








1401 .6.10 Smoke control 

1401 .6. 1 1 Means of Egress 

1401.6. 12 Dead ends 


* *■ * * 

:|; # * :!: 

* t- * * 






1401.6.13 Maximum Exit Access Travel Distance 

1401.6.14 Elevator Control 

1401 .6.15 Means of Egress Emergency Lighting 


* =1: * * 

* * * * 






1401.6.16 Mixed Occupancies 

1401.6.17 Automatic Sprinklers 

1401.6.18 Standpipes 

1401.6.19 Incidental Use 




-=-2 = 




Building score— total value 









*No applicable value to be inserted. 



70 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE 9 



PERFORMANCE COMPLIANCE METHODS 



[B] TABLE 1401.9 
EVALUATION FORMULAS 3 



FORMULA 


T1401.7 


T1401.8 


SCORE 


PASS 


FAIL 


FS - MFS > 
ME - MME > 
GS - MGS > 


(FS)- 
(ME)- 
(GS- 


(MFS) 
(MME) 
(MGS) 



























a. FS = Fire Safety 
ME = Means of Egress 
GS = General Safety 



MFS = Mandatory Fire Safety 
MME = Mandatory Means of Egress 
MGS = Mandatory Means of Safety 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



71 



72 201 2 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



CHAPTER 15 

CONSTRUCTION SAFEGUARDS 



SECTION 1501 
GENERAL 

[B] 1501.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall govern 
safety during construction that is under the jurisdiction of this 
code and the protection of adjacent public and private proper- 
ties. 

[B] 1501.2 Storage and placement. Construction equipment 
and materials shall be stored and placed so as not to endanger 
the public, the workers or adjoining property for the duration 
of the construction project. 

[B] 1501.3 Alterations, repairs, and additions. Required 
exits, existing structural elements, fire protection devices, and 
sanitary safeguards shall be maintained at all times during 
alterations, repairs, or additions to any building or structure. 

Exceptions: 

1. When such required elements or devices are being 
altered or repaired, adequate substitute provisions 
shall be made. 

2. When the existing building is not occupied. 

[B] 1501.4 Manner of removal. Waste materials shall be 
removed in a manner which prevents injury or damage to per- 
sons, adjoining properties, and public rights-of-way. 

[B] 1501.5 Fire safety during construction. Fire safety dur- 
ing construction shall comply with the applicable require- 
ments of the International Building Code and the applicable 
provisions of Chapter 33 of the International Fire Code. 

[B] 1501.6 Protection of pedestrians. Pedestrians shall be 
protected during construction and demolition activities as 
required by Sections 1501.6.1 through 1501.6.7 and Table 
1501 .6. Signs shall be provided to direct pedestrian traffic. 

[B] 1501.6.1 Walkways. A walkway shall be provided for 
pedestrian travel in front of every construction and demo- 
lition site unless the applicable governing authority autho- 
rizes the sidewalk to be fenced or closed. Walkways shall 



be of sufficient width to accommodate the pedestrian traf- 
fic, but in no case shall they be less than 4 feet (1219 mm) 
in width. Walkways shall be provided with a durable 
walking surface. Walkways shall be accessible in accor- 
dance with Chapter 1 1 of the International Building Code 
and shall be designed to support all imposed loads and in 
no case shall the design live load be less than 150 pounds 
per square foot (psf) (7.2 kN/m 2 ). 

[B] 1501.6.2 Directional barricades. Pedestrian traffic 
shall be protected by a directional barricade where the 
walkway extends into the street. The directional barricade 
shall be of sufficient size and construction to direct vehic- 
ular traffic away from the pedestrian path. 

[B] 1501.6.3 Construction railings. Construction railings 
shall be at least 42 inches (1067 mm) in height and shall 
be sufficient to direct pedestrians around construction 
areas. 

[B] 1501.6.4 Barriers. Barriers shall be a minimum of 8 
feet (2438 mm) in height and shall be placed on the side of 
the walkway nearest the construction. Barriers shall 
extend the entire length of the construction site. Openings 
in such barriers shall be protected by doors which are nor- 
mally kept closed. 

[B] 1501.6.4.1 Barrier design. Barriers shall be 
designed to resist loads required in Chapter 16 of the 
International Building Code unless constructed as fol- 
lows: 

1. Barriers shall be provided with 2 x 4 top and bot- 
tom plates. 

2. The barrier material shall be a minimum of 3 / 4 
inch (19.1 mm) boards or 7 4 inch (6.4 mm) wood 
structural use panels. 

3. Wood structural use panels shall be bonded with 
an adhesive identical to that for exterior wood 
structural use panels. 



[B] TABLE 1501 .6 
PROTECTION OF PEDESTRIANS 



HEIGHT OF 
CONSTRUCTION 


DISTANCE OF CONSTRUCTION TO LOT LINE 


TYPE OF PROTECTION REQUIRED 


8 feet or less 


Less than 5 feet 


Construction railings 


5 feet or more 


None 


More than 8 feet 


Less than 5 feet 


Barrier and covered walkway 


5 feet or more, but not more than one-fourth 
the height of construction 


Barrier and covered walkway 


5 feet or more, but between one-fourth and 
one-half the height of construction 


Barrier 


5 feet or more, but exceeding one-half the 
height of construction 


None 



For SI: I foot =304.8 mm. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



73 



CONSTRUCTION SAFEGUARDS 



4. Wood structural use panels 7 4 inch (6.4 mm) or 7 16 
inch (23.8 mm) in thickness shall have studs 
spaced not more than 2 feet (610 mm) on center. 

5. Wood structural use panels % inch (9.5 mm) or 7 2 
inch (12.7 mm) in thickness shall have studs 
spaced not more than 4 feet (1219 mm) on center, 
provided a 2-inch by 4-inch (51 mm by 102 mm) 
stiffener is placed horizontally at the mid-height 
where the stud spacing exceeds 2 feet (610 mm) 
on center. 

6. Wood structural use panels 5 / 8 inch (15.9 mm) or 
thicker shall not span over 8 feet (2438 mm). 

[B] 1501.6.5 Covered walkways. Covered walkways 
shall have a minimum clear height of 8 feet (2438 mm) as 
measured from the floor surface to the canopy overhead. 
Adequate lighting shall be provided at all times. Covered 
walkways shall be designed to support all imposed loads. 
In no case shall the design live load be less than 150 psf 
(7.2 kN/m 2 ) for the entire structure. 

Exception: Roofs and supporting structures of covered 
walkways for new, light-frame construction not 
exceeding two stories above grade plane are permitted 
to be designed for a live load of 75 psf (3.6 kN/m 2 ) or 
the loads imposed on them, whichever is greater. In lieu 
of such designs, the roof and supporting structure of a 
covered walkway are permitted to be constructed as 
follows: 

1. Footings shall be continuous 2x6 members. 

2. Posts not less than 4x6 shall be provided on 
both sides of the roof and spaced not more than 
12 feet (3658 mm) on center. 

3. Stringers not less than 4x12 shall be placed on 
edge upon the posts. 

4. Joists resting on the stringers shall be at least 2 x 
8 and shall be spaced not more than 2 feet (610 
mm) on center. 

5. The deck shall be planks at least 2 inches (51 
mm) thick or wood structural panels with an exte- 
rior exposure durability classification at least 23 / 32 
inch (18.3 mm) thick nailed to the joists. 

6. Each post shall be knee-braced to joists and 
stringers by 2 x 4 minimum members 4 feet 
(1219 mm) long. 

7. A 2 x 4 minimum curb shall be set on edge along 
the outside edge of the deck. 

[B] 1501.6.6 Repair, maintenance and removal. Pedes- 
trian protection required by Section 1501.6 shall be main- 
tained in place and kept in good order for the entire length 
of time pedestrians may be endangered. The owner or the 
owner's agent, upon the completion of the construction 
activity, shall immediately remove walkways, debris and 
other obstructions and leave such public property in as 
good a condition as it was before such work was com- 
menced. 

[B] 1501.6.7 Adjacent to excavations. Every excavation 
on a site located 5 feet (1524 mm) or less from the street 



lot line shall be enclosed with a barrier not less than 6 feet 
(1829 mm) high. Where located more than 5 feet (1524 
mm) from the street lot line, a barrier shall be erected 
when required by the code official. Barriers shall be of 
adequate strength to resist wind pressure as specified in 
Chapter 16 of the International Building Code. 

[B] 1501.7 Facilities required. Sanitary facilities shall be 
provided during construction or demolition activities in 
accordance with the International Plumbing Code. 



SECTION 1502 
PROTECTION OF ADJOINING PROPERTY 

[B] 1502.1 Protection required. Adjoining public and pri- 
vate property shall be protected from damage during con- 
struction and demolition work. Protection must be provided 
for footings, foundations, party walls, chimneys, skylights 
and roofs. Provisions shall be made to control water runoff 
and erosion during construction or demolition activities. The 
person making or causing an excavation to be made shall pro- 
vide written notice to the owners of adjoining buildings 
advising them that the excavation is to be made and that the 
adjoining buildings should be protected. Said notification 
shall be delivered not less than 1 days prior to the scheduled 
starting date of the excavation. 



SECTION 1503 

TEMPORARY USE OF STREETS, ALLEYS AND 

PUBLIC PROPERTY 

[B] 1503.1 Storage and handling of materials. The tempo- 
rary use of streets or public property for the storage or han- 
dling of materials or equipment required for construction or 
demolition, and the protection provided to the public shall 
comply with the provisions of the applicable governing 
authority and this chapter. 

[B] 1503.2 Obstructions. Construction materials and equip- 
ment shall not be placed or stored so as to obstruct access to 
fire hydrants, standpipes, fire or police alarm boxes, catch 
basins or manholes, nor shall such material or equipment be 
located within 20 feet (6.1 m) of a street intersection, or 
placed so as to obstruct normal observations of traffic signals 
or to hinder the use of public transit loading platforms. 

[B] 1503.3 Utility fixtures. Building materials, fences, sheds 
or any obstruction of any kind shall not be placed so as to 
obstruct free approach to any fire hydrant, fire department 
connection, utility pole, manhole, fire alarm box, or catch 
basin, or so as to interfere with the passage of water in the 
gutter. Protection against damage shall be provided to such 
utility fixtures during the progress of the work, but sight of 
them shall not be obstructed. 



SECTION 1504 
FIRE EXTINGUISHERS 

[F] 1504.1 Where required. All structures under construc- 
tion, alteration, or demolition shall be provided with not less 
than one approved portable fire extinguisher in accordance 



74 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



CONSTRUCTION SAFEGUARDS 



with Section 906 of the International Fire Code and sized for 
not less than ordinary hazard as follows: 

1. At each stairway on all floor levels where combustible 
materials have accumulated. 

2. In every storage and construction shed. 

3. Additional portable fire extinguishers shall be provided 
where special hazards exist including, but not limited 
to, the storage and use of flammable and combustible 
liquids. 

[F] 1504.2 Fire hazards. The provisions of this code and of 
the International Fire Code shall be strictly observed to safe- 
guard against all fire hazards attendant upon construction 
operations. 

SECTION 1505 
MEANS OF EGRESS 
[B] 1505.1 Stairways required. Where a building has been 
constructed to a building height of 50 feet (15 240 mm) or 
four stories, or where an existing building exceeding 50 feet 
(15 240 mm) in building height is altered, at least one tempo- 
rary lighted stairway shall be provided unless one or more of 
the permanent stairways are erected as the construction pro- 
gresses. 

[F] 1505.2 Maintenance of means of egress. Required 
means of egress shall be maintained at all times during con- 
struction, demolition, remodeling or alterations and additions 
to any building. 

Exception: Approved temporary means of egress systems 
and facilities. 



SECTION 1506 
STANDPIPE SYSTEMS 

[F] 1506.1 Where required. In buildings required to have 
standpipes by Section 905.3.1 of the International Building 
Code, not less than one standpipe shall be provided for use 
during construction. Such standpipes shall be installed when 
the progress of construction is not more than 40 feet (12 192 
mm) in height above the lowest level of fire department vehi- 
cle access. Such standpipe shall be provided with fire depart- 
ment hose connections at accessible locations adjacent to 
usable stairs. Such standpipes shall be extended as construc- 
tion progresses to within one floor of the highest point of con- 
struction having secured decking or flooring. 

I F] 1 506.2 Buildings being demolished. Where a building or 
portion of a building is being demolished and a standpipe is 
existing within such a building, such standpipe shall be main- 
tained in an operable condition so as to be available for use 
by the fire department. Such standpipe shall be demolished 
with the building but shall not be demolished more than one 
floor below the floor being demolished. 



[F] 1506.3 Detailed requirements. Standpipes shall be 
installed in accordance with the provisions of Chapter 9 of 
the International Building Code. 

Exception: Standpipes shall be either temporary or per- 
manent in nature, and with or without a water supply, pro- 
vided that such standpipes conform to the requirements of 
Section 905 of the International Building Code as to 
capacity, outlets and materials. 



SECTION 1507 
AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEM 
[F] 1507.1 Completion before occupancy. In portions of a 
building where an automatic sprinkler system is required by 
this code, it shall be unlawful to occupy those portions of the 
building until the automatic sprinkler system installation has 
been tested and approved, except as provided in Section 
110.3. 

[F] 1507.2 Operation of valves. Operation of sprinkler con- 
trol valves shall be permitted only by properly authorized 
personnel and shall be accompanied by notification of duly 
designated parties. When the sprinkler protection is being 
regularly turned off and on to facilitate connection of newly 
completed segments, the sprinkler control valves shall be 
checked at the end of each work period to ascertain that pro- 
tection is in service. 



SECTION 1508 
ACCESSIBILITY 

[B] 1508.1 Construction sites. Structures, sites, and equip- 
ment directly associated with the actual process of construc- 
tion, including but not limited to scaffolding, bridging, 
material hoists, material storage, or construction trailers are 
not required to be accessible. 



SECTION 1509 

WATER SUPPLY FOR FIRE PROTECTION 

[F] 1509.1 When required. An approved water supply for 

fire protection, either temporary or permanent, shall be made 

available as soon as combustible material arrives on the site. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



75 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 
7b 



CHAPTER 16 

REFERENCED STANDARDS 



This chapter lists the standards that are referenced in various sections of this document. The standards are listed herein by the 
promulgating agency of the standard, the standard identification, the effective date and title, and the section or sections of this 
document that reference the standard. The application of the referenced standards shall be as specified in Section 102.4. 



ASCE/SE 



American Society of Civil Engineers 
Structural Engineering Institute 
1 80 1 Alexander Bell Drive 
Reston, VA 20191-4400 



Standard 
reference 
number 



Title 



Referenced 

in code 

section number 



7—10 

31—03 
41—06 



Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures with Supplement No. 1 301.1.4.1, A104, 

A506.1, A507.1 

Seismic Evaluation of Existing Buildings 301. 1.4, Table 301. 1.4.2, 301.1.4.2 

Seismic Rehabilitation of Existing Buildings . . . 301.1.4, 301.1.4.1, Table 301.1.4.1, 301.1.4.2, Table 301.1.4.2 



ASHRAE 



American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers 
1791 Tullie Circle, NE 
Atlanta, GA 30329 



Standard 
reference 
number 



Title 



Referenced 

in code 

section number 



62.1—2010 



Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality 



.809.2 



ASME 



American Society of Mechanical Engineers 

3 Park Avenue 

New York, NY 10016 



Standard 

reference 
number 



Title 



Referenced 

in code 

section number 



ASME/A17.1 
CSA B44- 
A17.3— 2008 
A18.1— 2008 



-2007/ 
-2007 



Safety Code for Elevators and Escalators — with A17.1a/CSA B44a- 

Safety Code for Existing Elevators and Escalators 

Safety Standard for Platform Lifts and Stairway Chair Lifts 



-08 Addenda. . . . 410.8.2,705.1.2,902.1.2 

902.1.2 

1.3,705.1.3 



410i 



ASTM International 

100 Barr Harbor Drive 

West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959 



Standard 

reference 
number 



Title 



Referenced 

in code 

section number 



C90— 08 
C 496—96 
E519— OOel 



Standard Specification for Load-bearing Concrete Masonry Units 

Standard Test Method for Splitting Tensile Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens . 
Standard Test Method for Diagonal Tension (Shear) in Masonry Assemblages 



A505.2.3 

A104, A106.3.3.2 
A 104, A106.3.3.2 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



77 



REFERENCED STANDARDS 






United States Department of Commerce 
1401 Constitution Avenue, NW 
Washington, DC 20230 



Standard 
reference 
number 



Title 



Referenced 

in code 

section number 



PS 1—09 
PS 2—10 



Structural Plywood 

Performance Standard for Wood-based Structural-use Panels . 



A302 
A302 



ICC 



International Code Council, Inc. 

500 New Jersey Avenue, NW, 6th Floor 

Washington, DC 20001 



Standard 
reference 
number 



Title 



Referenced 

in code 

section number 



IBC— 12 



ICC Al 17.1—2009 
ffiCC— 12 
IFC— 12 



IFGC— 12 
IMC— 12 

IPC— 12 
IPMC— 12 
IRC— 12 



International Building Code® 101, 106, 109, 110, 202, 301, 407, 410, 501, 601, 602, 

606, 701, 702, 705, 706, 801, 802, 803, 804, 805. 806, 807, 

904, 905, 907, 1001, 1002, 1007, 101 1, 1012, 1 102, 1103, 1104, 

1201, 1202, 1203, 1204, 1205, 1301, 1302, 1201, 1501, 1506 

Accessible and Usable Buildings and Facilities 410.6, 410.8.2, 705.1, 705.1.2, 705.1.3 

International Energy Conservation Code® 702.4, 707.1, 811.1, 908.1 

International Fire Code® 101.4.2, 301.1.1, 803.2.1, 803.2.3, 804.4.1.1, 804.4.1.2, 

804.4.1.3, 804.4.1.4, 804.4.1.5, 804.4.1.6, 804.4.1.7, 804.4.3, 
1301.2, 1401.3.2, 1401.6.8.1, 1401.6.14, 1401.6.14.1, 1504.1, 1504.2 

International Fuel Gas Code® 407.7,702.4.1 

International Mechanical Code® 407.8, 702.4, 809.1, 902.1.1, 1002.2.1, 1009.1, 

1401.6.7.1, 1401.6.8, 1401.6.8.1 

International Plumbing Code® 407.9, 609.1, 702.4, 810.1, 1010.2, 1010.3, 1010.5, 1501.5 

International Property Maintenance Code® 101.4.2, 1301.2, 1401.3.2 

International Residential Code® 101.4.1, 602.3, 606, 706.2.1, 707.1, 

807.4,808.3,811.1,907.4,907.4.2,908.1,1103.2, 1103.3, 1103.4, 
1104.1, 1302.1, 1302.2, 1302.2.1, 1302.3, 1302.4, 1302.5, 1401.2.2, 1401.2.3 



NFPA 



National Fire Protection Agency 
I Batterymarch Park 
Quincy, MA 02269-9101 



Standard 
reference 
number 



Title 



Referenced 

in code 

section number 



NFPA13R— 10 

NFPA 70— 11 
NFPA 72—10 
NFPA 99— 10 
NFPA 101—12 



Installation of Sprinkler Systems in Residential Occupancies up to and 

Including Four Stories in Height 804.2.5 

National Electrical Code 607.1.1,607.1.2,607.1.3,607.1.4,607.1.5 

National Fire Alarm Code 804.2.5, 804.4 

Health Care Facilities 607.1.4 

Life Safety Code 805.2 



78 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE 83 



Appendix A: Guidelines for the Seismic Retrofit of Existing Buildings 

CHAPTER A1 

SEISMIC STRENGTHENING PROVISIONS 
FOR UWREINFORCED MASONRY BEARING WALL BUILDINGS 



SECTION A101 

PURPOSE 

[B] A101.1 Purpose. The purpose of this chapter is to pro- 
mote public safety and welfare by reducing the risk of death 
or injury that may result from the effects of earthquakes on 
existing unreinforced masonry bearing wall buildings. 

The provisions of this chapter are intended as minimum 
standards for structural seismic resistance, and are established 
primarily to reduce the risk of life loss or injury. Compliance 
with these provisions will not necessarily prevent loss of life 
or injury, or prevent earthquake damage to rehabilitated 
buildings. 



SECTION A102 
SCOPE 

[B] A102.1 General. The provisions of this chapter shall 
apply to all existing buildings having at least one unrein- 
forced masonry bearing wall. The elements regulated by this 
chapter shall be determined in accordance with Table Al-A. 
Except as provided herein, other structural provisions of the 
building code shall apply. This chapter does not apply to the 
alteration of existing electrical, plumbing, mechanical or fire 
safety systems. 

[B] A102.2 Essential and hazardous facilities. The provi- 
sions of this chapter shall not apply to the strengthening of 
buildings in Risk Categories III or IV. Such buildings shall 
be strengthened to meet the requirements of the International 
Building Code for new buildings of the same risk category or 
other such criteria approved by the code official. 



[B] FLEXIBLE DIAPHRAGM. A diaphragm of wood or 
untopped metal deck construction. 

[B] NORMAL WALL. A wall perpendicular to the direction 
of seismic forces. 

[B] OPEN FRONT. An exterior building wall line without 
vertical elements of the lateral force-resisting system in one 
or more stories. 

[BJ POINTING. The partial reconstruction of the bed joints 
of an unreinforced masonry wall as defined in UBC Standard 
21-8. 



[B] RIGID DIAPHRAGM. 
struction. 



A diaphragm of concrete con- 



[B] UNREINFORCED MASONRY. Includes burned clay, 
concrete or sand-lime brick; hollow clay or concrete block; 
plain concrete; and hollow clay tile. These materials shall 
comply with the requirements of Section A 106 as applicable. 

[B] UNREINFORCED MASONRY BEARING WALL. A 
URM wall that provides the vertical support for the reaction 
of floor or roof-framing members. 

[B] UNREINFORCED MASONRY (URM) WALL. A 
masonry wall that relies on the tensile strength of masonry 
units, mortar and grout in resisting design loads, and in which 
the area of reinforcement is less than 25 percent of the mini- 
mum ratio required by the building code for reinforced 
masonry. 

[B] YIELD STORY DRIFT. The lateral displacement of 
one level relative to the level above or below at which yield 
stress is first developed in a frame member. 



SECTION A1 03 
DEFINITIONS 

For the purpose of this chapter, the applicable definitions in 
the building code shall also apply. 

[B] COLLAR JOINT. The vertical space between adjacent 
wythes. A collar joint may contain mortar or grout. 

[B] CROSSWALL. A new or existing wall that meets the 
requirements of Section All 1.3 and the definition of Section 
Al 1 1 .3. A crosswall is not a shear wall. 

[B] CROSSWALL SHEAR CAPACITY. The unit shear 
value times the length of the crosswall, v c L c . 

[B] DIAPHRAGM EDGE. The intersection of the horizon- 
tal diaphragm and a shear wall. 

[B] DIAPHRAGM SHEAR CAPACITY. The unit shear 
value times the depth of the diaphragm, vj). 



SECTION A1 04 
SYMBOLS AND NOTATIONS 

For the purpose of this chapter, the following notations sup- 
plement the applicable symbols and notations in the building 
code. 

a n - Diameter of core multiplied by its length or the 

area of the side of a square prism. 

A = Cross-sectional area of unreinforced masonry pier 

or wall, square inches (10 6 nr). 

A b - Total area of the bed joints above and below the 
test specimen for each in-place shear test, square 
inches (10- 6 m 2 ). 

= In-plane width dimension of pier, inches (10 3 m), 
or depth of diaphragm, feet (m). 

Demand-capacity ratio specified in Section 
A 111 .4.2. 



D 



DCR = 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE 9 



79 



APPENDIX A 



f 

J m 

f 

J sp 

F 

wx 

H 

h/l 



L, 



p 

R 






= Compressive strength of masonry. 

= Tensile-splitting strength of masonry. 

= Force applied to a wall at level x, pounds (N). 

= Least clear height of opening on either side of a 
pier, inches (10" 3 m). 

= Height-to-thickness ratio of URM wall. Height, h, 
is measured between wall anchorage levels and/or 
slab-on-grade. 

= Span of diaphragm between shear walls, or span 
between shear wall and open front, feet (m). 

= Length of crosswall, feet (m). 

= Effective span for an open-front building specified 
in Section All 1.8, feet (m). 

= Applied force as determined by standard test 
method of ASTM C 496 or ASTM E 519, pounds 

(N). 

= Superimposed dead load at the location under 
consideration, pounds (kN). For determination of 
the rocking shear capacity, dead load at the top of 
the pier under consideration shall be used. 

= Press resulting from the dead plus actual live load 
in place at the time of testing, pounds per square 
inch (kPa). 

= Weight of wall, pounds (N). 

= Response modification factor for Ordinary plain 
masonry shear walls in Bearing Wall System from 
Table 12.2-1 of ASCE7, where/? = 1.5. 

= Design spectral acceleration at short period, in g 
units. 

= Design spectral acceleration at 1 -second period, in 
g units. 

= The shear strength of any URM pier, KjVl.5 
pounds (N). 

= Unit shear capacity value for a crosswall sheathed 
with any of the materials given in Table Al-D or 
Al-E, pounds per foot (N/m). 

= Shear strength of unreinforced masonry, pounds 
per square inch (kPa). 

= The shear strength of any URM pier or wall, 
pounds (N). 

= Total shear capacity of crosswalls in the direction 
of analysis immediately above the diaphragm level 
being investigated, v c L c , pounds (N). 

= Total shear capacity of crosswalls in the direction 
of analysis immediately below the diaphragm level 
being investigated, v c L c , pounds (N). 

= Shear force assigned to a pier on the basis of its 
relative shear rigidity, pounds (N). 

= Pier rocking shear capacity of any URM wall or 
wall pier, pounds (N). 

= Mortar shear strength as specified in Section 
A106.3.3.5, pounds per square inch (kPa). 



V lesl = Load at incipient cracking for each in-place shear 
test per UBC Standard 21-6, pounds (kN). 

v M = Mortar shear test values as specified in Section 
A 106.3.3.5, pounds per square inch (kPa). 

v u = Unit shear capacity value for a diaphragm sheathed 
with any of the materials given in Table Al-D or 
Al-E, pounds per foot (N/m). 

V WI = Total shear force resisted by a shear wall at the 
level under consideration, pounds (N). 

W - Total seismic dead load as defined in the building 
code, pounds (N). 

W d = Total dead load tributary to a diaphragm level, 
pounds (N). 

W w = Total dead load of a URM wall above the level 
under consideration or above an open-front 
building, pounds (N). 

W WI = Dead load of a URM wall assigned to level x 
halfway above and below the level under 
consideration, pounds (N). 

Sv u Z) = Sum of diaphragm shear capacities of both ends of 
the diaphragm, pounds (N). 

SLv„D = For diaphragms coupled with crosswalls, v u D 
includes the sum of shear capacities of both ends of 
diaphragms coupled at and above the level under 
consideration, pounds (N). 

Y,W d = Total dead load of all the diaphragms at and above 
the level under consideration, pounds (N). 



SECTION A105 
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 

[B] A105.1 General. The seismic force-resisting system 
specified in this chapter shall comply with the building code, 
except as modified herein. 

[B] A105.2 Alterations and repairs. Alterations and repairs 
required to meet the provisions of this chapter shall comply 
with applicable structural requirements of the building code 
unless specifically provided for in this chapter. 

[B] A105.3 Requirements for plans. The following con- 
struction information shall be included in the plans required 
by this chapter: 

1. Dimensioned floor and roof plans showing existing 
walls and the size and spacing of floor and roof-fram- 
ing members and sheathing materials. The plans shall 
indicate all existing and new crosswalls and shear walls 
and their materials of construction. The location of 
these walls and their openings shall be fully dimen- 
sioned and drawn to scale on the plans. 

2. Dimensioned wall elevations showing openings, piers, 
wall classes as defined in Section A106.3.3.8, thick- 
ness, heights, wall shear test locations, cracks or dam- 
aged portions requiring repairs, the general condition of 
the mortar joints, and if and where pointing is required. 
Where the exterior face is veneer, the type of veneer, its 



80 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



APPENDIX A 



thickness and its bonding and/or ties to the structural 
wall masonry shall also be noted. 

3. The type of interior wall and ceiling materials, and 
framing. 

4. The extent and type of existing wall anchorage to floors 
and roof when used in the design. 

5. The extent and type of parapet corrections that were 
previously performed, if any. 

6. Repair details, if any, of cracked or damaged unrein- 
forced masonry walls required to resist forces specified 
in this chapter. 

7. All other plans, sections and details necessary to delin- 
eate required retrofit construction. 

8. The design procedure used shall be stated on both the 
plans and the permit application. 

9. Details of the anchor prequalification program required 
by UBC Standard 21-7, if used, including location and 
results of all tests. 

[B] A105.4 Structural observation, testing and inspection. 

Structural observation, in accordance with Section 1709 of 
the International Building Code, shall be required for all 
structures in which seismic retrofit is being performed in 
accordance with this chapter. Structural observation shall 
include visual observation of work for conformance with the 
approved construction documents and confirmation of exist- 
ing conditions assumed during design. 

Structural testing and inspection for new construction 
materials shall be in accordance with the building code, 
except as modified by this chapter. 



SECTION A106 

MATERIALS REQUIREMENTS 

[B] A106.1 General. Materials permitted by this chapter, 
including their appropriate strength design values and those 
existing configurations of materials specified herein, may be 
used to meet the requirements of this chapter. 

[B] A106.2 Existing materials. Existing materials used as 
part of the required vertical load-carrying or lateral force- 
resisting system shall be in sound condition, or shall be 
repaired or removed and replaced with new materials. All 
other unreinforced masonry materials shall comply with the 
following requirements: 

1. The lay-up of the masonry units shall comply with Sec- 
tion A106.3.2, and the quality of bond between the 
units has been verified to the satisfaction of the build- 
ing official; 

2. Concrete masonry units are verified to be load-bearing 
units complying with UBC Standard 21-4 or such other 
standard as is acceptable to the building official; and 

3. The compressive strength of plain concrete walls shall 
be determined based on cores taken from each class of 
concrete wall. The location and number of tests shall be 
the same as those prescribed for tensile-splitting 



strength tests in Sections A106.3.3.3 and Al 06.3.3.4, or 
in Section A 108.1. 

The use of materials not specified herein or in Section 
A108.1 shall be based on substantiating research data or engi- 
neering judgment, with the approval of the building official. 

[B] A106.3 Existing unreinforced masonry. 

[B] A106.3.1 General. Unreinforced masonry walls used 
to carry vertical loads or seismic forces parallel and per- 
pendicular to the wall plane shall be tested as specified in 
this section. All masonry that does not meet the minimum 
standards established by this chapter shall be removed and 
replaced with new materials, or alternatively, shall have its 
structural functions replaced with new materials and shall 
be anchored to supporting elements. 

[B] A106.3.2 Lay-up of walls. 

[B] A106.3.2.1 Muitiwyfhe solid brick. The facing 
and backing shall be bonded so that not less than 10 
percent of the exposed face area is composed of solid 
headers extending not less than 4 inches (102 mm) into 
the backing. The clear distance between adjacent full- 
length headers shall not exceed 24 inches (610 mm) 
vertically or horizontally. Where the backing consists 
of two or more wythes, the headers shall extend not less 
than 4 inches (102 mm) into the most distant wythe, or 
the backing wythes shall be bonded together with sepa- 
rate headers with their area and spacing conforming to 
the foregoing. Wythes of walls not bonded as described 
above shall be considered veneer. Veneer wythes shall 
not be included in the effective thickness used in calcu- 
lating the height-to-thickness ratio and the shear capac- 
ity of the wall. 

Exception: Veneer wythes anchored as specified in 
the building code and made composite with backup 
masonry may be used for calculation of the effective 
thickness, where S DI exceeds 0.3. 

[B] A106.3.2.2 Grouted or ungrouted hollow con- 
crete or clay block and structural hollow clay tile. 
Grouted or ungrouted hollow concrete or clay block 
and structural hollow clay tile shall be laid in a running 
bond pattern. 

[B] A 106.3.2.3 Other lay-up patterns. Lay-up pat- 
terns other than those specified in Sections A106. 3.2.1 
and A106.3.2.2 above are allowed if their performance 
can be justified. 

[B] A106.3.3 Testing of masonry. 

[B] A106.3.3.1 Mortar tests. The quality of mortar in 
all masonry walls shall be determined by performing 
in-place shear tests in accordance with the following: 

1. The bed joints of the outer wythe of the masonry 
should be tested in shear by laterally displacing a 
single brick relative to the adjacent bricks in the 
same wythe. The head joint opposite the loaded 
end of the test brick should be carefully exca- 
vated and cleared. The brick adjacent to the 
loaded end of the test brick should be carefully 
removed by sawing or drilling and excavating to 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



81 



APPENDIX A 



provide space for a hydraulic ram and steel load- 
ing blocks. Steel blocks, the size of the end of the 
brick, should be used on each end of the ram to 
distribute the load to the brick. The blocks should 
not contact the mortar joints. The load should be 
applied horizontally, in the plane of the wythe. 
The load recorded at first movement of the test 
brick as indicated by spalling of the face of the 
mortar bed joints is V test in Equation A 1 -3. 

2. Alternative procedures for testing shall be used 
where in-place testing is not practical because of 
crushing or other failure mode of the masonry 
unit (see Section Al 06.3.3.2). 

[B] A 106.3.3.2 Alternative procedures for testing 
masonry. The tensile-splitting strength of existing 
masonry,./;,.,, or the prism strength of existing masonry, 
f m , may be determined in accordance with one of the 
following procedures: 

1 . Wythes of solid masonry units shall be tested by 
sampling the masonry by drilled cores of not less 
than 8 inches (203 mm) in diameter. A bed joint 
intersection with a head joint shall be in the cen- 
ter of the core. The tensile-splitting strength of 
these cores should be determined by the standard 
test method of ASTM C 496. The core should be 
placed in the test apparatus with the bed joint 45 
degrees from the horizontal. The tensile-splitting 
strength should be determined by the following 
equation: 



2? 

f = — 



(Equation Al-1) 



2. Hollow unit masonry constructed of through- the- 
wall units shall be tested by sampling the 
masonry by a sawn square prism of not less than 
18 inches square (11 613 mm 2 ). The tensile-split- 
ting strength should be determined by the stan- 
dardtest method of ASTM E 5 19. The diagonal of 
the prism should be placed in a vertical position. 
The tensile-splitting strength should be deter- 
mined by the following equation: 



J sp 



0A94P 



(Equation A 1-2) 



3. An alternative to material testing is estimation of 
the f m of the existing masonry. This alternative 
should be limited to recently constructed 
masonry. The determination of f m requires that 
the unit correspond to a specification of the unit 
by an ASTM standard and classification of the 
mortar by type. 

[B] A106.3.3.3 Location of tests. The shear tests shall 
be taken at locations representative of the mortar condi- 
tions throughout the entire building, taking into account 
variations in workmanship at different building height 
levels, variations in weathering of the exterior surfaces, 
and variations in the condition of the interior surfaces 
due to deterioration caused by leaks and condensation 



of water and/or by the deleterious effects of other sub- 
stances contained within the building. The exact test 
locations shall be determined at the building site by the 
engineer or architect in responsible charge of the struc- 
tural design work. An accurate record of all such tests 
and their locations in the building shall be recorded, 
and these results shall be submitted to the building 
department for approval as part of the structural analy- 
sis. 

[B] A 106.3.3.4 Number of tests. The minimum num- 
ber of tests per class shall be as follows: 

1. At each of both the first and top stories, not less 
than two tests per wall or line of wall elements 
providing a common line of resistance to lateral 
forces. 

2. At each of all other stories, not less than one test 
per wall or line of wall elements providing a 
common line of resistance to lateral forces. 

3. In any case, not less than one test per 1,500 
square feet (139.4 m 2 ) of wall surface and not less 
than a total of eight tests. 

[B] A106.3.3.5 Minimum quality of mortar. 

1. Mortar shear test values, v t0 , in pounds per square 
inch (kPa) shall be obtained for each in-place 
shear test in accordance with the following equa- 
tion: 



K, = (VJA b )-P c 



(Equation Al -3) 



82 



2. Individual unreinforced masonry walls with v w 
consistently less than 30 pounds per square inch 
(207 kPa) shall be entirely pointed prior to retest- 
ing. 

3. The mortar shear strength, v v is the value in 
pounds per square inch (kPa) that is exceeded by 
80 percent of the mortar shear test values, v t0 . 

4. Unreinforced masonry with mortar shear 
strength, v t , less than 30 pounds per square inch 
(207 kPa) shall be removed, pointed and retested 
or shall have its structural function replaced, and 
shall be anchored to supporting elements in 
accordance with Sections A106.3.1 and A113.8. 
When existing mortar in any wythe is pointed to 
increase its shear strength and is retested, the 
condition of the mortar in the adjacent bed joints 
of the inner wythe or wythes and the opposite 
outer wythe shall be examined for extent of dete- 
rioration. The shear strength of any wall class 
shall be no greater than that of the weakest wythe 
of that class. 

[B] A106.3.3.6 Minimum quality of masonry. 

1. The minimum average value of tensile-splitting 
strength determined by Equation Al-1 or A 1-2 
shall be 50 pounds per square inch (344.7 kPa). 
The minimum value of f m determined by catego- 
rization of the masonry units and mortar should 
be 1,000 pounds per square inch (6895 kPa). 

2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



APPENDIX A 



2. Individual unreinforced masonry walls with aver- 
age tensile-splitting strength of less than 50 
pounds per square inch (344.7 kPa) shall be 
entirely pointed prior to retesting. 

3. Hollow unit unreinforced masonry walls with 
estimated prism compressive strength of less than 
1,000 pounds per square inch (6895 kPa) shall be 
grouted to increase the average net area compres- 
sive strength. 

[B] A106.3.3.7 Collar joints. The collar joints shall be 
inspected at the test locations during each in-place 
shear test, and estimates of the percentage of adjacent 
wythe surfaces that are covered with mortar shall be 
reported along with the results of the in-place shear 
tests. 

[B] A 106.3.3.8 Unreinforced masonry classes. Exist- 
ing unreinforced masonry shall be categorized into one 
or more classes based on shear strength, quality of con- 
struction, state of repair, deterioration and weathering. 
A class shall be characterized by the allowable masonry 
shear stress determined in accordance with Section 
A108.2. Classes shall be defined for whole walls, not 
for small areas of masonry within a wall. 

[B] A106.3.3.9 Pointing. Deteriorated mortar joints in 
unreinforced masonry walls shall be pointed according 
to UBC Standard 2 1-8. Nothing shall prevent pointing 
of any deteriorated masonry wall joints before the tests 
are made, except as required in Section A107.1. 



SECTION A107 
QUALITY CONTROL 

[B] A107.1 Pointing. Preparation and mortar pointing shall 
be performed with special inspection. 

Exception: At the discretion of the building official, inci- 
dental pointing may be performed without special inspec- 
tion. 

[B] A107.2 Masonry shear tests. In-place masonry shear 
tests shall comply with Section A106.3.3.1. Testing of 
masonry for determination of tensile-splitting strength shall 
comply with Section Al 06.3.3.2. 

[B] A107.3 Existing wall anchors. Existing wall anchors 
used as all or part of the required tension anchors shall be 
tested in pullout according to UBC Standard 21-7. The mini- 
mum number of anchors tested shall be four per floor, with 
two tests at walls with joists framing into the wall and two 
tests at walls with joists parallel to the wall, but not less than 
10 percent of the total number of existing tension anchors at 
each level. 

[BJ A107.4 New bolts. All new embedded bolts shall be sub- 
ject to periodic special inspection in accordance with the 
building code, prior to placement of the bolt and grout or 
adhesive in the drilled hole. Five percent of all bolts that do 
not extend through the wall shall be subject to a direct-ten- 
sion test, and an additional 20 percent shall be tested using a 
calibrated torque wrench. Testing shall be performed in 
accordance with UBC Standard 21-7. New bolts that extend 



through the wall with steel plates on the far side of the wall 
need not be tested. 

Exception: Special inspection in accordance with the 
building code may be provided during installation of new 
anchors in lieu of testing. 

All new embedded bolts resisting tension forces or a com- 
bination of tension and shear forces shall be subject to peri- 
odic special inspection in accordance with the building code, 
prior to placement of the bolt and grout or adhesive in the 
drilled hole. Five percent of all bolts resisting tension forces 
shall be subject to a direct-tension test, and an additional 20 
percent shall be tested using a calibrated torque wrench. Test- 
ing shall be performed in accordance with UBC Standard 21- 
7. New through-bolts need not be tested. 



SECTION A1 08 
DESIGN STRENGTHS 

[B] A108.1 Values. 

1. Strength values for existing materials are given in 
Table Al-D and for new materials in Table Al-E. 

2. Capacity reduction factors need not be used. 

3. The use of new materials not specified herein shall be 
based on substantiating research data or engineering 
judgment, with the approval of the building official. 

[B] A 108.2 Masonry shear strength. The unreinforced 
masonry shear strength, v m , shall be determined for each 
masonry class from one of the following equations: 

1. The unreinforced masonry shear strength, v m , shall be 
determined by Equation A 1-4 when the mortar shear 
strength has been determined by Section A106.3.3.1. 

0.75P n 
v m = 0.56v ( + (Equation A 1-4) 

The mortar shear strength values, v,, shall be deter- 
mined in accordance with Section A106.3.3.5 and shall 
not exceed 100 pounds per square inch (689.5 kPa) for 
the determination of v m . 

2. The unreinforced masonry shear, v m , shall be deter- 
mined by Equation A 1-5 when tensile-splitting strength 
has been determined in accordance with Section A 
106.3.3.2, Item 1 or 2. 



= 0.8/„ + 0.5 



(Equation Al-5) 



3. When f m has been estimated by categorization of the 
units and mortar in accordance with Section 2105.2.2.1 
of the International Building Code, the unreinforced 
masonry shear strength, v m , shall not exceed 200 
pounds per square inch (1380 kPa) or the lesser of the 
following: 



(Equation A 1-6) 



a) 2.5 Jf m or 

b) 200psior 

P D 

c) v + 0.75- 5 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE" 8 



83 



APPENDIX A 



For SI: 1 psi = 6.895 kPa. 

where: 

v = 62.5 psi (430 kPa) for running bond masonry 
not grouted solid. 

v =100 psi (690 kPa) for running bond masonry 
grouted solid. 

v = 25 psi (170 kPa) for stack bond grouted solid. 

[B] A108.3 Masonry compression. Where any increase in 
dead plus live compression stress occurs, the compression 
stress in unreinforced masonry shall not exceed 300 pounds 
per square inch (2070 kPa). 

[B] A108.4 Masonry tension. Unreinforced masonry shall 
be assumed to have no tensile capacity. 

[B] A 108.5 Existing tension anchors. The resistance values 
of the existing anchors shall be the average of the tension 
tests of existing anchors having the same wall thickness and 
joist orientation. 

[B] A108.6 Foundations. For existing foundations, new total 
dead loads may be increased over the existing dead load by 
25 percent. New total dead load plus live load plus seismic 
forces may be increased over the existing dead load plus live 
load by 50 percent. Higher values may be justified only in 
conjunction with a geotechnical investigation. 



SECTION A1 09 
ANALYSIS AND DESIGN PROCEDURE 

[B] A109.1 General. The elements of buildings hereby 
required to be analyzed are specified in Table Al-A. 

[Bj A109.2 Selection of procedure. Buildings with rigid dia- 
phragms shall be analyzed by the general procedure of Sec- 
tion A110, which is based on the building code. Buildings 
with flexible diaphragms shall be analyzed by the general 
procedure or, when applicable, may be analyzed by the spe- 
cial procedure of Section Al 1 1. 



SECTION A1 10 
GENERAL PROCEDURE 

[B] A110.1 Minimum design lateral forces. Buildings shall 
be analyzed to resist minimum lateral forces assumed to act 
nonconcurrently in the direction of each of the main axes of 
the structure in accordance with the following: 



V = 



0.75S DS W 



R 



(Equation Al-7) 



[B] A110.2 Lateral forces on elements of structures. Parts 
and portions of a structure not covered in Sections AU0.3 
shall be analyzed and designed per the current building code, 
using force levels defined in Section All 0.1. 

Exceptions: 

1. Unreinforced masonry walls for which height-to- 
thickness ratios do not exceed ratios set forth in 
Table Al-B need not be analyzed for out-of-plane 
loading. Unreinforced masonry walls that exceed 



the allowable h/t ratios of Table Al-B shall be 
braced according to Section Al 13.5. 

2. Parapets complying with Section A 113.6 need not 
be analyzed for out-of-plane loading. 

3. Where walls are to be anchored to flexible floor and 
roof diaphragms, the anchorage shall be in accor- 
dance with Section Al 13.1. 

[B] A110.3 In-plane loading of URM shear walls and 

frames. Vertical lateral load-resisting elements shall be ana- 
lyzed in accordance with Section Al 12. 

[B] All .0.4 Redundancy and overstrength factors. Any 
redundancy or overstrength factors contained in the building 
code may be taken as unity. The vertical component of earth- 
quake load (E v ) may be taken as zero. 



SECTION A1 11 
SPECIAL PROCEDURE 

[B] Alll.l Limits for the application of this procedure. 
The special procedures of this section may be applied only to 
buildings having the following characteristics: 

1. Flexible diaphragms at all levels above the base of the 
structure. 

2. Vertical elements of the lateral force-resisting system 
consisting predominantly of masonry or concrete shear 
walls. 

3. Except for single-story buildings with an open front on 
one side only, a minimum of two lines of vertical ele- 
ments of the lateral force-resisting system parallel to 
each axis of the building (see Section Al 1 1.8 for open- 
front buildings). 

[B] All 1.2 Lateral forces on elements of structures. With 
the exception of the provisions in Sections All 1.4 through 
All 1.7, elements of structures shall comply with Sections 
Al 10.2 through Al 10.4. 

[B] All 1.3 Crosswalks. Crosswalls shall meet the require- 
ments of this section. 

[B] Alll.3.1 Crosswall definition. A crosswall is a 
wood-framed wall sheathed with any of the materials 
described in Table Al-D or Al-E or other system as 
defined in Section All 1.3.5. Crosswalls shall be spaced 
no more than 40 feet (12 192 mm) on center measured per- 
pendicular to the direction of consideration, and shall be 
placed in each story of the building. Crosswalls shall 
extend the full story height between diaphragms. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Crosswalls need not be provided at all levels when 
used in accordance with Section Al 1 1 .4.2, Item 4. 

2. Existing crosswalls need not be continuous below a 
wood diaphragm at or within 4 feet (1219 mm) of 
grade, provided: 

2.1. Shear connections and anchorage require- 
ments of Section Al 1 1 .5 are satisfied at all 
edges of the diaphragm. 



84 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



APPENDIX A 



2.2. Crosswalls with total shear capacity of 
0.5S Dl IW d interconnect the diaphragm to the 
foundation. 

2.3. The demand-capacity ratio of the diaphragm 
between the crosswalls that are continuous to 
their foundations does not exceed 2.5, calcu- 
lated as follows: 



DCR = 



_ (2AS m W d+ V ca ) 
2v u D 

(Equation Al-8) 
[B] Alll.3.2 Crosswall shear capacity. Within any 40 
feet (12 192 mm) measured along the span of the dia- 
phragm, the sum of the crosswall shear capacities shall be 
at least 30 percent of the diaphragm shear capacity of the 
strongest diaphragm at or above the level under consider- 
ation. 

[B] Alll.3.3 Existing crosswalls. Existing crosswalls 
shall have a maximum height-to-length ratio between 
openings of 1.5 to 1. Existing crosswall connections to 
diaphragms need not be investigated as long as the cross- 
wall extends to the framing of the diaphragms above and 
below. 

[B] All E3.4 New crosswalls. New crosswall connections 
to the diaphragm shall develop the crosswall shear capac- 
ity. New crosswalls shall have the capacity to resist an 
overturning moment equal to the crosswall shear capacity 
times the story height. Crosswall overturning moments 
need not be cumulative over more than two stories. 

[B] Alll.3.5 Other crosswall systems. Other systems, 
such as moment-resisting frames, may be used as cross- 
walls provided that the yield story drift does not exceed 1 
inch (25.4 mm) in any story. 

[B] A111.4 Wood diaphragms. 

[B] Alll.4.1 Acceptable diaphragm span. A diaphragm 
is acceptable if the point (L,DCR) on Figure Al-1 falls 
within Region 1, 2 or 3. 

[B] Alll.4.2 Demand-capacity ratios. Demand-capac- 
ity ratios shall be calculated for the diaphragm at any level 
according to the following formulas: 

1. For a diaphragm without qualifying crosswalls at 
levels immediately above or below: 



DCR = 2.1 S D] W d /-Lv u D 



(Equation A 1-9) 

2. For a diaphragm in a single-story building with 
qualifying crosswalls, or for a roof diaphragm cou- 
pled by crosswalls to the diaphragm directly below: 

DCR = 2.1 S m W d IZv u D+V cb (Equation Al- 10) 

3. For diaphragms in a multistory building with quali- 
fying crosswalls in all levels: 

DCR = 2AS m XW d /(I.Zv u D + V cb ) 

(Equation Al-11) 

DCR shall be calculated at each level for the set 
of diaphragms at and above the level under consid- 



eration. In addition, the roof diaphragm shall also 
meet the requirements of Equation Al-10. 

4. For a roof diaphragm and the diaphragm directly 
below, if coupled by crosswalls: 



DCR = 2.\S m Y.W d ITLv u D 



(Equation Al-12) 

[B] Alll.4.3 Chords. An analysis for diaphragm flexure 
need not be made, and chords need not be provided. 

[B] A 111.4.4 Collectors. An analysis of diaphragm col- 
lector forces shall be made for the transfer of diaphragm 
edge shears into vertical elements of the lateral force- 
resisting system. Collector forces may be resisted by new 
or existing elements. 

[B] Alll.4.5 Diaphragm openings. 

1. Diaphragm forces at corners of openings shall be 
investigated and shall be developed into the dia- 
phragm by new or existing materials. 

2. In addition to the demand-capacity ratios of Section 
Al 1 1.4.2, the demand-capacity ratio of the portion 
of the diaphragm adjacent to an opening shall be 
calculated using the opening dimension as the span. 

3. Where an opening occurs in the end quarter of the 
diaphragm span, the calculation of v u D for the 
demand-capacity ratio shall be based on the net 
depth of the diaphragm. 

[B] All 1.5 Diaphragm shear transfer. Diaphragms shall be 
connected to shear walls with connections capable of devel- 
oping the diaphragm-loading tributary to the shear wall given 
by the lesser of the following formulas: 

V= l.2S m C p W d (Equation Al-13) 

using the C„ values in Table Al-C, or 

V = v u D (Equation Al-14) 

[B] A111.6 Shear walls (In-plane loading). 

[B] Al 11.6.1 Wall story force. The wall story force dis- 
tributed to a shear wall at any diaphragm level shall be the 
lesser value calculated as: 



F wx = 0.&S Dl (W wx +W d /2) 
but need not exceed 

F wx = 0.8S m W wx + v u D 



(Equation Al-15) 



(Equation A 1-1 6) 



[B] Alll.6.2 Wall story shear. The wall story shear shall 
be the sum of the wall story forces at and above the level 
of consideration. 



V„ 



ZF,. 



(Equation A! -17) 



[B] Alll.6.3 Shear wall analysis. Shear walls shall com- 
ply with Section All 2. 

[B] Alll.6.4 Moment frames. Moment frames used in 
place of shear walls shall be designed as required by the 
building code, except that the forces shall be as specified 
in Section Alll.6.1, and the story drift ratio shall be lim- 
ited to 0.015, except as further limited by Section 
A112.4.2. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



85 



APPENDIX A 



[B] A111.7 Out-of-plane forces-unreinforced masonry 
walls. 

[B] Alll.7.1 Allowable unreinforced masonry wall 
height-to-thickness ratios. The provisions of Section 
A110.2 are applicable, except the allowable height-to- 
thickness ratios given in Table Al-B shall be determined 
from Figure Al-1 as follows: 

1 . In Region 1, height-to-tiiickness ratios for buildings 
with crosswalk may be used if qualifying cross- 
walls are present in all stories. 

2. In Region 2, height-to-thickness ratios for buildings 
with crosswalk may be used whether or not quali- 
fying crosswalls are present. 

3. In Region 3, height-to-thickness ratios for "all other 
buildings" shall be used whether or not qualifying 
crosswalls are present. 

[B] Alll.7.2 Walls with diaphragms in different 
regions. When diaphragms above and below the wall 
under consideration have demand-capacity ratios in differ- 
ent regions of Figure Al-1, the lesser height-to-thickness 
ratio shall be used. 

[B] A111.8 Open-front design procedure. A single-story 
building with an open front on one side and crosswalls paral- 
lel to the open front may be designed by the following proce- 
dure: 

1. Effective diaphragm span, L,, for use in Figure Al-1 
shall be determined in accordance with the following 
formula: 

L. = 2[(WJW d )L + L] (Equation Al-18) 

2. Diaphragm demand-capacity ratio shall be calculated 
as: 

OCR = l.\S w {W d + WJ/[(v u D) + VJ 

(Equation Al-19) 



SECTION A1 12 

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN 

[B] A112.1 General. The following requirements are appli- 
cable to both the general procedure and the special procedure 
for analyzing vertical elements of the lateral force-resisting 
system. 
[B] A112.2 Existing unreinforced masonry walls. 

[B] All 2.2.1 Flexural rigidity. Flexural components of 
deflection may be neglected in determining the rigidity of 
an unreinforced masonry wall. 

[B] Al 12.2.2 Shear walls with openings. Wall piers shall 
be analyzed according to the following procedure, which 
is diagramed in Figure A 1-2. 

1 . For any pier, 

1.1. The pier shear capacity shall be calculated 

as: 

V a = v,„A/l .5 (Equation Al-20) 



1.2. The pier rocking shear capacity shall be cal- 
culated as: 

V r = 0.9/y)/// (Equation Al-21) 

2. The wall piers at any level are acceptable if they 
comply with one of the following modes of behav- 
ior: 

2.1. Rocking controlled mode. When the pier 
rocking shear capacity is less than the pier 
shear capacity, i.e., V r < V a for each pier in a 
level, forces in the wall at that level, V wx , 
shall be distributed to each pier in proportion 
to P D D/H. 

For the wall at that level: 

0.7V„, V . < T.V, (Equation Al-22) 

2.2. Shear controlled mode. Where the pier shear 
capacity is less than the pier rocking capac- 
ity, i.e., V a < V r in at least one pier in a level, 
forces in the wall at the level, V WJfl shall be 
distributed to each pier in proportion to D/H. 

For each pier at that level: 

(Equation Al-23) 



v p <v a 



and 



v p <v r 



(Equation A 1-24) 

If V < V a for each pier and V p > V r for one or 
more piers, such piers shall be omitted from the 
analysis, and the procedure shall be repeated 
for the remaining piers, unless the wall is 
strengthened and reanalyzed. 

3. Masonry pier tension stress. Unreinforced masonry 
wall piers need not be analyzed for tension stress. 

[B] Al 12.2.3 Shear walls without openings. Shear walls 
without openings shall be analyzed the same as for walls 
with openings, except that V r shall be calculated as fol- 
lows: 
V r = 0.9(P D + 0.5PJD/H (Equation Al-25) 

[B] A112.3 Plywood-sheathed shear walls. Plywood- 
sheathed shear walls may be used to resist lateral forces for 
buildings with flexible diaphragms analyzed according to 
provisions of Section Alll. Plywood-sheathed shear walls 
may not be used to share lateral forces with other materials 
along the same line of resistance. 

[B] A112.4 Combinations of vertical elements. 

[B] Al 12.4.1 Lateral-force distribution. Lateral forces 
shall be distributed among the vertical-resisting elements 
in proportion to their relative rigidities, except that 
moment-resisting frames shall comply with Section 
Al 12.4.2. 

[B] Al 12.4.2 Moment-resisting frames. Moment-resist- 
ing frames shall not be used with an unreinforced masonry 
wall in a single line of resistance unless the wall has piers 
that have adequate shear capacity to sustain rocking in 
accordance with Section Al 12.2.2. The frames shall be 



86 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



APPENDIX A 



designed in accordance with the building code to carry 100 
percent of the lateral forces tributary to that line of resis- 
tance, as determined from Equation Al-7. The story drift 
ratio shall be limited to 0.0075. 



SECTION A1 13 
DETAILED SYSTEM DESIGN REQUIREMENTS 
[B] A113.1 Wall anchorage. 

[B] A113.1.1 Anchor locations. Unreinforced masonry 
walls shall be anchored at the roof and floor levels as 
required in Section A 110.2. Ceilings of plaster or similar 
materials, when not attached directly to roof or floor fram- 
ing and where abutting masonry walls, shall either be 
anchored to the walls at a maximum spacing of 6 feet 
(1829 mm), or be removed. 

[B] A 113.1.2 Anchor requirements. Anchors shall con- 
sist of bolts installed through the wall as specified in Table 
Al-E, or an approved equivalent at a maximum anchor 
spacing of 6 feet (1829 mm). All wall anchors shall be 
secured to the joists to develop the required forces. 

[B] A113.1.3 Minimum wall anchorage. Anchorage of 
masonry walls to each floor or roof shall resist a minimum 
force determined as 0.9S DS times the tributary weight or 
200 pounds per linear foot (2920 N/m), whichever is 
greater, acting normal to the wall at the level of the floor 
or roof. Existing wall anchors, if used, must meet the 
requirements of this chapter or must be upgraded. 

[B] A113.1.4 Anchors at corners. At the roof and floor 
levels, both shear and tension anchors shall be provided 
within 2 feet (610 mm) horizontally from the inside of the 
corners of the walls. 

[B] A113.2 Diaphragm shear transfer. Bolts transmitting 
shear forces shall have a maximum bolt spacing of 6 feet 
(1829 mm) and shall have nuts installed over malleable iron 
or plate washers when bearing on wood, and heavy-cut wash- 
ers when bearing on steel. 

[B] A113.3 Collectors. Collector elements shall be provided 
that are capable of transferring the seismic forces originating 
in other portions of the building to the element providing the 
resistance to those forces. 

[B] A113.4 Ties and continuity. Ties and continuity shall 
conform to the requirements of the building code. 

[B] A 113.5 Wall bracing. 

[B] A113.5.1 General. Where a wall height-to-thickness 
ratio exceeds the specified limits, the wall may be laterally 
supported by vertical bracing members per Section 
All 3.5.2 or by reducing the wall height by bracing per 
Section All 3.5.3. 

[B] A 113.5.2 Vertical bracing members. Vertical brac- 
ing members shall be attached to floor and roof construc- 
tion for their design loads independently of required wall 
anchors. Horizontal spacing of vertical bracing members 
shall not exceed one-half of the unsupported height of the 
wall or 10 feet (3048 mm). Deflection of such bracing 



members at design loads shall not exceed one-tenth of the 
wall thickness. 

[B] A 113.5.3 Intermediate wall bracing. The wall height 
may be reduced by bracing elements connected to the floor 
or roof. Horizontal spacing of the bracing elements and 
wall anchors shall be as required by design, but shall not 
exceed 6 feet (1829 mm) on center. Bracing elements shall 
be detailed to minimize the horizontal displacement of the 
wall by the vertical displacement of the floor or roof. 

[B] A113.6 Parapets. Parapets and exterior wall appendages 
not conforming to this chapter shall be removed, or stabilized 
or braced to ensure that the parapets and appendages remain 
in their original positions. 

The maximum height of an unbraced unreinforced 
masonry parapet above the lower of either the level of tension 
anchors or the roof sheathing shall not exceed the height-to- 
thickness ratio shown in Table Al-F. If the required parapet 
height exceeds this maximum height, a bracing system 
designed for the forces determined in accordance with the 
building code shall support the top of the parapet. Parapet 
corrective work must be performed in conjunction with the 
installation of tension roof anchors. 

The minimum height of a parapet above any wall anchor 
shall be 12 inches (305 mm). 

Exception: If a reinforced concrete beam is provided at 
the top of the wall, the minimum height above the wall 
anchor may be 6 inches (152 mm). 

[B] A113.7 Veneer. 

1. Veneer shall be anchored with approved anchor ties 
conforming to the required design capacity specified in 
the building code and shall be placed at a maximum 
spacing of 24 inches (610 mm) with a maximum sup- 
ported area of 4 square feet (0.372 m 2 ). 

Exception: Existing anchor ties for attaching brick 
veneer to brick backing may be acceptable, provided 
the ties are in good condition and conform to the fol- 
lowing minimum size and material requirements. 

Existing veneer anchor ties may be considered 
adequate if they are of corrugated galvanized iron 
strips not less than 1 inch (25.4 mm) in width, 8 
inches (203 mm) in length and 7 16 inch (1.6 mm) in 
thickness, or the equivalent. 

2. The location and condition of existing veneer anchor 
ties shall be verified as follows: 

2.1. An approved testing laboratory shall verify the 
location and spacing of the ties and shall submit 
a report to the building official for approval as 
part of the structural analysis. 

2.2. The veneer in a selected area shall be removed 
to expose a representative sample of ties (not 
less than four) for inspection by the building 
official. 

[B] A113.8 Nonstructural masonry walls. Unreinforced 
masonry walls that carry no design vertical or lateral loads 
and that are not required by the design to be part of the lateral 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE 6 



87 



APPENDIX A 



force-resisting system shall be adequately anchored to new or 
existing supporting elements. The anchors and elements shall 
be designed for the out-of-plane forces specified in the build- 
ing code. The height- or length-to-thickness ratio between 
such supporting elements for such walls shall not exceed 
nine. 

[B] A113.9 Truss and beam supports. Where trasses and 
beams other than rafters or joists are supported on masonry, 
independent secondary columns shall be installed to support 
vertical loads of the roof or floor members. 

Exception: Secondary supports are not required where S DI 

is less than 0.3g. 
[B] A113.10 Adjacent buildings. Where elements of adja- 
cent buildings do not have a separation of at least 5 inches 
(127 mm), the allowable height-to-thickness ratios for "all 
other buildings" per Table Al-B shall be used in the direction 
of consideration. 



2. Adobe may be allowed a maximum value of 9 pounds 
per square inch (62.1 kPa) for shear unless higher val- 
ues are justified by test. 

3. Mortar for repointing may be of the same soil composi- 
tion and stabilization as the brick, in lieu of cement- 
mortar. 



SECTION A1 14 

WALLS OF UNBURNED CLAY, ADOBE OR STONE 

MASONRY 
[B] A114.1 General. Walls of unburned clay, adobe or stone 
masonry construction shall conform to the following: 

1 . Walls of unburned clay, adobe or stone masonry shall 
not exceed a height- or length-to-thickness ratio speci- 
fied in Table Al-G. 



[BJTABLEA1-A 
ELEMENTS REGULATED BY THIS CHAPTER 



BUILDING ELEMENTS 


s D1 J 


> 0.067 g < 0.133 g 


> 0.133, <0.20 9 


> 0.20 9 < 0.30 g 


> 0.30, 


Parapets 

Walls, anchorage 

Walls, h/t ratios 

Walls, in-plane shear 

Diaphragms" 

Diaphragms, shear transfer 1 ' 

Diaphragms, demand-capacity ratios" 


X 
X 


X 
X 
X 
X 

X 


X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 


X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 



a. Applies only to buildings designed according to the general procedures of Section Al ) 0. 

b. Applies only to buildings designed according to the special procedures of Section Al 1 1. 

[B] TABLE A1-B 
ALLOWABLE VALUE OF HEIGHT-TO-THICKNESS RATIO OF UNREINFORCED MASONRY WALLS 



WALL TYPES 



Walls of one-story buildings 



First-story wall of multistory building 



Walls in top story of multistory building 



All other walls 



0.13 g SS m <0.25 9 



20 



20 



14 



20 



0.25 < S„ < 0.4 o 



16 



14 



S„ >- 0.4 3 
BUILDINGS WITH CROSSWALLS 3 



16" 



16 



14". 



16 



S m > 0.4 g 
ALL OTHER BUILDINGS 



13 



15 



13 



a. Applies to the special procedures of Section Al 1 1 only. See Section A U 1 .7 for other restrictions. 

b This value of height-to-thickness ratio may be used only where mortar shear tests establish a tested mortar shear strength, v„ of not less than 100 pounds per 

square inch (690 kPa). This value may also be used where the tested mortar shear strength is not less than 60 pounds per square inch (414 kPa), and where a 

visual examination of the collar joinl indicates not less than 50-percent mortar coverage, 
c Where a visual examination of the collar joint indicates not less than 50-percent mortar coverage, and the tested mortar shear strength, v„ is greater than 30 

pounds per square inch (207 kPa) but less than 60 pounds per square inch (414 kPa), the allowable height-to-thickness ratio may be determined by linear 

interpolation between the larger and smaller ratios in direct proportion to the tested mortar shear strength. 



88 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



APPENDIX A 



[B] TABLE A1-C 
HORIZONTAL FORCE FACTOR, C„ 



CONFIGURATION OF MATERIALS 



Roofs with straight or diagonal sheathing and roofing applied directly to the sheathing, or floors with straight tongue-and- 

groove sheathing. 
Diaphragms with double or mulitple layers of boards with edges offset, and blocked plywood systems. 
Diaphragms of metal deck without topping: 

Minima] welding or mechanical attachment. 

Welded or mechanically attached for seismic resistance. 



0.50 

0.75 

0.6 
0.68 



[B] TABLE A1-D 
STRENGTH VALUES FOR EXISTING MATERIALS 



EXISTING MATERIALS OR CONFIGURATION OF MATERIALS" 


STRENGTH VALUES 


x 14.594 for N/m 


Horizontal 
diaphragms 


Roofs with straight sheathing and roofing applied directly to the 
sheathing. 


300 lbs. per ft. for seismic shear 


Roofs with diagonal sheathing and roofing applied directly to the 
sheathing. 


750 lbs. per ft. for seismic shear 


Floors with straight tongue-and-groove sheathing. 


300 lbs. per ft. for seismic shear 


Floors with straight sheathing and finished wood flooring with board 
edges offset or perpendicular. 


1,500 lbs. per ft. for seismic shear 


Floors with diagonal sheathing and finished wood flooring. 


1,800 lbs. per ft. for seismic shear 


Metal deck welded with minimal welding. c 


1,800 lbs, per ft. for seismic shear 


Metal deck welded for seismic resistance. 11 


3,000 lbs. per ft. for seismic shear 


Crosswalk 1 ' 


Plaster on wood or metal lath. 


600 lbs. per ft. for seismic shear 


Plaster on gypsum lath. 


550 lbs. per ft. for seismic shear 


Gypsum wallboard, unblocked edges. 


200 lbs. per ft. for seismic shear 


Gypsum wallboard, blocked edges. 


400 lbs. per ft. for seismic shear 


Existing footing, wood 
framing, structural steel, 
reinforcing steel 


Plain concrete footings. 


f c - 1 ,500 psi (10.34 MPa) unless otherwise 
shown by tests 


Douglas fir wood. 


Same as D.F. No. 1 


Reinforcing steel. 


F = 40,000 psi (124.1 N/mm 2 ) maximum 


Structural steel. 


F = 33,000 psi (137.9 N/mm 2 ) maximum 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 square inch = 645.16 mm 2 , 1 pound = 4.4 N. 

a. Material must be sound and in good condition. 

b. Shear values of these materials may be combined, except the total combined value should not exceed 900 pounds per foot (4380 N/m). 

c. Minimum 22-gage steel deck with welds to supports satisfying the standards of the Steel Deck Institute. 

d. Minimum 22-gage steel deck with Y, <j) plug welds at an average spacing not exceeding 8 inches (203 mm) and with sidelap welds appropriate for the deck 
span. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



89 



APPENDIX A 



[B] TABLE A1-E 
STRENGTH VALUES OF NEW MATERIALS USED IN CONJUNCTION WITH EXISTING CONSTRUCTION 



NEW MATERIALS OR CONFIGURATION OF MATERIALS 


STRENGTH VALUES 


Horizontal diaphragms 


Plywood sheathing applied directly over existing straight sheathing 
with ends of plywood sheets bearing on joists or rafters and edges of 
plywood located on center of individual sheathing boards. 


675 lbs. per ft. 


Crosswalls 


Plywood sheathing applied directly over wood studs; no value 
should be given to plywood applied over existing plaster or wood 
sheathing. 


1.2 times the value specified in the current 
building code. 


Drywall or plaster applied directly over wood studs. 


The value specified in the current building 
code. 


Drywall or plaster applied to sheathing over existing wood studs. 


50 percent of the value specified in the 
current building code. 


Tension bolts' 


Bolts extending entirely through unreinforced masonry wall secured 
with bearing plates on far side of a three-wythe- minimum wall with 
at least 30 square inches of area. 5 ' 


5,400 lbs. per bolt. 

2,700 lbs. for two-wythe walls. 


Shear bolts 


Bolts embedded a minimum of 8 inches into unreinforced masonry 
walls; bolts should be centered in 2'/ 2 -inch-diameter holes with dry- 
pack or nonshrink grout around the circumference of the bolt. 


The value for plain masonry specified for 
solid masonry in the current building code; 
no value larger than those given for ;, / 4 -inch 
bolts should be used. 


Combined tension and 
shear bolts 


Through-bolts — bolts meeting the requirements for shear and for 
tension bolts. bc 


Tension — same as for tension bolts. 
Shear — same as for shear bolts. 


Embedded bolts — bolts extending to the exterior face of the wall 
with a 2'/,-inch round plate under the head and drilled at an angle of 
22'/ 2 degrees to the horizontal; installed as specified for shear 
bolts. al,c 


Tension — 3,600 lbs. per bolt. 
Shear — same as for shear bolts. 


Infilled walls 


Reinforced masonry infilled openings in existing unreinforced 
masonry walls; provide keys or dowels to match reinforcing. 


Same as values specified for unreinforced 
masonry walls. 


Reinforced masonry 11 


Masonry piers and walls reinforced per the current building code. 


The value specified in the current building 
code for strength design. 


Reinforced concrete 11 


Concrete footings, walls and piers reinforced as specified in the 
current building code. 


The value specified in the current building 
code for strength design. 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 square inch = 645.16 mm 2 , 1 pound = 4.4 N. 

a. Embedded bolts to be tested as specified in Section A107.4. 

b. Bolts to be 7 2 inch (12.7 mm) minimum in diameter. 

c. Drilling for bolts and dowels shall be done with an electric rotary drill; impact tools should not be used for drilling holes or tightening anchors and shear bolt 
nuts. 

d. No load factors or capacity reduction factor shall be used. 

e. Other bolt sizes, values and installation methods may be used, provided a testing program is conducted in accordance with UBC Standard 21-7. The useable 
value shall be determined by multiplying the calculated allowable value, as determined by UBC Standard 21-7, by 3.0, and the useable value shall be limited 
to a maximum of 1 .5 times the value given in the table. Bolt spacing shall not exceed 6 feet (1829 mm) on center and shall not be less than 12 inches (305 
mm) on center. 

[B] TABLE A1-F 
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE HEIGHT-TO-THICKNESS RATIOS FOR PARAPETS 





s m 


0.13 g <S ol <0.25 g 


0.25 g < S m < 0.4 g 


S„ 2 0.4 g 


Maximum allowable height-to-thickness ratios 


2.5 


2.5 


1.5 



[B] TABLE A1-G 
MAXIMUM HEIGHT-TO-THICKNESS RATIOS FOR ADOBE OR STONE WALLS 





s„ 


0.1 3 g < S„ < 0.25„ 


0.25 g < S„ < 0.4 g 


S m > 0.4 g 


One-story buildings 


12 


10 


8 


Two-story buildings 








First story 


14 


11 


9 


Second story 


12 


10 


8 



90 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



APPENDIX A 



h- 
LU 



-J 

DC 

o 



E 
tr 

O 
u_ 

CO 

o 



Z 
CO CO 

2 o 

CD > 

< 

tr 
r 

D_ 
< 



540 



480 



420 



360 



300 



240 



180 



120 



60 





































































































© 




























\ 
























\ 














































\ 
























\ 
\ 


























\ 
\ 
























\ 

V 




























/ 


















® 






/ 
/ 
























/ 
/ 
























/ 
I 


® 





























































12 3 4 5 

DEMAND-CAPACITY RATIO, OCR 



1 . Region of demand-capacity ratios where crosswalls may be used to increase h/t ratios. 

2. Region of demand-capacity ratios where h/t ratios of "buildings with crosswalls" may be used, 
whether or not crosswalls are present. 

3. Region of demand-capacity ratios where h/t ratios of "all other buildings" shall be used, 
whether or not crosswalls are present. 



[B] FIGURE A1-1 
ACCEPTABLE DIAPHRAGM SPAN 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



91 



APPENDIX A 








IN EACH PIER 



ROCKING 

CONTROLLED 

MODE 



COMPARE 

VfANDVg, 

IN EACH PIER 



SHEAR FORCE IN AN 
INDIVIDUAL PIER IS 
PROPORTIONAL TO 
P D D/H. INDIVIDUAL 
PIERS CAN ROCK 
SAFELY 







SHEAR 

CONTROLLED 

MODE 



V, > V a 

IN AT LEAST 
ONE PIER 







v p <v a 

ALL PIERS 



RELATIVE 
RIGIDITY 
ANALYSIS 



SHEAR FORCE IN AN 
INDIVIDUAL PiER IS 
PROPORTIONAL TO 
D/H 




ROCKING SHEAR IS 
ADEQUATE; ROCKING 
OF PIER SYSTEM IS 

SAFE 




ROCKING SHEAR OF 

PIER SYSTEM IS NOT 
ADEQUATE 



RETURN 



V f sV p 

IN AT LEAST 

ONE PIER 



OMIT FROM 

ANALYSIS ANY 

PIER WITH V, 5 V p 



-0 



DISTRIBUTION OF 
SHEAR FORCES IN 
PIERS CANNOT BE 
DETERMINED 



RETURN 




SHEAR STRESS IS 
OK 




PIER IS OVERSTRESSED 
IN SHEAR 



RETURN 



v a - Allowable shear strength of a pier. 

V p = Shear force assigned to a pier on the basis of a relative shear rigidly analysis. 

V r = Rocking shear capacity of pier. 

V m = Total shear force resisted by the wall. 

2V r = Rocking shear capacity of all piers in the wall. 



[B] FIGURE A1-2 
ANALYSIS OF URM WALL IN-PLANE SHEAR FORCES 



92 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



CHAPTER A2 

EARTHQUAKE HAZARD REDUCTION IN EXISTING REINFORCED 
CONCRETE AND REINFORCED MASONRY WALL BUILDINGS WITH 

FLEXIBLE DIAPHRAGMS 



SECTION A201 
PURPOSE 

[B] A201.1 Purpose. The purpose of this chapter is to pro- 
mote public safety and welfare by reducing the risk of death 
or injury that may result from the effects of earthquakes on 
reinforced concrete and reinforced masonry wall buildings 
with flexible diaphragms. Based on past earthquakes, these 
buildings have been categorized as being potentially hazard- 
ous and prone to significant damage, including possible col- 
lapse in a moderate to major earthquake. The provisions of 
this chapter are minimum standards for structural seismic 
resistance established primarily to reduce the risk of life loss 
or injury on both subject and adjacent properties. These pro- 
visions will not necessarily prevent loss of life or injury, or 
prevent earthquake damage to an existing building that com- 
plies with these standards. 



SECTION A202 
SCOPE 

[B] A202.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall apply 
to wall anchorage systems that resist out-of-plane forces and 
to collectors in existing reinforced concrete or reinforced 
masonry buildings with flexible diaphragms. Wall anchorage 
systems that were designed and constructed in accordance 
with the 1997 Uniform. Building Code, 1999 BOCA National 
Building Code, 1999 Standard Building Code or the 2000 and 
subsequent editions of the International Building Code shall 
be deemed to comply with these provisions. 



SECTION A203 
DEFINITIONS 
[B] A203.1 Definitions. For the purpose of this chapter, the 
applicable definitions listed in Chapters 16, 19, 21, 22 and 23 
of the International Building Code and the following shall 
apply: 

[B] FLEXIBLE DIAPHRAGMS. Roofs and floors 
including, but not limited to, those sheathed with plywood, 
wood decking (1-by or 2-by) or metal decks without con- 
crete topping slabs. 



SECTION A204 
SYMBOLS AND NOTATIONS 
[B] A204.1 General. For the purpose of this chapter, the 
applicable symbols and notations in the International Build- 
ing Code shall apply. 



SECTION A205 

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 
[B] A205.I General. The seismic-resisting elements speci- 
fied in this chapter shall comply with provisions of Section 
1613 of the International Building Code, except as modified 
herein. 

[Bj A205.2 Alterations and repairs. Alterations and repairs 
required to meet the provisions of this chapter shall comply 
with applicable structural requirements of the building code 
unless specifically modified in this chapter. 

[B] A205.3 Requirements for plans. The plans shall accu- 
rately reflect the results of the engineering investigation and 
design and shall show all pertinent dimensions and sizes for 
plan review and construction. The following shall be pro- 
vided: 

1 . Floor plans and roof plans shall show existing framing 
construction, diaphragm construction, proposed wall 
anchors, cross-ties and collectors. Existing nailing, 
anchors, cross-ties and collectors shall also be shown 
on the plans if they are considered part of the lateral 
force-resisting systems. 

2. At elevations where there are alterations or damage, 
details shall show roof and floor heights, dimensions of 
openings, location and extent of existing damage and 
proposed repair. 

3. Typical wall panel details and sections with panel 
thickness, height, pilasters and location of anchors shall 
be provided. 

4. Details shall include existing and new anchors and the 
method of developing anchor forces into the diaphragm 
framing, existing and/or new cross-ties, and existing 
and/or new or improved support of roof and floor gird- 
ers at pilasters or walls. 

5. The basis for design and the building code used for the 
design shall be stated on the plans. 

[B] A205.4 Structural observation, testing and inspection. 
Structural observation, in accordance with Section 1709 of 
the International Building Code, shall be required for all 
structures in which seismic retrofit is being performed in 
accordance with this chapter. Structural observation shall 
include visual observation of work for conformance to the 
approved construction documents and confirmation of exist- 
ing conditions assumed during design. 

Structural testing and inspection for new construction 
materials shall be in accordance with the building code, 
except as modified by this chapter. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



93 



APPENDIX A 



SECTION A206 
ANALYSIS AND DESIGN 

[B] A206.1 Reinforced concrete and reinforced masonry 
wall anchorage. Concrete and masonry walls shall be 
anchored to all floors and roofs that provide lateral support 
for the wall. The anchorage shall provide a positive direct 
connection between the wall and floor or roof construction 
capable of resisting 75 percent of the horizontal forces speci- 
fied in Section 1613 of the International Building Code. 

[B] A206.2 Special requirements for wall anchorage sys- 
tems. The steel elements of the wall anchorage system shall 
be designed in accordance with the building code without the 
use of the 1.33 short duration allowable stress increase when 
using allowable stress design. 

Wall anchors shall be provided to resist out-of-plane 
forces, independent of existing shear anchors. 

Exception: Existing cast-in-place shear anchors are 
allowed to be used as wall anchors if the tie element can 
be readily attached to the anchors, and if the engineer or 
architect can establish tension values for the existing 
anchors through the use of approved as-built plans or test- 
ing and through analysis showing that the bolts are capable 
of resisting the total shear load (including dead load) while 
being acted upon by the maximum tension force due to an 
earthquake. Criteria for analysis and testing shall be deter- 
mined by the building official. 

Expansion anchors are only allowed with special inspec- 
tion and approved testing for seismic loading. 

Attaching the edge of plywood sheathing to steel ledgers is 
not considered compliant with the positive anchoring require- 
ments of this chapter. Attaching the edge of steel decks to 
steel ledgers is not considered as providing the positive 
anchorage of this chapter unless testing and/or analysis are 
performed to establish shear values for the attachment per- 
pendicular to the edge of the deck. Where steel decking is 
used as a wall anchor system, the existing connections shall 
be subject to field verification and the new connections shall 
be subject to special inspection. 

[B] A206.3 Development of anchor loads into the dia- 
phragm. Development of anchor loads into roof and floor 
diaphragms shall comply with Section 1613 of the Interna- 
tional Building Code using horizontal forces that are 75 per- 
cent of those used for new construction. 

Exception: If continuously tied girders are present, the 
maximum spacing of the continuity ties is the greater of 
the girder spacing or 24 feet (7315 mm). 

In wood diaphragms, anchorage shall not be accomplished 
by use of toenails or nails subject to withdrawal. Wood led- 
gers, top plates or framing shall not be used in cross-grain 
bending or cross-grain tension. The continuous ties required 
in Section 1613 of the International Building Code shall be in 
addition to the diaphragm sheathing. 

Lengths of development of anchor loads in wood dia- 
phragms shall be based on existing field nailing of the sheath- 
ing unless existing edge nailing is positively identified on the 
original construction plans or at the site. 



[B] A206.4 Anchorage at pilasters. Anchorage at pilasters 
shall be designed for the tributary wall-anchoring load per 
Section A206.1, considering the wall as a two-way slab. The 
edges of the two-way slab shall be considered fixed when 
there is continuity at pilasters and shall be considered pinned 
at roof and floor. The pilasters or the walls immediately adja- 
cent to the pilasters shall be anchored directly to the roof 
framing such that the existing vertical anchor bolts at the top 
of the pilasters are bypassed without permitting tension or 
shear failure at the top of the pilasters. 

Exception: If existing vertical anchor bolts at the top of 
the pilasters are used for the anchorage, additional exterior 
confinement shall be provided as required to resist the 
total anchorage force. 

The minimum anchorage force at a floor or roof between 
the pilasters shall be that specified in Section A206.1 . 

[B] A206.5 Symmetry. Symmetry of wall anchorage and 
continuity connectors about the minor axis of the framing 
member is required. 

Exception: Eccentricity may be allowed when it can be 
shown that all components of forces are positively 
resisted. The resistance must be supported by calculations 
or tests. 

[B] A206.6 Minimum member size. Wood members used to 
develop anchorage forces to the diaphragm must be at least 3- 
inch (76 mm) nominal members for new construction and 
replacement. All such members must be checked for gravity 
and earthquake loading as part of the wall-anchorage system. 

Exception: Existing 2-inch (51 mm) nominal members 
may be doubled and internailed to meet the strength 
requirement. 

[B] A206.7 Combination of anchor types. New anchors 
used in combination on a single framing member shall be of 
compatible behavior and stiffness. 

[B] A206.8 Anchorage at interior walls. Existing interior 
reinforced concrete or reinforced masonry walls that extend 
to the floor above or to the roof diaphragm shall be anchored 
for out-of-plane forces per Sections A206.1 and 
A206.3. Walls extending through the roof diaphragm shall be 
anchored for out-of-plane forces on both sides, and continuity 
ties shall be spliced across or continuous through the interior 
wall to provide diaphragm continuity. 

[B] A206.9 Collectors. If collectors are not present at reen- 
trant corners or interior shear walls, they shall be provided. 
Existing or new collectors shall be designed for the capacity 
required to develop into the diaphragm a force equal to the 
lesser of the rocking or shear capacity of the reentrant wall or 
the tributary shear based on 75 percent of the horizontal 
forces specified in Chapter 16 of the International Building 
Code. The capacity of the collector need not exceed the 
capacity of the diaphragm to deliver loads to the collector. A 
connection shall be provided from the collector to the reen- 
trant wall to transfer the full collector force (load). If a truss 
or beam other than a rafter or purlin is supported by the reen- 
trant wall or by a column integral with the reentrant wall, then 
an independent secondary column is required to support the 



94 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



APPENDIX A 



roof or floor members whenever rocking or shear capacity of 
the reentrant wall is less than the tributary shear. 

[B] A206.10 Mezzanines. Existing mezzanines relying on 
reinforced concrete or reinforced masonry walls for vertical 
and/or lateral support shall be anchored to the walls for the 
tributary mezzanine load. Walls depending on the mezzanine 
for lateral support shall be anchored per Sections A206.1, 
A206.2andA206.3. 

Exception: Existing mezzanines that have independent 
lateral and vertical support need not be anchored to the 
walls. 



SECTION A207 

MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION 

[B] A207.1 Materials. All materials permitted by the build- 
ing code, including their appropriate strength or allowable 
stresses, may be used to meet the requirements of this chap- 
ter. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 95 



96 201 2 INTERNATIONAL EXiSTING BUILDING CODE® 



CHAPTER A3 

PRESCRIPTIVE PROVISIONS FOR SEISMIC STRENGTHENING 
OF CRIPPLE WALLS AND SILL PLATE ANCHORAGE OF LIGHT, 

WOOD-FRAME RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS 



SECTION A301 
GENERAL 

[B] A301.1 Purpose. The provisions of this chapter are 
intended to promote public safety and welfare by reducing 
the risk of earthquake-induced damage to existing wood- 
frame residential buildings. The requirements contained in 
this chapter are prescriptive minimum standards intended to 
improve the seismic performance of residential buildings; 
however, they will not necessarily prevent earthquake dam- 
age. 

This chapter sets standards for strengthening that may be 
approved by the code official without requiring plans or cal- 
culations prepared by a registered design professional. The 
provisions of this chapter are not intended to prevent the use 
of any material or method of construction not prescribed 
herein. The code official may require that construction docu- 
ments for strengthening using alternative materials or meth- 
ods be prepared by a registered design professional. 

[B] A301.2 Scope. The provisions of this chapter apply to 
| residential buildings of light-frame wood construction con- 
taining one or more of the structural weaknesses specified in 
Section A303. 

Exception: The provisions of this chapter do not apply to 
the buildings, or elements thereof, listed below. These 
buildings or elements require analysis by a registered 
design professional in accordance with Section A301.3 to 
determine appropriate strengthening: 

1. Group R-l, R-2 or R-4 occupancies with more than 
four dwelling units. 

2. Buildings with a lateral force-resisting system 
using poles or columns embedded in the ground. 

3. Cripple walls that exceed 4 feet (1219 mm) in 
height. 

4. Buildings exceeding three stories in height and any 
three-story building with cripple wall studs exceed- 
ing 14 inches (356 mm) in height. 

5. Buildings where the code official determines that 
conditions exist that are beyond the scope of the 
prescriptive requirements of this chapter. 

6. Buildings or portions thereof constructed on con- 
crete slabs on grade. 

[B] A301.3 Alternative design procedures. The details and 
prescriptive provisions herein are not intended to be the only 
acceptable strengthening methods permitted. Alternative 
details and methods may be used where designed by a regis- 
tered design professional and approved by the code official 
Approval of alternatives shall be based on a demonstration 
that the method or material used is at least equivalent in terms 



of strength, deflection and capacity to that provided by the 
prescriptive methods and materials. 

Where analysis by a registered design professional is 
required, such analysis shall be in accordance with all 
requirements of the building code, except that the seismic 
forces may be taken as 75 percent of those specified in the 
building code. 



SECTION A302 
DEFINITIONS 

For the purpose of this chapter, in addition to the applicable 
definitions in the building code, certain additional terms are 
defined as follows: 

[B] ADHESIVE ANCHOR. An assembly consisting of a 
threaded rod, washer, nut, and chemical adhesive approved 
by the code official for installation in existing concrete or 
masonry. 

[B] COMPOSITE PANEL. A wood structural panel product 
composed of a combination of wood veneer and wood-based 
material, and bonded with waterproof adhesive. 

[B] CRIPPLE WALL. A wood-frame stud wall extending 
from the top of the foundation to the underside of the lowest 
floor framing. 

[B] EXPANSION ANCHOR. An approved post-installed 
anchor, inserted into a pre-drilled hole in existing concrete or 
masonry, that transfers loads to or from the concrete or 
masonry by direct bearing or friction or both. 

[B] ORIENTED STRAND BOARD (OSB). A mat-formed 
wood structural panel product composed of thin rectangular 
wood strands or wafers arranged in oriented layers and 
bonded with waterproof adhesive. 

[B] PERIMETER FOUNDATION. A foundation system 
that is located under the exterior walls of a building. 

[BJ PLYWOOD. A wood structural panel product composed 
of sheets of wood veneer bonded together with the grain of 
adjacent layers oriented at right angles to one another. 

[B] SNUG-TIGHT. As tight as an individual can torque a 
nut on a bolt by hand, using a wrench with a 10-inch-long 
(254 mm) handle, and the point at which the full surface of 
the plate washer is contacting the wood member and slightly 
indenting the wood surface. 

[B] WAFERBOARD. A mat-formed wood structural panel 
product composed of thin rectangular wood wafers arranged 
in random layers and bonded with waterproof adhesive. 

[B] WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL. A structural panel 
product composed primarily of wood and meeting the 
requirements of United States Voluntary Product Standard PS 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



97 



APPENDIX A 



1 and United States Voluntary Product Standard PS 2. Wood 
structural panels include all- veneer plywood, composite pan- 
els containing a combination of veneer and wood-based 
material, and mat-formed panels such as oriented strand 
board and waferboard. 



SECTION A303 
STRUCTURAL WEAKNESSES 

[B] A303.1 General. For the purpose of this chapter, struc- 
tural weaknesses shall be as specified below. 

1 . Sill plates or floor framing that are supported directly 

Ion the ground without a foundation system that con- 
forms to the building code. 

2. A perimeter foundation system that is constructed only 
of wood posts supported on isolated pad footings. 

3. Perimeter foundation systems that are not continuous. 

Exceptions: 

1. Existing single-story exterior walls not 
exceeding 10 feet (3048 mm) in length, form- 
ing an extension of floor area beyond the line 
of an existing continuous perimeter founda- 
tion. 

2. Porches, storage rooms and similar spaces not 
containing fuel-burning appliances. 

4. A perimeter foundation system that is constructed of 
unreinforced masonry or stone. 

5. Sill plates that are not connected to the foundation or 
that are connected with less than what is required by the 
building code. 

Exception: Where approved by the code official, 
connections of a sill plate to the foundation made 
with other than sill bolts may be accepted if the 
capacity of the connection is equivalent to that 
required by the building code. 

6. Cripple walls that are not braced in accordance with the 
requirements of Section A304.4 and Table A3-A, or 
cripple walls not braced with diagonal sheathing or 
wood structural panels in accordance with the building 
code. 



SECTION A304 
STRENGTHENING REQUIREMENTS 

[B] A304.1 General. 

[B] A304.1.1 Scope. The structural weaknesses noted in 
Section A303 shall be strengthened in accordance with the 
requirements of this section. Strengthening work may 
include both new construction and alteration of existing 
construction. Except as provided herein, all strengthening 
work and materials shall comply with the applicable provi- 
| sions of the building code. 

[B] A304.1.2 Condition of existing wood materials. All 
existing wood materials that will be a part of the strength- 
ening work (sills, studs, sheathing, etc.) shall be in a sound 



condition and free from defects that substantially reduce 
the capacity of the member. Any wood material found to 
contain fungus infection shall be removed and replaced 
with new material. Any wood material found to be 
infested with insects or to have been infested with insects 
shall be strengthened or replaced with new materials to 
provide a net dimension of sound wood at least equal to its 
undamaged original dimension. 

[B] A304.1.3 Floor joists not parallel to foundations. Floor 
joists framed perpendicular or at an angle to perimeter foun- 
dations shall be restrained either by an existing nom- 
inal 2-inch- wide (51 mm) continuous rim joist or by a 
nominal 2-inch- wide (51 mm) full-depth block between 
alternate joists in one-and two-story buildings, and between 
each joist in three-story buildings. Existing blocking for 
multistory buildings must occur at each joist space above a 
braced cripple wall panel. 

Existing connections at the top and bottom edges of an 
existing rim joist or blocking need not be verified in one- 
story buildings. In multistory buildings, the existing top 
edge connection need not be verified; however, the bottom 
edge connection to either the foundation sill plate or the top 
plate of a cripple wall shall be verified. The minimum exist- 
ing bottom edge connection shall consist of 8d toenails 
spaced 6 inches (152 mm) apart for a continuous rim joist, 
or three 8d toenails per block. When this minimum bottom 
edge-connection is not present or cannot be verified, a sup- 
plemental connection installed as shown in Figure A3-8A 1 
or A3-8C shall be provided. j 

Where an existing continuous rim joist or the minimum exist- 
ing blocking does not occur, new V 4 -inch (19 mm) or 23 / 32 - 
inch (18 mm) wood structural panel blocking installed 
tightly between floor joists and nailed as shown in Figure A3- 
9 shall be provided at the inside face of the cripple wall. In lieu 
of wood structural panel blocking, tight fitting, full-depth 
2-inch (5 1 mm) blocking may be used. New blocking may be 
omitted where it will interfere with vents or plumbing that pene- 
trates the wall. 

[B] A304.1.4 Floor joists parallel to foundations. Where exist- 
ing floor joists are parallel to the perimeter foundations, 
the end joist shall be located over the foundation and, 
except for required ventilation openings, shall be continuous 
and in continuous contact with the foundation sill plate or 
the top plate of the cripple wall. Existing connections at the 
top and bottom edges of the end joist need not be verified 
in one-story buildings. In multistory buildings, the existing 
top edge connection of the end joist need not be verified; 
however, the bottom edge connection to either the foundation 
sill plate or the top plate of a cripple wall shall be verified. 
The minimum bottom edge connection shall be 8d toenails 
spaced 6 inches (152 mm) apart. If this minimum bottom 
edge connection is not present or cannot be verified, a sup- 
plemental connection installed as shown in Figure A3-8B, 1 
A3-8C or A3-9 shall be provided. § 

[B] A304.2 Foundations. 

[B] A304.2.1 New perimeter foundations. New perime- 
ter foundations shall be provided for structures with the 
structural weaknesses noted in Items 1 and 2 of Section 



98 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE 8 



APPENDIX A 



A303. Soil investigations or geotechnical studies are not 
required for this work unless the building is located in a 
special study zone as designated by the code official or 
other authority having jurisdiction. 

[B] A304.2.2 Evaluation of existing foundations. Partial 
perimeter foundations or unreinforced masonry founda- 
tions shall be evaluated by a registered design professional 
for the force levels specified in Section A301.3. Test 
reports or other substantiating data to determine existing 
foundation material strengths shall be submitted to the 
code official. Where approved by the code official, these 
existing foundation systems may be strengthened in accor- 
dance with the recommendations included with the evalua- 
tion in lieu of being replaced. 

Exception: In lieu of testing existing foundations to 
determine material strengths, and where approved by 
the code official, a new nonperimeter foundation sys- 
tem designed for the forces specified in Section A301.3 
may be used to resist lateral forces from perimeter 
walls. A registered design professional shall confirm 
the ability of the existing diaphragm to transfer seismic 
forces to the new nonperimeter foundations. 

[B] A304.2J Details for new perimeter foundations. All new 
perimeter foundations shall be continuous and constructed 
according to either Figure A3-1 or A3-2. All new construc- 
tion materials shall comply with the requirements of build- 
ing code. Where approved by the code official, the existing 
clearance between existing floor joists or girders and existing 
grade below the floor need not comply with the building 
code. 

Exception: Where designed by a registered design pro- 
fessional and approved by the code official, partial 
perimeter foundations may be used in lieu of a continu- 
ous perimeter foundation. 

[B] A304.2.4 New concrete foundations. New concrete 
foundations shall have a minimum compressive strength 
of 2,500 pounds per square inch (17.24 MPa) at 28 days. 

[B] A304.2.5 New hollow-unit masonry foundations. 
New hollow-unit masonry foundations shall be solidly 
grouted. The grout shall have minimum compressive 
strength of 2,000 pounds per square inch (13.79 MPa). 
Mortar shall be Type M or S. 

[B] A304.2.6 New sill plates. Where new sill plates are 
used in conjunction with new foundations, they shall be 
minimum 2x nominal thickness and shall be preservative- 
treated wood or naturally durable wood permitted by the 
building code for similar applications, and shall be marked 
or branded by an approved agency. Nails in contact with 
preservative-treated wood shall be hot-dip galvanized or 
other material permitted by the building code for similar 
applications. Metal framing anchors in contact with pre- 
servative treated wood shall be galvanized in accordance 
with ASTM A 653 with a G185 coating. 

[B] A304.3 Foundation sill plate anchorage. 

[B] A304.3.1 Existing perimeter foundations. Where 
the building has an existing continuous perimeter founda- 
tion, all perimeter wall sill plates shall be anchored to the 



foundation with adhesive anchors or expansion anchors in 
accordance with Table A3-A. 

Anchors shall be installed in accordance with Figure 
A3-3, with the plate washer installed between the nut and 
the sill plate. The nut shall be tightened to a snug-tight 
condition after curing is complete for adhesive anchors 
and after expansion wedge engagement for expansion 
anchors. All anchors shall be installed in accordance with 
manufacturer's recommendations. Where existing condi- 
tions prevent anchor installations through the sill plate, 
this connection may be made in accordance with Figure 
A3-4A, A3-4B, or A3-4C. The spacing of these alternate 
connections shall comply with the maximum spacing 
requirements of Table A3-A. Expansion anchors shall not 
be used where the installation causes surface cracking of 
the foundation wall at the locations of the bolt. 

[B] A304.3.2 Placement of anchors. Anchors shall be 
placed within 12 inches (305 mm), but not less than 9 
inches (229 mm), from the ends of sill plates and shall be 
placed in the center of the stud space closest to the 
required spacing. New sill plates may be installed in 1 
pieces where necessary because of existing conditions. For j 
lengths of sill plates greater than 12 feet (3658 mm), 
anchors or bolts shall be spaced along the sill plate as § 
specified in Table A3-A. For other lengths of sill plate, 1 
anchor placement shall be in accordance with Table A3-B. | 

Exception: Where physical obstructions such as fire- 
places, plumbing or heating ducts interfere with the 
placement of an anchor, the anchor shall be placed as | 
close to the obstruction as possible, but not less than 9 
inches (229 mm) from the end of the plate. Center-to- 
center spacing of the anchors shall be reduced as neces- | 
sary to provide the minimum total number of anchors 
required based on the full length of the wall. Center-to- 
center spacing shall not be less than 12 inches (305 
mm). 

[B] A304.3.3 New perimeter foundations. Sill plates for 
new perimeter foundations shall be anchored in accor- I 
dance with Table A3-A and as shown in Figure A3-1 or 1 
A3-2. 

[B] A304.4 Cripple wall bracing. 

[B] A304.4.1 General. Exterior cripple walls not exceed- 
ing 4 feet (1219 mm) in height shall be permitted to be 
specified by the prescriptive bracing method in Section 
A304.4. Cripple walls over 4 feet (1219 mm) in height 
require analysis by a registered design professional in 
accordance with Section A301 .3. 

[B] A304.4.1.1 Sheathing installation requirements. 
Wood structural panel sheathing shall not be less than 
15 / 32 -inch (12 mm) thick and shall be installed in accor- 
dance with Figure A3-5 or A3-6. All individual pieces 
of wood structural panels shall be nailed with 8d com- 
mon nails spaced 4 inches (102 mm) on center at all 
edges and 1 2 inches (305 mm) on center at each inter- 
mediate support with not less than two nails for each 
stud. Nails shall be driven so that their heads are flush 
with the surface of the sheathing and shall penetrate the 
supporting member a minimum of 1 V 2 inches (38 mm). 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



99 



APPENDIX A 



When a nail fractures the surface, it shall be left in 
place and not counted as part of the required nailing. A 
new 8d nail shall be located within 2 inches (51 mm) of 
the discounted nail and be hand-driven flush with the 
sheathing surface. Where the installation involves hori- 
zontal joints, those joints shall occur over nominal 2- 
inch by 4-inch (51 mm by 102 mm) blocking installed 
with the nominal 4-inch (102 mm) dimension against 
the face of the plywood. 

Vertical joints at adjoining pieces of wood structural 
panels shall be centered on studs such that there is a 
minimum 7 8 inch (3.2 mm) between the panels, and 
such that the nails are placed a minimum of 7 2 inch 
(12.7 mm) from the edges of the existing stud. Where 
such edge distances cannot be maintained because of 
the width of the existing stud, a new stud shall be added 
adjacent to the existing studs and connected in accor- 
dance with Figure A3-7. 

[B] A304.4.2 Distribution and amount of bracing. See 
Table A3-A and Figure A3-10 for the distribution and 
amount of bracing required for each wall line. Each braced 
panel length must be at least two times the height of the 
cripple stud. Where the minimum amount of bracing pre- 
scribed in Table A3-A cannot be installed along any walls, 
the bracing must be designed in accordance with Section 
A301.3. 

Exception: Where physical obstructions such as fire- 
places, plumbing or heating ducts interfere with the 
placement of cripple wall bracing, the bracing shall 
then be placed as close to the obstruction as possible. 
The total amount of bracing required shall not be 
reduced because of obstructions. 

[B] A304.4.3 Stud space ventilation. When bracing 
materials are installed on the interior face of studs forming 
an enclosed space between the new bracing and the exist- 
ing exterior finish, each braced stud space must be venti- 
lated. Adequate ventilation and access for future 
inspection shall be provided by drilling one 2-inch to 3- 
inch-diameter (51 mm to 76 mm) round hole through the 
sheathing, nearly centered between each stud at the top 
and bottom of the cripple wall. Such holes should be 
spaced a minimum of 1 inch (25 mm) clear from the sill or 
top plates. In stud spaces containing sill bolts, the hole 
shall be located on the center line of the sill bolt but not 
closer than I inch (25 mm) clear from the nailing edge of 
the sheathing. When existing blocking occurs within the 
stud space, additional ventilation holes shall be placed 
above and below the blocking, or the existing block shall 
be removed and a new nominal 2-inch by 4-inch (5 1 mm 
by 102 mm) block shall be installed with the nominal 4- 
inch (1 02 mm) dimension against the face of the plywood. 
For stud heights less than 18 inches (457 mm), only one 
ventilation hole need be provided. 

[B] A304.4.4 Existing underiloor ventilation. Existing 
underfloor ventilation shall not be reduced without provid- 
ing equivalent new ventilation as close to the existing ven- 
tilation as possible. Braced panels may include underfloor 



ventilation openings when the height of the opening, mea- 
sured from the top of the foundation wall to the top of the 
opening, does not exceed 25 percent of the height of the 
cripple stud wall; however, the length of the panel shall be 
increased a distance equal to the length of the opening or 
one stud space minimum. Where an opening exceeds 25 
percent of the cripple wall height, braced panels shall not 
be located where the opening occurs. See Figure A3-7. 

Exception: For homes with a post and pier foundation 
system where a new continuous perimeter foundation 
system is being installed, new ventilation shall be pro- 
vided in accordance with the building code. 
[B] A304.5 Quality control. All work shall be subject to 
inspection by the code official including, but not limited to: 

1. Placement and installation of new adhesive or expan- 
sion anchors installed in existing foundations. Special 
inspection is not required for adhesive anchors installed 
in existing foundations regulated by the prescriptive 
provisions of this chapter. 

2. Installation and nailing of new cripple wall bracing. 

3. Any work may be subject to special inspection when 
required by the code official in accordance with the 
building code. 

[B] A304.5.1 Nails. All nails specified in this chapter shall 
be common wire nails of the following diameters and 
lengths: 8d nails shall be 0.131 inch by 2'/ 2 inches. lOd 
nails shall be 0.148 inch by 3 inches. 12d nails shall be 
0.148 inch by 3'/ 4 inches. 16d nails shall be 0.162 inch by 
3 1 /, inches. Nails used to attach metal framing connectors 
directly to wood members shall be as specified by the con- 
nector manufacturer in an approved report. 



100 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE 8 



APPENDIX A 



[B] TABLE A3-A 
SILL PLATE ANCHORAGE AND CRIPPLE WALL BRACING 



NUMBER OF STORIES 
ABOVE CRIPPLE WALLS 


MINIMUM SILL PLATE CONNECTION 
AND MAXIMUM SPACING''" 


AMOUNT OF BRACING FOR EACH WALL LINE cd '« 


A Combination of Exterior Walls 
Finished with Portland Cement Plaster 

and Roofing Using Clay Tile or 

Concrete Tile Weighing More than 6 psf 

(287 N/m 2 ) 


All Other Conditions 


One story 


V 2 inch (12.7 mm) spaced 6 feet, 
inch (1829 mm) center-to-center with 
washer plate 


Each end and not less than 50 
percent of the wall length 


Each end and not less than 40 
percent of the wall length 


Two stories 


'/ 2 inch (12.7 mm) spaced 4 feet, 
inch (1219 mm) center-to-center with 
washer plate; or 5 / g inch (15.9 mm) 
spaced 6 feet, inch (1829 mm) cen- 
ter-to-center with washer plate 


Each end and not less than 70 
percent of the wall length 


Each end and not less than 50 
percent of the wall length 


Three stories 


7 S inch (15.9 mm) spaced 4 feet, 
inch (1219 mm) center-to-center with 
washer plate 


100 percent of the wall length' 


Each end and not less than 80 
percent of the wall length' 



a. Sill plate anchors shall be chemical anchors or expansion bolts in accordance with Section A304.3.I. 

b. All washer plates shall be 2 inches by 2 inches by 3 / 16 inch (5 1 mm by 5 1 mm by 4.8 mm) minimum. 

c. See Figure A3-10 for braced panel layout. 

d. Braced panels at ends of walls shall be located as near to the end as possible. 

e. All panels along a wall shall be nearly equal in length and shall be nearly equal in spacing along the length of the 

f. The minimum required underfloor ventilation openings are permitted in accordance with Section A304.4.4. 



wall. 



[B] TABLE A3-B 
SILL PLATE ANCHORAGE FOR VARIOUS LENGTHS OF SILL PLATE 3 ' 1 



NUMBER OF 
STORIES 


LENGTHS OF SILL PLATE 


Less than 12 feet (3658 mm) to 
6 feet (1829 mm) 


Less than 6 feet (1829 mm) 
to 30 inches (762 mm) 


Less than 30 inches 
(762 mm) 


One story 


Three connections 


Two connections 


One connection 


Two stories 


Four connections for '/ 2 -inch (12.7 mm) anchors or 
bolts or three connections for 7 g -inch (15.9 mm) 
anchors or bolts 


Two connections 


One connection 


Three stories 


Four connections 


Two connections 


One connection 



a. Connections shall be either chemical anchors or expansion bolts. 

b. See Section A304.3.2 for minimum end distances. 

c. Connections shall be placed as near to the center of the length of plate as possible. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



101 



APPENDIX A 





MINIMUM FOUNDATION DIMENSIONS 




MINIMUM FOUNDATION REINFORCING 


NUMBER OF 
STORIES 


IV 


F 


pa.b.c 


T 


H 


VERTICAL REINFORCING 


Single-pour wall and 
footing 


Footing placed separate 
from wall 


1 


1 2 inches 
(305 mm) 


6 inches 
(152 mm) 


12 inches 
(305 mm) 


6 inches 
(152 mm) 


< 24 inches 
(610 mm) 


#4 @ 48 inches 
(1219 mm) on center 


#4 @ 32 inches 
(813 mm) on center 


2 


15 inches 
(381 mm) 


7 inches 
(178 mm) 


1 8 inches 
(457 mm) 


8 inches 
(203 mm) 


> 36 inches 
(914 mm) 


#4 @ 48 inches 
(1219 mm) on center 


#4 @ 32 inches 
(813 mm) on center 


3 


1 8 inches 
(457 mm) 


8 inches 
(203 mm) 


24 inches 
(610 mm) 


10 inches 
(254 mm) 


> 36 inches 
(914 mm) 


#4 @ 48 inches 
(1219 mm) on center 


#4 @ 18 inches 
(457 mm) on center 



a. Where frost conditions occur, the minimum depth shall extend below the frost line. 

b. The ground surface along the interior side of the foundation may be excavated to the elevation of the top of the footing. 

c. When expansive soil is encountered, the foundation depth and reinforcement shall be as directed by the building official. 



EXISTING 2x BLOCKING 
OR RIM JOIST WITH 
EXISTING TOENAILS 



EXISTING 2-2x 
OR 1-2x PLATE 

EXISTING CRIPPLE 

STUD WALL 



EXISTING OR NEW 
2x SILL PLATE 




EXISTING STUD WALL WITH SOLE 
PLATE 



EXISTING SHEATHING OVER EXISTING 
FLOOR FRAMING 



<? 



EXISTING FLOOR FRAMING 

NEW ANCHORS SPACED AS 
REQUIRED BY TABLE A3-A. 
SEE FIGURE A3-3 FOR PLATE 
WASHER REQUIREMENTS 



1-#4 CONTINUOUS (THIS LOCATION) 
#4 PER TABLE (ALTERNATE HOOKS) 

EXISTING GROUND LEVEL 



#4 CONTINUOUS @ 16" O.C. 
(2- MINIMUM) 



COLD JOINT WHEN FOOTING AND STEM 
WALL ARE PLACED SEPARATELY. CLEAN 
AND ROUGHEN 



2-#4 CONTINUOUS 
IN FOOTING 



For SI: 



1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 i 



[B] FIGURE A3-1 
NEW REINFORCED CONCRETE FOUNDATION SYSTEM 



102 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



APPENDIX A 





MINIMUM FOUNDATION DIMENSIONS 




MINIMUM FOUNDATION REINFORCING 


NUMBER OF 

STORIES 


W 


F 


£ja,b,c 


T 


H 


VERTICAL 
REINFORCING 


HORIZONTAL 
REINFORCING 


1 


1 2 inches 
(305 mm) 


6 inches 
(152 mm) 


12 inches 
(305 mm) 


6 inches 
(152 mm) 


< 24 inches 
(610 mm) 


#4 @ 24 inches 
(610 mm) on center 


#4 continuous at top of 
stem wall 


2 


15 inches 
(381 mm) 


7 inches 
(178 mm) 


1 8 inches 
(457 mm) 


8 inches 
(203 mm) 


> 24 inches 
(610 mm) 


#4 @ 24 inches 
(6 1 mm) on center 


#4 @ 16 inches 
(406 mm) on center 


3 


1 8 inches 
(457 mm 


8 inches 
(203 mm) 


24 inches 
(610 mm) 


10 inches 
(254 mm) 


> 36 inches 
(914 mm) 


#4 @ 24 inches 
(610 mm) on center 


#4 @ 16 inches 
(406 mm) on center 



a. Where frost conditions occur, the minimum depth shall extend below the frost line. 

b. The ground surface along the interior side of the foundation may be excavated to the elevation of the top of the footing. 

c. When expansive soil is encountered, the foundation depth and reinforcement shall be as directed by the building official. 



EXISTING 2x BLOCKING 
OR RIM JOIST WITH 
EXISTING TOENAILS 



EXISTING 2-2x 
OR 1-2x PLATE 



EXISTING CRIPPLE 
STUD WALL 



2x6 SILL PLATE WITH 
1 IN. OF DRYPACK 
FOR FULL BEARING 




EXISTING STUD WALL WITH SOLE 
PLATE 



EXISTING SHEATHING MATERIAL 
OVER EXISTING FLOOR FRAMING 



EXISTING FLOOR FRAMING 

NEW ANCHORS SPACED AS 
REQUIRED BY TABLE A3-A. 
SEE FIGURE A3-3 FOR PLATE 
WASHER REQUIREMENTS 



1-#4 CONTINUOUS AT TOP OF WALL 
EXISTING GROUND LEVEL 



W 



- 2-#4 CONTINUOUS 
IN FOOTING 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 



[B] FIGURE A3-2 
NEW MASONRY CONCRETE FOUNDATION 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



103 



APPENDIX A 



EXISTING 2x BLOCKING 
OR RIM JOIST WITH 
EXISTING TOENAILS 



EXISTING 2-2x 
OR 1-2x PLATE - 



EXISTING CRIPPLE 
STUD WALL 



EXISTING SILL PLATE- 



INSTALL NEW ANCHORS - 
TO CLEAR ANY EXISTING 
REINFORCING 




EXISTING STUD WALL WITH SOLE 
PLATE 



EXISTING SHEATHING MATERIAL 
OVER EXISTING FLOOR FRAMING 



ADHESIVE ANCHOR OR EXPANSION 
ANCHOR WITH PLATE WASHER & NUT, 
WITH SIZE & SPACING AS REQUIRED. FILL 
ANNULAR SPACE IN SILL PLATE WITH 
ADHESIVE (ADHESIVE ANCHORS ONLY) 
SEE TABLE A3-A FOR QUANTITY 



EXISTING FOUNDATION WALL OR FOOTING 



EXISTING GROUND LEVEL 



2 1 / 2 " MIN 






-' i S 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 
NOTES: 

1. Plate washers shall comply with the following: 

V 2 in. anchor or bolt — 2 in. x 2 in. x 3 / lfl in. 
V s in. anchor or bolt — 2 in. x 2 in. x 3 / ;6 in. 

2. See Figure A3-5 or A3-6 for cripple wall bracing. 



[B] FIGURE A3-3 
SILL PLATE BOLTING TO EXISTING FOUNDATION 



104 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE 18 



APPENDIX A 



EXISTING 2x BLOCKING 
OR RIM JOIST WITH 
EXISTING TOENAILS 
SEE SECTION A304.1.4- 

EXISTING SILL PLATE - 



" > 



EXISTING FOUNDATION WALL- 
EXISTING GROUND LEVEL 



2fe"MIN 



EXISTING STUD WALL WITH SOLE 
PLATE 



EXISTING SHEATHING OVER 

EXISTING FLOOR FRAMING 



x m x 9" LONG PLATE WITH 

(2) - y 2 " DIAMETER ADHESIVE ANCHORS OR 
EXPANSION BOLTS TO FOUNDATION WALL AND 

(3) - y 4 " DIAMETER LAG SCREWS 
PREDRILLED INTO SILL PLATE. PROVIDE 
SINGLE PIECE WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL 
SHIM OR MULTIPLE LAYERS OF WOOD 
STRUCTURAL PANEL BETWEEN PLATE AND 
SILL WHEN SPACING EXCEEDS ?f 6 " AND IS 
LESS THAN OR EQUAL TO W- SEE TABLE 
A3-A FOR SPACING OF ANCHORS 






Is 

1" 



o e a 



2"MIN 



1 '-5"MIN 



.>?; 




^''-DIAMETER LAG SCREW 
?jf MIN. INTO SILL PLATE 
FOR SHIM ATTACHMENT 



SINGLE PIECE SHIM 
(AS REQUIRED) 

^"-DIAMETER HOLES 
FOR M" LAG SCREWS 



7" x 9" PLATE 



HOLE DIAMETER SHALL NOT 
EXCEED CONNECTOR 
DIAMETER BY MORE THAN 7, c 



CONNECTION WHEN SHIM 
SPACE EXCEEDS % INCH 
WIDTH UP TO 17," 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 
NOTES: 

1. If shim space exceeds 2'/ 2 in., alternate details will be required. 

2. Where required, single piece shim shall be foundation grade redwood or preservative-treated wood. If perservative-treated wood is used, it shall be isolated 
from the foundation system with a moisture barrier. 

[B] FIGURE A3-4A 
SILL PLATE BOLTING IN EXISTING FOUNDATION— ALTERNATE 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



105 



APPENDIX A 



EXISTING END FLOOR JOIST 
WITH EXISTING TOENAILS 
SEE SECTION A304.1 .4 



EXISTING SILL PLATE 



EXISTING GROUND LEVEL- 



EXISTING FOUNDATION WALL 




FOR SHIMS, WHERE REQUIRED 
SEE NOTE 2, FIGURE A3-4A 



V x V x 9" PLATE 
SEE FIGURE A3-4A FOR 

CONNECTION 



For SI: I inch = 25.4 mm. 



[B] FIGURE A3-4B 

ALTERNATE SILL PLATE ANCHOR TO EXISTING FOUNDATION WITHOUT CRIPPLE 

WALL AND FLOOR FRAMING PARALLEL TO FOUNDATIONS 




SINGLE-PIECE SHIM PLACED FOR 
FULL CONTACT, EXISTING SILL. 
SEE NOTE 2, FIGURE A3-4A 
FOR SHIM REQUIREMENTS. 



BEVELED WASHER REQUIRED 



7" x Vie" x 9" LONG PLATE 
SEE FIGURE A3-4A FOR 
ATTACHMENT INFORMATION. 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



[B] FIGURE A3-4C 
SILL PLATE ANCHORING TO EXISTING FOUNDATION— ALTERNATE CONNECTION FOR BATTERED FOOTING 



106 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



APPENDIX A 



EXISTING STUD WALL WITH SOLE 
PLATE 



EXISTING SHEATHING OVER EXISTING 
FLOOR FRAMING 



EXISTING 2x BLOCKING OR RIM 
JOIST WITH EXISTING TOENAILS 
SEE SECTION A304. 1.3 



8d GALVANIZED NAILS 
AT 4" ON CENTER 



'V THICK WOOD STRUCTURAL 
PANEL. SEE FIGURE A3-7 FOR 
PANEL AND NAILING LAYOUT 



8d GALVANIZED NAILS 
AT 4" ON CENTER 




EXISTING 2x SILL PLATE. SEE 
FIGURES A3-3, A3-4A, A3-4B 
ORA3-4CFORNEW 
CONNECTION 



EXISTING FOUNDATION WALL 



EXISTING GROUND LEVEL 



For SI: I inch = 25.4 mm. 

NOTE: See Figure A3-3 for sill plate anchoring. 

[B] FIGURE A3-5 
CRIPPLE WALL BRACING WITH NEW WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL ON EXTERIOR FACE OF CRIPPLE STUDS 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



■® 



107 



APPENDIX A 



EXISTING 2x BLOCKING OR RIM 
JOIST WITH EXISTING TOENAILS 
SEE SECTION A304.1. 3 



EXISTING 2-2x OR 1-2x PLATE 



NEW 2x BLOCKING WITH 4-1 Od 
NAILS EACH BLOCK TO SILL 
PRE DRILL HOLES AS NEEDED 
TO PRECLUDE SPLITTING- 



EXISTING STUD WALL WITH SOLE 
PLATE 



-EXISTING SHEATHING OVER EXISTING 
FLOOR FRAMING 



«, 



)~"W- 



> 




EDGE NAILING 

- 15 A> 2 " THICK WOOD STRUCTURAL 
PANEL. SEE FIGURE A3-7 FOR 
PANEL AND NAILING LAYOUT 



EXISTING 2x SILL PLATE, SEE 

FIGURES A3-3, A3-4A, A3-4B 

OR A3-4C FOR NEW CONNECTION 



EXISTING FOUNDATION WALL 



EXISTING GROUND LEVEL 



For SI: I inch = 25.4 mm. 



[B] FIGURE A3-6 
CRIPPLE WALL BRACING WITH WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL ON INTERIOR FACE OF CRIPPLE STUDS 



108 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



APPENDIX A 



T 



z 



2x BLOCKING FLAT ABOVE VENT 
OPENING. CONNECT TO STUDS WITH 
SHEET METAL CONNECTORS 



8d NAILS AT 12" ON CENTER 
AT INTERMEDIATE STUDS. MIN. 
2 NAILS EACH STUD 




EXISTING CRIPPLE STUDS 



SEE ALTERNATES BELOW 
FOR VERTICAL PANEL JOINTS 




O 



i^_ j_. 



O 



f 



-2x BLOCKING FLAT ABOVE VENT 
OPENING. CONNECT TO STUDS 
WITH SHEET METAL CONNECTORS 

8d NAILS AT 4" ON 

CENTER ON ALL EDGES OF 

EACH INDIVIDUAL PIECE 



2" TO 3" DIAMETER 
VENTILATION HOLES. SEE 
SECTIOINA304.4.3- 






o 



. J__ 



l 




O 



+ - 



1" CLEAR 




1" CLEAR 



Q 



EXISTING VENT ' 

EXISTING FOUNDATION WALL- 
GROUND LEVEL 
SILL ANCHOR 



NEW 2x CRIPPLE STUD NAILED 
TO EXISTING STUD WITH 10d 
COMMON NAILS AT 4" ON 
CENTER AT WOOD STRUCTURAL 
PANEL JOINT. 3 NAILS MIN. 



EXISTING STUD 2" 
MIN. OR PROVIDE 
NEW STUD AT 
PANEL JOINTS 




VERTICAL SPLICE 
AT DOUBLE STUD 



VERTICAL SPLICE 
AT SINGLE STUD 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 i 



[B] FIGURE A3-7 
PARTIAL CRIPPLE STUD WALL ELEVATION 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE 8 



109 



APPENDIX A 



EXISTING RIM JOIST OR BLOCKING 
WITH EXISTING NAILING TO BE 

VERIFIED PERA304.1.3 

WHERE AN EXISTING RIM JOIST 
OR BLOCKING IS NOT PRESENT, 
PROVIDE NEW 2x SOLID BLOCKING 

AS FOLLOWS: 

3-STORY: EVERY JOIST SPACE 
2-STORY: EVERY JOIST SPACE 

ABOVE BRACED PANELS, 
ALTERNATE JOIST SPACES 
AT OTHER LOCATIONS 
1 -STORY: 2-2x OR 1-2x PLATE 



EXISTING 2-2x OR 1-2x PLATE 



EXISTING CRIPPLE STUD WALL- 
SEE FIGURE A3-5 FOR BRACING 




WHERE AN EXISTING RIM JOIST 
OR BLOCKING NAILING CAN NOT 
BE VERIFIED. PROVIDE A NEW 
FRAMING CLIP FROM BLOCKS TO 
TOP PLATE WITH A MINIMUM 
HORIZONTAL CAPACITY OF 450 
POUNDS AS FOLLOWS: 
3-STORY: 16"O.C. 
2-STORY: 32" O.C. 
1 -STORY: 48" O.C. 




NEW 2x SOLID BLOCKING INSTALLED 
TO FIT TIGHTLY BETWEEN FLOOR 
JOISTS 

NEW FRAMING CLIP (FLAT) AT EACH 
BLOCK TO PLATE WITH A MINIMUM 
HORIZONTAL CAPACITY OF 450 

POUNDS. SPACE AS INDICATED ABOVE 



ALTERNATE DETAIL FOR FLUSH CONDITION 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound = 4.4 N. 

NOTE: See manufacturing instructions for nail sizes associated with metal framing clips. 

[B] FIGURE A3-8A 
TYPICAL FLOOR TO CRIPPLE WALL CONNECTION (FLOOR JOISTS NOT PARALLEL TO FOUNDATIONS) 



110 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



APPENDIX A 



EXISTING RIM JOIST- 



EXISTING NAILING TO BE 
VERIFIED PER A304. 1.4 



EXISTING 2-2x OR 1-2x PLATE 



EXISTING CRIPPLE STUD WALL 
SEE FIGURE A3.5 FOR BRACING 




WHERE EXISTING NAILING CAN NOT BE 
VERIFIED FROM THE EXISTING RIM 
JOIST TO TOP PLATE, PROVIDE A 
FRAMING CLIP WITH A MINIMUM 
HORIZONTAL CAPACITY OF 450 POUNDS 
AS FOLLOWS: 
3-STORY: 16"O.C. 
2-STORY: 32" O.C. 
1 -STORY: 48" O.C. 



^ 



EXISTING RIM JOIST 




NEW 2x RIM JOIST INSTALLED TO FIT 
TIGHTLY BETWEEN FLOOR JOISTS 



FRAMING CLIP (FLAT) EACH AT THE 
SPACING INDICATED ABOVE WITH A 
HORIZONTAL CAPACITY OF 450 POUNDS 



ALTERNATE CONNECTION FOR FLUSH CONNECTION 



For ST: I inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound = 4.4 N. 

NOTE: See manufacturing instructions for nail sizes associated with metal framing clips. 

[B] FIGURE A3-8B 
TYPICAL FLOOR TO CRIPPLE WALL CONNECTION (FLOOR JOISTS PARALLEL TO FOUNDATIONS) 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



111 



APPENDIX A 



WHERE AN EXISTING RIM JOIST 

OR BLOCKING IS NOT PRESENT, 

PROVIDE NEW 2x SOLID BLOCKING 

AS FOLLOWS: 

3-STORY: EVERY JOIST SPACE 

2-STORY: EVERY JOIST SPACE ABOVE 

BRACED PANELS, ALTERNATE JOIST 
SPACES AT OTHER LOCATIONS 

1 -STORY: ALTERNATE JOIST SPACES 



EXISTING END FLOOR JOIST 
OR BLOCKING WITH EXISTING 
TOENAILS TO BE VERIFIED 
PERA304.1.3 



EXISTING 2x MUDSILL 

EXISTING FOUNDATION WALL 
EXISTING GROUND LEVE 




WHERE AN EXISTING END JOIST 
OR BLOCK TOE NAILING CAN NOT 
BE VERIFIED, PROVIDE A NEW 
FRAMING CLIP FROM END JOIST 
OR BLOCK TO MUDSILL AS 
FOLLOWS: 

16"O.C. 

32" O.C, 

48" O.C. 
NEW FRAMING CLIP MINIMUM 
ALLOWABLE CAPACITY IS 450 
POUNDS 



FLOOR JOISTS NOT PARALLEL TO FOUNDATIONS 



EXISTING END JOIST WITH 
EXISTING TOENAILS TO BE 
VERIFIED PERA304.1.4 



EXISTING 2x MUDSILL- 




WHERE AN EXISTING END JOIST 
OR BLOCK TOE NAILING CAN NOT 
BE VERIFIED. PROVIDE A NEW 
FRAMING CLIP FROM END JOIST 
OR BLOCK TO MUDSILL AS 
FOLLOWS: 

16" O.C. 

32" O.C. 

48" O.C, 
NEW FRAMING CLIP MINIMUM 
ALLOWABLE CAPACITY IS 450 
POUNDS 



FLOOR JOISTS PARALLEL TO FOUNDATIONS 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 
NOTES: 

1. See Section A304.3 for sill plate anchorage. 

2. See manufacturing instructions for nail sizes associated with metal framing clips. 



[B] FIGURE A3-8C 
TYPICAL FLOOR TO MUDSILL CONNECTIONS 



112 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



APPENDIX A 



EXISTING 2-2x OR 1-2x PLATE 

NEW 2x BLOCK BETWEEN EACH 
STUD WHEN EXISTING CRIPPLE 
STUD WALL HAS SINGLE TOP PLATE 
NAIL TO TOP PLATE WITH 3-1 Od 
NAILS. (PRE-DRILL BLOCK) 



EXISTING CRIPPLE STUD WALL. 
SEE FIGURE A3.5 FOR BRACING - 




NEW 2x BLOCK WITH 3-1 Od NAILS 
PRE-DRILL BLOCK TO PRECLUDE SPLITTING 




WHERE AN EXISTING RIM JOIST OR BLOCKING 
IS NOT PRESENT, PROVIDE NEW %" WOOD 
STRUCTURAL PANEL BLOCKING INSTALLED TO 
FIT TIGHTLY BETWEEN FLOOR JOISTS. NAIL 
WITH 8d NAILS AT 4" ON CENTER TO TOP 
PLATE AND SILL PLATE. SPACE BLOCKS AS 
FOLLOWS: 

3-STORY: EVERY JOIST SPACE 
2-STORY: EVERY JOIST SPACE ABOVE 

BRACED PANELS, ALTERNATE JOIST 
SPACES AT OTHER LOCATIONS 
1-STORY: ALTERNATE JOIST SPACE 



FLOOR JOISTS NOT PARALLEL TO FOUNDATION 



EXISTING RIM JOIST WITH 
EXISTING NAILING TO BE 
VERIFIED PER A304.1. 4- 




NEW 2x BLOCKING. SEE REQUIREMENTS 
ABOVE 



WHERE EXISTING NAILING FROM EXISTING RIM 
JOIST TO TOP PLATE CAN NOT BE VERIFIED, 
PROVIDE NEW Ya" WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL 
BLOCKING. SEE REQUIREMENTS ABOVE. 



FLOOR JOISTS PARALLEL TO FOUNDATION 



For ST: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, I pound = 4.4N. 

NOTE: See Section A304.4 for cripple wall bracing. 



[B] FIGURE A3-9 
ALTERNATE FLOOR FRAMING TO CRIPPLE WALL CONNECTION 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



113 



APPENDIX A 



CO 

I 
I- 
<z 
O 
u. 

z 

O 
x 

CO 

z 

CD 
Z 

O 

< 

CQ 

Q 
LU 

O 
LU 
CC 



REQUIRED BRACING FOR 1-STORY BUILDING 
30 FT . 



■11 FT. 10 IN. 



■11 FT. 10 IN. 



«- 5 FT. 4 IN.* 



:'-2_^ ^i^- 



•*- 4 FT. ■ 



■* 5 FT, 4 IN* 



///////////y////? z. 



NOTES: 

1 . Bracing shown assumes cripple stud height of 24 in. 

2. Minimum panel length shall be two times the cripple stud 
wall height. 

3. All panels along a wall shall be nearly equal in length and 
nearly equal in spacing along the wall. Wherever possible, 
panels should be laid out to begin and end on studs while 
maintaining required panel lengths. This may require the 
occasional addition of a new stud. 



2 FT. 
8 IN. 



2FT.L 
8 IN. 



8FTr 



■ 8 FTr 



- 8 FTr 



REQUIRED BRACING FOR 3-STORY BUILDING 



4 FT. 



4 FT. 



O 
< 

LU 



4 FT. 

I 



5 FT. 4 IN. 



4 FT. 



5 FT. 4 I 



4 FT. 



4 FT. 



x 
o 
< 

LU 



4 FT. 



C5 

z 

Q 
_j 

CD 
> 

o 



tr 
O 
u_ 

O 

| 

rr 
m 

Q 
LU 

rr 
O 

LU 

CC 



Bracing determination: 

1 -story building — each end and not less than 40% of wall length.' 

Transverse wall — 30 ft. x 0.40 = 12 ft. minimum panel length = 4 ft. in. 
2-story building — each end and not less than 50% of wall length.' 

Longitudinal wail — 40 ft. x 0.50 = 20 ft. in. minimum of bracing. 
3-story building — each end and not less than 80% of wall length.' 

Transverse wall — 30 ft. x 0.80 = 24 ft. in. minimum of bracing, 
'See Table A3-A for buildings with both plaster walls and roofing exceeding 6 psf (287 N/m 2 ). 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 



[B] FIGURE A3-10— 
FLOOR PLAN-CRIPPLE WALL BRACING LAYOUT 



114 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



CHAPTER A4 



EARTHQUAKE RISK REDUCTION 
IN WOOD-FRAME RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS 
WITH SOFT, WEAK OR OPEN FRONT WALLS 



j 



SECTION A401 

GENERAL 
[B] A401.1 Purpose. The purpose of this chapter is to pro- 
mote public welfare and safety by reducing the risk of death 
or injury that may result from the effects of earthquakes on 
existing wood-frame, multiunit residential buildings. The 
ground motions of past earthquakes have caused the loss of 
human life, personal injury and property damage in these 
types of buildings. This chapter creates minimum standards 
to strengthen the more vulnerable portions of these structures. 
When fully followed, these minimum standards will improve 
the performance of these buildings but will not necessarily 
prevent all earthquake-related damage. 

[B] A401.2 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall apply 
to all existing Occupancy Group R-l and R-2 buildings of 
wood construction or portions thereof where the structure has 
a soft, weak, or open-front wall line, and there exists one or 
more stories above. 



tion compatibility requirements of this chapter. In lieu of 
analysis, a soft wall line may be defined as a wall line in a 
story where the story stiffness is less than 70 percent of the 
story above for the direction under consideration. 

[B] STORY. A story as defined by the building code, includ- 
ing any basement or underfloor space of a building with crip- 
ple walls exceeding 4 feet (1219 mm) in height. 

[B] STORY STRENGTH. The total strength of all seismic- 
resisting elements sharing the same story shear in the direc- 
tion under consideration. 

[B] WALL LINE. Any length of wall along a principal axis 
of the building used to provide resistance to lateral loads. Par- 
allel wall lines separated by less than 4 feet (1219 mm) shall 
be considered one wall line for the distribution of loads. 

[B] WEAK WALL LINE. A wall line in a story where the 
story strength is less than 80 percent of the story above in the 
direction under consideration. 



SECTION A402 
DEFINITIONS 

Notwithstanding the applicable definitions, symbols and 
notations in the building code, the following definitions shall 
apply for the purposes of this chapter: 

[B] ASPECT RATIO. The span-width ratio for horizontal 
diaphragms and the height-length ratio for shear walls. 

[B] GROUND FLOOR. Any floor whose elevation is imme- 
diately accessible from an adjacent grade by vehicles or 
pedestrians. The ground floor portion of the structure does 
not include any floor that is completely below adjacent 
grades. 

[B] NONCONFORMING STRUCTURAL MATERIALS. 
Wall bracing materials other than wood structural panels or 
diagonal sheathing. 

[B] OPEN-FRONT WALL LINE. An exterior wall line, 
without vertical elements of the lateral force-resisting system, 
that requires tributary seismic forces to be resisted by dia- 
phragm rotation or excessive cantilever beyond parallel lines 
of shear walls. Diaphragms that cantilever more than 25 per- 
cent of the distance between lines of lateral force-resisting 
elements from which the diaphragm cantilevers shall be con- 
sidered excessive. Exterior exit balconies of 6 feet (1829 mm) 
or less in width shall not be considered excessive cantilevers. 

[B] RETROFIT. An improvement of the lateral force-resist- 
ing system by alteration of existing structural elements or 
addition of new structural elements. 

[B] SOFT WALL LINE. A wall line whose lateral stiffness 
is less than that required by story drift limitations or deforma- 



SECTION A403 

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN 

[B] A403.1 General. All modifications required by the provi- 
sions in this chapter shall be designed in accordance with the 
International Building Code provisions for new construction, 
except as modified by this chapter. 

Exception: Buildings for which the prescriptive measures 
provided in Section A404 apply and are used. 

No alteration of the existing lateral force-resisting system 
or vertical load-carrying system shall reduce the strength or 
stiffness of the existing structure, unless the altered structure 
would remain in conformance to the building code and this 
chapter. 

[B] A403.2 Scope of analysis. This chapter requires the 
alteration, repair, replacement or addition of structural ele- 
ments and their connections to meet the strength and stiffness 
requirements herein. The lateral -load-path analysis shall 
include the resisting elements and connections from the wood 
diaphragm immediately above any soft, weak or open-front 
wall lines to the foundation soil interface or to the uppermost 
story of a podium structure comprised of steel, masonry, or 
concrete structural systems that supports the upper, wood- 
framed structure. Stories above the uppermost story with a 
soft, weak, or open-front wall line shall be considered in the 
analysis but need not be modified. The lateral-load-path 
analysis for added structural elements shall also include eval- 
uation of the allowable soil-bearing and lateral pressures in 
accordance with the building code. Where any portion of a 
building within the scope of this chapter is constructed on or 
into a slope steeper than one unit vertical in three units hori- 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



115 



APPENDIX A 



zontal (33-percent slope), the lateral force-resisting system at 
and below the base level diaphragm shall be analyzed for the 
effects of concentrated lateral forces at the base caused by 
this hillside condition. 

Exception: When an open-front, weak or soft wall line 
exists because of parking at the ground floor of a two- 
story building and the parking area is less than 20 percent 
of the ground floor area, then only the wall lines in the 
open, weak or soft directions of the enclosed parking area 
need comply with the provisions of this chapter. 

[B] A403.3 Design base shear and design parameters. The 
design base shear in a given direction shall be permitted to be 
75 percent of the value required for similar new construction 
in accordance with the building code. The value of R used in 
the design of the strengthening of any story shall not exceed 
the lowest value of R used in the same direction at any story 
above. The system overstrength factor, A , and the deflection 
amplification factor, C d , shall not be less than the largest 
respective value corresponding to the R factor being used in 
the direction under consideration. 

Exceptions: 

1 . For structures assigned to Seismic Design Category 
B, values of R, A and C d shall be permitted to be 
based on the seismic force-resisting system being 
used to achieve the required strengthening. 

2. For structures assigned to Seismic Design Category 
C or D, values of R, A and C d shall be permitted to 
be based on the seismic force-resisting system 
being used to achieve the required strengthening, 
provided that when the strengthening is complete, 
the strengthened structure will not have an extreme 
weak story irregularity defined as Type 5b in ASCE 
7 Table 12.3-2. 

3. For structures assigned to Seismic Design Category 
E, values of R, A and C d shall be permitted to be 
based on the seismic force-resisting system being 
used to achieve the required strengthening, pro- 
vided that when the strengthening is complete, the 
strengthened structure will not have an extreme soft 
story, a weak story, or an extreme weak story irreg- 
ularity defined, respectively, as Types lb, 5a and 
5b in ASCE 7 Table 12.3-2. 

[B] A403.4 Story drift limitations. The calculated story 
drift for each retrofitted story shall not exceed the allowable 
deformation compatible with all vertical load-resisting ele- 
ments and 0.025 times the story height. The calculated story 
drift shall not be reduced by the effects of horizontal dia- 
phragm stiffness but shall be increased when these effects 
produce rotation. Drift calculations shall be in accordance 
with the building code. 

[B] A403.4.1 Pole structures. The effects of rotation and 
soil stiffness shall be included in the calculated story drift 
where lateral loads are resisted by vertical elements whose 
required depth of embedment is determined by pole for- 
mulas. The coefficient of subgrade reaction used in 
deflection calculations shall be based on a geotechnical 



investigation conducted in accordance with the building 1 
code. I 

[B] A403.5 P A effects. The requirements of the building 
code shall apply, except as modified herein. All structural 
framing elements and their connections not required by 
design to be part of the lateral force-resisting system shall be 
designed and/or detailed to be adequate to maintain support 
of design dead plus live loads when subjected to the expected 
deformations caused by seismic forces. The stress analysis of 
cantilever columns shall use a buckling factor of 2.1 for the 
direction normal to the axis of the beam. 

[B] A403.6 Ties and continuity. All parts of the structure 
included in the scope of Section A403.2 shall be intercon- 
nected as required by the building code. 

[B] A403.7 Collector elements. Collector elements shall be 
provided that can transfer the seismic forces originating in 
other portions of the building to the elements within the scope 
of Section A403.2 that provide resistance to those forces. 

[B] A403.8 Horizontal diaphragms. The strength of an 
existing horizontal diaphragm sheathed with wood structural 
panels or diagonal sheathing need not be investigated unless 
the diaphragm is required to transfer lateral forces from verti- 
cal elements of the seismic force-resisting system above the 
diaphragm to elements below the diaphragm because of an 
offset in placement of the elements. 

Wood diaphragms with stories above shall not be allowed 
to transmit lateral forces by rotation or cantilever except as 
allowed by the building code; however, rotational effects 
shall be accounted for when unsymmetric wall stiffness 
increases shear demands. 

Exception: Diaphragms that cantilever 25 percent or less 
of the distance between lines of lateral load-resisting ele- 
ments from which the diaphragm cantilevers may transmit 
their shears by cantilever, provided that rotational effects 
on shear walls parallel and perpendicular to the load are 
taken into account. 

[B] A403.9 Wood-framed shear walls. Wood-framed shear 
walls shall have strength and stiffness sufficient to resist the 
seismic loads and shall conform to the requirements of this 
section. 

[B] A403.9.1 Gypsum or cement plaster products. Gyp- 
sum or cement plaster products shall not be used to pro- 
vide lateral resistance in a soft or weak story or in a story 
with an open-front wall line, whether or not new elements 
are added to mitigate the soft, weak or open-front condi- 
tion. 
[B] A403.9.2 Wood structural panels. 

[B] A403.9.2.1 Drift limit. Wood structural panel 
shear walls shall meet the story drift limitation of Sec- 
tion A403.4. Conformance to the story drift limitation 
shall be determined by approved testing or calculation. | 
Individual shear panels shall be permitted to exceed the 
maximum aspect ratio, provided the allowable story 
drift and allowable shear capacities are not exceeded. 

[B] A403.9.2.2 Openings. Shear walls are permitted to 
be designed for continuity around openings in accor- 



118 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



APPENDIX A 



dance with the building code. Blocking and steel strap- 
ping shall be provided at corners of the openings to 
transfer forces from discontinuous boundary elements 
into adjoining panel elements. Alternatively, perforated 
shear wall provisions of the building code are permitted 
to be used. 

[B] A403.9.3 Hold-down connectors. 

[B] A4Q3.9.3.1 Expansion anchors in tension. Expan- 
sion anchors that provide tension strength by friction 
resistance shall not be used to connect hold-down 
devices to existing concrete or masonry elements. 

[B] A403.9.3.2 Required depth of embedment. The 
required depth of embedment or edge distance for the 
anchor used in the hold-down connector shall be pro- 
vided in the concrete or masonry below any plain con- 
crete slab unless satisfactory evidence is submitted to 
the code official that shows that the concrete slab and 
footings are of monolithic construction. 



SECTION A404 
PRESCRIPTIVE MEASURES FOR WEAK STORY 

[B] A404.1 Limitation. These prescriptive measures shall 
apply only to two-story buildings and only when deemed 
appropriate by the code official. These prescriptive measures 
rely on rotation of the second floor diaphragm to distribute 
the seismic load between the side and rear walls of the ground 
floor open area. In the absence of an existing floor diaphragm 
of wood structural panel or diagonal sheathing, a new wood 
structural panel diaphragm of minimum thickness of 3 / 4 inch 
(19 mm) and with lOd common nails at 6 inches (152 mm) on 
center shall be applied. 

[B] A404.1.1 Additional conditions. To qualify for these 
prescriptive measures, the following additional conditions 
need to be satisfied by the retrofitted structure: 

1 . Diaphragm aspect ratio LAV is less than 0.67, where 
W is the diaphragm dimension parallel to the soft, 
weak or open-front wall line and L is the distance in 
the orthogonal direction between that wall line and 
the rear wall of the ground floor open area. 

2. Minimum length of side shear walls = 20 feet (6096 
mm). 

3. Minimum length of rear shear wall = three-fourths 
of the total rear wall length. 

4. No plan or vertical irregularities other than a soft, 
weak or open-front wall line. 

5. Roofing weight less than or equal to 5 pounds per 
square foot (240 N/nr). 

6. Aspect ratio of the full second floor diaphragm 
meets the requirements of the building code for 
new construction. 

[B] A404.2 Minimum required retrofit. 

[B] A404.2.1 Anchor size and spacing. The anchor size 
and spacing shall be a minimum of 3 / 4 inch (19 mm) in 
diameter at 32 inches (813 mm) on center. Where existing 
anchors are inadequate, supplemental or alternative 



approved connectors (such as new steel plates bolted to the I 
side of the foundation and nailed to the sill) shall be used. | 

[B] A404.2.2 Connection to floor above. Shear wall top 
plates shall be connected to blocking or rim joist at upper 
floor with a minimum of 18-gage galvanized steel angle 
clips 4'/ 2 inches (114 mm) long with 12-8d nails spaced no 
farther than 16 inches (406 mm) on center, or by equiva- 
lent shear transfer methods. 

[B] A404.2.3 Shear wall sheathing. The shear wall 
sheathing shall be a minimum of l5 / 32 inch (1 1.9 mm) 5-Ply 
Structural I with lOd nails at 4 inches (102 mm) on center 
at edges and 1 2 inches (305 mm) on center at field; blocked 
all edges with 3 by 4 board or larger. Where existing sill 
plates are less than 3-by thick, place flat 2-by on top of sill 
between studs, with flat 18-gage galvanized steel clips 47 2 
inches (1 14 mm) long with 12-8d nails or 3 / s -inch-diameter 
(9.5 mm) lags through blocking for shear transfer to sill 
plate. Stagger nailing from wall sheathing between existing 
sill and new blocking. Anchor new blocking to foundation 
as specified above. 

[B] A404.2.4 Shear wall hold-downs. Shear walls shall 
be provided with hold-down anchors at each end. Two 
hold-down anchors are required at intersecting corners. 
Hold-downs shall be approved connectors with a mini- 
mum %-inch-diameter (15.9 mm) threaded rod or other 
approved anchor with a minimum allowable load of 4,000 
pounds (17.8 kN). Anchor embedment in concrete shall 
not be less than 5 inches (127 mm). Tie-rod systems shall 
not be less than 5 / g inch (15.9 mm) in diameter unless 
using high-strength cable. Threaded rod or high-strength 
cable elongation shall not exceed 5 / 8 inch (15.9 mm) using 
design forces. 



SECTION A405 
MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION 

[B] A405.1 New materials. New materials shall meet the 
requirements of the International Building Code, except 
where allowed by this chapter. 

[B] A405.2 Allowable foundation and lateral pressures. 

The use of default values from the building code for continu- 
ous and isolated concrete spread footings shall be permitted. 
For soil that supports embedded vertical elements, Section 
A403.6 shall apply. 

[B] A405.3 Existing materials. The physical condition, 
strengths, and stiffnesses of existing building materials shall 
be taken into account in any analysis required by this chapter. 
The verification of existing materials conditions and their 
conformance to these requirements shall be made by physical 
observation, material testing or record drawings as deter- 
mined by the registered design professional subject to the 
approval of the code official. 

[B] A405.3.1 Wood-structural-pane! shear walls. 

[B] A405.3.1.1 Existing nails. When the required cal- 
culations rely on design values for common nails or 
surfaced dry lumber, their use in construction shall be 
verified by exposure. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



117 



APPENDIX A 



[B] A405.3.1.2 Existing plywood. When verification 
of the existing plywood is by use of record drawings 
alone, plywood shall be assumed to be of three plies. 

[B] A405.3.2 Existing wood framing. Wood framing is 
permitted to use the design stresses specified in the build- 
ing code under which the building was constructed or 
other stress criteria approved by the code official. 

[B] A405.3.3 Existing structural steel. All existing 
structural steel shall be permitted to be assumed to comply 
with ASTM A 36. Existing pipe or tube columns shall be 
assumed to be of minimum wall thickness unless verified 
by testing or exposure. 

[B] A405.3.4 Existing concrete. All existing concrete 
footings shall be permitted to be assumed to be plain con- 
crete with a compressive strength of 2,000 pounds per 
square inch (13.8 MPa). Existing concrete compressive 
strength taken greater than 2,000 pounds per square inch 
(13.8 MPa) shall be verified by testing, record drawings or 
department records. 

[B] A405.3.5 Existing sill plate anchorage. The analysis 
of existing cast-in-place anchors shall be permitted to 
assume proper anchor embedment for purposes of evaluat- 
ing shear resistance to lateral loads. 



SECTION A406 
INFORMATION REQUIRED TO BE ON THE PLANS 

[B] A406.1 General. The plans shall show all information 
necessary for plan review and for construction and shall accu- 
rately reflect the results of the engineering investigation and 
design. The plans shall contain a note that states that this ret- 
rofit was designed in compliance with the criteria of this 
chapter. 

[B] A406.2 Existing construction. The plans shall show 
existing diaphragm and shear wall sheathing and framing 
materials; fastener type and spacing; diaphragm and shear 
wall connections; continuity ties; and collector elements. The 
plans shall also show the portion of the existing materials that 
needs verification during construction. 

[B] A406.3 New construction. 

[B] A406.3.1 Foundation plan elements. The foundation 
plan shall include the size, type, location and spacing of all 
anchor bolts with the required depth of embedment, edge 
and end distance; the location and size of all shear walls 
and all columns for braced frames or moment frames; ref- 
erenced details for the connection of shear walls, braced 
frames or moment-resisting frames to their footing; and 
referenced sections for any grade beams and footings. 

[B] A406.3.2 Framing plan elements. The framing plan 
shall include the length, location and material of shear 
walls; the location and material of frames; references on 
details for the column-to-beam connectors, beam-to-wall 
connections and shear transfers at floor and roof dia- 
phragms; and the required nailing and length for wall top 
plate splices. 

[B] A406.3.3 Shear wall schedule, notes and details. 
Shear walls shall have a referenced schedule on the plans 



that includes the correct shear wall capacity in pounds per 
foot (N/m); the required fastener type, length, gauge and 
head size; and a complete specification for the sheathing 
material and its thickness. The schedule shall also show 
the required location of 3-inch (76 mm) nominal or two 2- 
inch (51 mm) nominal edge members; the spacing of shear 
transfer elements such as framing anchors or added sill 
plate nails; the required hold-down with its bolt, screw or 
nail sizes; and the dimensions, lumber grade and species 
of the attached framing member. 

Notes shall show required edge distance for fasteners 
on structural wood panels and framing members; required 
flush nailing at the plywood surface; limits of mechanical 
penetrations; and the sill plate material assumed in the 
design. The limits of mechanical penetrations shall also be 
detailed showing the maximum notching and drilled hole 
sizes. 

[B] A406.3.4 General notes. General notes shall show the 
requirements for material testing, special inspection and 
structural observation. 



SECTION A407 
QUALITY CONTROL 

[B] A407.1 Structural observation, testing and inspection. 

Structural observation, in accordance with Section 1709 of 
the International Building Code, shall be required for all 
structures in which seismic retrofit is being performed in 
accordance with this chapter. Structural observation shall 
include visual observation of work for conformance to the 
approved construction documents and confirmation of exist- 
ing conditions assumed during design. 

Structural testing and inspection for new construction 
materials shall be in accordance with the building code, 
except as modified by this chapter. 



118 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



CHAPTER A5 

EARTHQUAKE HAZARD REDUCTION SN 
XISTING CONCRETE BUILDSNGS 



SECTION A501 
PURPOSE 

[B] A501.1 Purpose. The purpose of this chapter is to pro- 
mote public safety and welfare by reducing the risk of death 
or injury that may result from the effects of earthquakes on 
concrete buildings and concrete frame buildings. 

The provisions of this chapter are intended as minimum 
standards for structural seismic resistance, and are established 
primarily to reduce the risk of life loss or injury. Compliance 
with the provisions in this chapter will not necessarily pre- 
vent loss of life or injury or prevent earthquake damage to the 
rehabilitated buildings. 



SECTION A502 

SCOPE 

[B] A502.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall apply 
to all buildings having concrete floors or roofs supported by 
reinforced concrete walls or by concrete frames and columns. 
This chapter shall not apply to buildings with roof dia- 
phragms that are defined as flexible diaphragms by the build- 
ing code, and shall not apply to concrete frame buildings with 
masonry infilled walls. 

Buildings that were designed and constructed in accor- 
dance with the seismic provisions of the 1993 BOCA 
National Building Code, the 1994 Standard Building Code, 
the 1976 Uniform Building Code, the 2000 International 
Building Code or later editions of these codes shall be 
deemed to comply with these provisions, unless the seismic- 
ity of the region has increased since the design of the build- 
ing. 

Exception: This chapter shall not apply to concrete build- 
ings where Seismic Design Category A is permitted. 



SECTION A503 
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 

[B] A503.1 General. This chapter provides a three-tiered 
procedure to evaluate the need for seismic rehabilitation of 
existing concrete buildings. The evaluation shall show that 
the existing building is in compliance with the appropriate 
part of the evaluation procedure as described in Sections 
A505, A506 and A507, or shall be modified to conform to the 
respective acceptance criteria. This chapter does not preclude 
a building from being evaluated or modified to conform to 
the acceptance criteria using other well-established proce- 
dures, based on rational methods of analysis in accordance 
with principles of mechanics and approved by the authority 
having jurisdiction. 

[B] A503.2 Properties of cast-in-place materials. Except 
where specifically permitted herein, the stress-strain relation- 



ship of concrete and reinforcement shall be determined from 
published data or by testing. All available information, 
including building plans, original calculations and design cri- 
teria, site observations, testing and records of typical materi- 
als and construction practices prevalent at the time of 
construction, shall be considered when determining material 
properties. 

For Tier 3 analysis, expected material properties shall be 
used in lieu of nominal properties in the calculation of 
strength, stiffness and deformabiltity of building components. 

The procedure for testing and determination of material 
properties shall be from Section 6.2 of ASCE 41-06. 

[B] A503.3 Structural observation, testing and inspection. 
Structural observation, in accordance with Section 1709 of 
the International Building Code shall be required for all 
structures in which seismic retrofit is being performed in 
accordance with this chapter. Structural observation shall 
include visual observation of work for conformance to the 
approved construction documents and confirmation of exist- 
ing conditions assumed during design. 

Structural testing and inspection for new construction 
materials shall be in accordance with the building code, 
except as modified by this chapter. 



SECTION A504 
SITE GROUND MOTION 

[B] A504.1 Site ground motion for Tier 1 analysis. The 
earthquake loading used for the determination of demand on 
elements of the structure shall correspond to that required by 
ASCE 31 Tier 1. 

[B] A504.2 Site ground motion for Tier 2 analysis. The 
earthquake loading used for the determination of demand on 
elements and the structure shall conform to 75 percent of that 
required by the building code. 

[B] A504.3 Site ground motion for Tier 3 analysis. The site 
ground motion shall be an elastic design response spectrum 
prepared in conformance to the building code but having 
spectral acceleration values equal to 75 percent of the code 
design response spectrum. The spectral acceleration values 
shall be increased by the occupancy importance factor when 
required by the building code. 



SECTION A505 
TIER 1 ANALYSIS PROCEDURE 

[B] A505.1 General. Structures conforming to the require- 
ments of the ASCE 31 Tier 1, Screening Phase, are permitted 
to be shown to be in conformance to this chapter by submis- 
sion of a report to the building official as described in this 
section. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



119 



APPENDIX A 



[B] A505.2 Evaluation report. The registered design profes- 
sional shall prepare a report summarizing the analysis con- 
ducted in compliance with this section. As a minimum, the 
report shall include the following items: 

1. Building description. 

2. Site inspection summary. 

3. Summary of reviewed record documents. 

4. Earthquake design data used for the evaluation of the 
building. 

5. Completed checklists. 

6. Quick-check analysis calculations. 

7. Summary of deficiencies. 

SECTION A506 
TIER 2 ANALYSIS PROCEDURE 

[B] A506.1 General. A Tier 2 analysis includes an analysis 
using the following linear methods: Static or equivalent lat- 
eral force procedures. A linear dynamic analysis may be used 
to determine the distribution of the base shear over the height 
of the structure. The analysis, as a minimum, shall address all 
potential deficiencies identified in Tier 1, using procedures 
specified in this section. 

If a Tier 2 analysis identifies a nonconforming condition, 
such condition shall be modified to conform to the accep- 
tance criteria. Alternatively, the design professional may 
choose to perform a Tier 3 analysis to verify the adequacy of 
the structure. 

[B] A506.2 Limitations. A Tier 2 analysis procedure may be 
used if: 

1. There is no in-plane offset in the lateral force-resisting 

system. 

2. There is no out-of-plane offset in the lateral force- 
resisting system. 

3. There is no torsional irregularity present in any story. A 
torsional irregularity may be deemed to exist in a story 
when the maximum story drift, computed including 
accidental torsion, at one end of the structure transverse 
to an axis is more than 1.2 times the average of the 
story drifts at the two ends of the structure. 

4. There is no weak story irregularity at any floor level on 
any axis of the building. A weak story is one in which 
the story strength is less than 80 percent of that in the 
story above. The story strength is the total strength of 
all seismic-resisting elements sharing the story shear 
for the direction under consideration. 

Exception: Static or equivalent lateral force procedures 
shall not be used if: 

1 . The building is more than 100 feet (30 480 mm) in 
height. 

2. The building has a vertical mass or stiffness irregu- 
larity (soft story). Mass irregularity shall be consid- 
ered to exist where the effective mass of any story 
is more than 150 percent of the effective mass of 



any adjacent story. A soft story is one in which the 
lateral stiffness is less than 70 percent of that in the 
story above or less than 80 percent of the average 
stiffness of the three stories above. 

3. The building has a vertical geometric irregularity. 
Vertical geometric irregularity shall be considered 
to exist where the horizontal dimension of the lat- 
eral force-resisting system in any story is more than 
130 percent of that in an adjacent story. 

4. The building has a nonorthogonal lateral force- 
resisting system. 

[B] A506.3 Analysis procedure. A structural analysis shall 
be performed for all structures in accordance with the 
requirements of the building code, except as modified in Sec- 
tion A506. The response modification factor, R, shall be 
selected based on the type of seismic force-resisting system 
employed and shall comply with the requirements of Section 
301.1.4.1. 

[B] AS06.3.1 Mathematical model. The three-dimen- 
sional mathematical model of the physical structure shall 
represent the spatial distribution of mass and stiffness of 
the structure to an extent that is adequate for the calcula- 
tion of the significant features of its distribution of lateral 
forces. All concrete and masonry elements shall be 
included in the model of the physical structure. 

Exception: Concrete or masonry partitions that are iso- 
lated from the concrete frame members and the floor 
above. 

Cast-in-place reinforced concrete floors with span-to- 
depth ratios less than three-to-one may be assumed to be 
rigid diaphragms. Other floors, including floors con- 
structed of precast elements with or without a reinforced 
concrete topping, shall be analyzed in conformance to the 
building code to determine if they must be considered 
semi-rigid diaphragms. The effective in-plane stiffness of 
the diaphragm, including effects of cracking and disconti- 
nuity between precast elements, shall be considered. Park- 
ing structures that have ramps rather than a single floor 
level shall be modeled as having mass appropriately dis- 
tributed on each ramp. The lateral stiffness of the ramp 
may be calculated as having properties based on the 
uncracked cross section of the slab exclusive of beams and 
girders. 

[B] A506.3.2 Component stiffness. Component stiffness 
shall be calculated based on the approximate values shown 
in Table 6-5 of ASCE 41. 

[B] A506.4 Design, detailing requirements and structural 

component load effects. The design and detailing of new 
components of the seismic force-resisting system shall com- 
ply with the requirements of the International Building Code, 
unless specifically modified herein. 

[B] A506.5 Acceptance criteria. The calculated strength of a 
member shall not be less than the load effects on that mem- 
ber. 

[B] A506.5.1 Load combinations. For load and resistance 
factor design (strength design), structures and all portions 



120 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



APPENDIX A 



thereof shall resist the most critical effects from the com- 
binations of factored loads prescribed in the building code. 
Exception: For concrete beams and columns, the shear 
effect shall be determined based on the most critical 
load combinations prescribed in the building code. The 
shear load effect, because of seismic forces, shall be 
multiplied by a factor of Cd, but combined shear load 
effect need not be greater than Ve, as calculated in 
accordance with Equation A5-4. M prl and M pr2 are the 
end moments, assumed to be in the same ''direction 
(clockwise or counter clockwise), based on steel tensile 
stress being equal to 1.25 f y , where f y is the specified 
yield strength. 

V e = L-i- P rZ ± -& (Equation A5-1) 

where: 

W g = Total gravity loads on the beam 
[B] A506.5.2 Determination of the strength of mem- 
bers. The strength of a member shall be determined by 
multiplying the nominal strength of the member by a 
strength reduction factor, c|). The nominal strength of the 
member shall be determined in accordance with the build- 
ing code. 



SECTION A507 
TIER 3 ANALYSIS PROCEDURE 

[B] A507.1 General. A Tier 3 evaluation shall be performed 
using the nonlinear procedures of Section 6.3.1.2.2. of ASCE 
41 . The general assumptions and requirements of Section 6.0, 
excluding concrete frames with in-fills shall be used in the 
evaluation. Site-ground motions in accordance with Section 
A504.3 are permitted for this evaluation. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



Standard 
reference 
number 



7—05 

31—03 

41—06 



Standard 
reference 
number 



CHAPTER A6 

REFERENCED STANDARDS 



ASCE/SEI 



American Society of Civil Engineers 
Structural Engineering Institute 
1801 Alexander Bell Drive 
Reston,VA 20191-4400 

Referenced 

in code 

Title section number 

Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures with Supplement No. 1 A104, A403.3 

Seismic Evaluation of Existing Buildings A505.1 

Seismic Rehabilitation of Existing Buildings A503.2, A506.3.2, A507.1 



ASTM International 

100 Barr Harbor Drive 

West Conshohocken, PA 1 9428-2959 

Referenced 

in code 

Title section number 

Standard Specification for Steel Sheet, Zinc Coated (Galvanized) or 

Zinc-Iron Alloy-Coated (Galvannealed) by Hot-Dip Process A304.2.6 

Standard Specification for Load-bearing Concrete Masonry Units A505.2.3 

Standard Test Method for Splitting Tensile Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens . . . . A104, A106.3.3.2 
Standard Test Method for Diagonal Tension (Shear) in Masonry Assemblages A104, A106.3.3.2 



A653/A653M— 08 

C90— 2003 
C496— 96 
E519— OOel 






Standard 
reference 
number 



U.S. Department of Commerce 

National Institute of Standards and Technology 

100 Bureau Drive Stop 3460 

Gaithersburg, MD 20899 



Title 



Referenced 

in code 

section number 



PS-1— 95 
PS-2— 92 



Construction and Industrial Plywood A302 

Petformance Standard for Wood-based Structural-use Panels A302 



Standard 
reference 
number 



BNBC— 93 
BNBC— 96 
BNBC— 99 
IBC— 00 
IBC— 03 
IBC— 06 

SBC— 94 



International Code Council 

500 New Jersey Avenue, NW, 6th Floor 

Washington, DC 2000 1 

Referenced 

in code 

Title section number 

BOCA National Building Code® A502 

BOCA National Building Code® A502 

BOCA National Building Code® A202 

International Building Code® A202, A502 

International Building Code® A502 

International Building Code® A102.2, A103, A108.2, A203, A205.4, A206.2, A301.2, 

A403.11.2.1, A408.1, A505.2.3, A505.3, A508.4 
Standard Building Code® A502 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



123 



APPENDIX A 

ICC — continued 

SBC— 97 Standard Building Code® A502 

SBC— 99 Standard Building Code® A202 

UBC — 76 Uniform Building Code® A502 

UBC— 97 Uniform Building Code® A102.2, A103, A104, A108.2, A202, A203, 

A206.2, A301.2, A401.2, A403.1, A403.2, A403.3, 

A403.4, A403.7, A403.1 1.2.2, A405.2.3, 

A406.2, A406.3.2.1, A408.1, A502 

UBC — Standard 21-4 Hollow and Solid Load-bearing Concrete Masonry Units A106.2 

UBC — Standard 21-6 In-place Masonry Shear Tests A104 

UBC — Standard 21-7 Tests of Anchors in Unreinforced Masonry A105.3, A107.3, A107.4, Table Al-E 

UBC — Standard 21-8 Pointing of Unreinforced Masonry Walls A103, A106.3.3.9 

UBC — Standard 23-2 Construction and Industrial Plywood A403.1 1 .2.1 



124 2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



APPENDIX B 



SUPPLEMENTARY ACCESSIBILITY REQUIREMENTS 

1 ^&^ S a fas ^% I ^rf» 1 I I « ^^1 Bbs** %# I ram &# 1 I ll %M 'fej ff« § li led' I s^lk ^^ i &a 111 Kami ^2? 

77je provisions contained in this appendix are not mandatory unless specifically referenced in the adopting ordinance. 



SECTION B1 01 

QUALIFIED HISTORICAL BUILDINGS AND 

FACILITIES 

B101.1 General. Qualified historic buildings and facilities 

shall comply with Sections B 101.2 through B 101 .5. 

B101.2 Qualified historic buildings and facilities. These 
procedures shall apply to buildings and facilities designated 
as historic structures that undergo alterations or a change of 
occupancy. 

B101.3 Qualified historic buildings and facilities subject 

to Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. 
Where an alteration or change of occupancy is undertaken to 
a qualified historic building or facility that is subject to Sec- 
tion 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act, the federal 
agency with jurisdiction over the undertaking shall follow the 
Section 106 process. Where the state historic preservation 
officer or Advisory Council on Historic Preservation deter- 
mines that compliance with the requirements for accessible 
routes, ramps, entrances, or toilet facilities would threaten or 
destroy the historic significance of the building or facility, the 
alternative requirements of Section 410.9 for that element are 
permitted. 

B101.4 Qualified historic buildings and facilities not sub- 
ject to Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation 
Act. Where an alteration or change of occupancy is under- 
taken to a qualified historic building or facility that is not 
subject to Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation 
Act, and the entity undertaking the alterations believes that 
compliance with the requirements for accessible routes, 
ramps, entrances, or toilet facilities would threaten or destroy 
the historic significance of the building or facility, the entity 
shall consult with the state historic preservation officer. 
Where the state historic preservation officer determines that 
compliance with the accessibility requirements for accessible 
routes, ramps, entrances, or toilet facilities would threaten or 
destroy the historical significance of the building or facility, 
the alternative requirements of Section 410.9 for that element 
are permitted. 

B10 1.4.1 Consultation with interested persons. Inter- 
ested persons shall be invited to participate in the consulta- 
tion process, including state or local accessibility officials, 
individuals with disabilities, and organizations represent- 
ing individuals with disabilities. 

B101.4.2 Certified local government historic preserva- 
tion programs. Where the state historic preservation offi- 
cer has delegated the consultation responsibility for 
purposes of this section to a local government historic 
preservation program that has been certified in accordance 



with Section 101 of the National Historic Preservation Act 
of 1966 [(16 U.S.C. 470a(c)] and implementing regula- 
tions (36 CFR 61.5), the responsibility shall be permitted 
to be carried out by the appropriate local government body 
or official. 

B101.5 Displays. In qualified historic buildings and facilities 
where alternative requirements of Section 1105 are permitted, 
displays and written information shall be located where they 
can be seen by a seated person. Exhibits and signs displayed 
horizontally shall be 44 inches (1120 mm) maximum above 
the floor. 



SECTION B1 02 

FIXED TRANSPORTATION FACILITIES AND 

STATIONS 

B102.1 General. Existing fixed transportation facilities and 
stations shall comply with Section B 102.2. 

B 102.2 Existing facilities — key stations. Rapid rail, light 
rail, commuter rail, intercity rail, high-speed rail and other 
fixed guideway systems, altered stations, and intercity rail 
and key stations, as defined under criteria established by the 
Department of Transportation in Subpart C of 49 CFR Part 
37, shall comply with Sections B102.2.1 through B102.2.3. 

B102.2.1 Accessible route. At least one accessible route 
from an accessible entrance to those areas necessary for 
use of the transportation system shall be provided. The 
accessible route shall include the features specified in 
Appendix E109.2 of the International Building Code, 
except that escalators shall comply with International 
Building Code Section 3005.2.2. Where technical unfeasi- 
bility in existing stations requires the accessible route to 
lead from the public way to a paid area of the transit sys- 
tem, an accessible fare collection machine complying with 
International Building Code Appendix El 09.2.3 shall be 
provided along such accessible route. 

B 102.2.2 Platform and vehicle floor coordination. Sta- 
tion platforms shall be positioned to coordinate with vehi- 
cles in accordance with applicable provisions of 36 CFR 
Part 1192. Low-level platforms shall be 8 inches (250 
mm) minimum above top of rail. 

Exception: Where vehicles are boarded from side- 
walks or street-level, low-level platforms shall be per- 
mitted to be less than 8 inches (250 mm). 

B 102.2.3 Direct connections. New direct connections to 
commercial, retail, or residential facilities shall, to the 
maximum extent feasible, have an accessible route com- 
plying with Section 705.2 from the point of connection to 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE 8 



125 



APPENDIX B 



boarding platforms and transportation system elements 
used by the public. Any elements provided to facilitate 
future direct connections shall be on an accessible route 
connecting boarding platforms and transportation system 
elements used by the public. 



SECTION B103 
DWELLING UNITS AND SLEEPING UNITS 
B103.1 CommuDication features. Where dwelling units and 
sleeping units are altered or added, the requirements of Sec- 
tion E104.3 of the International Building Code shall apply 
only to the units being altered or added until the number of 
units with accessible communication features complies with 
the minimum number required for new construction. 



SECTION B104 
REFERENCED STANDARDS 

Y3.H626 2P National Historic Preservation J101.2, 43/933 
Act of 1966, as amended J 101.3, 3rd Edition, Washington, 
DC: J101.3.2 US Government Printing Office, 1993. 

2012 International Building Code. Washington, DC: Interna- 
tional Code Council, 201 1 . 

49 CFR Part 37.43 (c), Alteration of Transportation Facilities 
by Public Entities, Department of Transportation, 400 7th 
Street SW, Room 8102, Washington, DC 20590-0001. 



126 2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



APPENDIX C: Guidelines for the Wind Retrofit of Existing Buildings 

CHAPTER C1 

GABLE END RETROFIT FOR HSGH-WiND AREAS 

The provisions contained in this appendix are not mandatory unless specifically referenced in the adopting ordinance. 



SECTION C1 01 
GENERAL 

[B] CI 01.1 Intent and purpose. The provisions of this 
chapter provide prescriptive methods for selected structural 
retrofitting of existing buildings to increase their resistance to 
wind loads. Except as provided herein, other structural provi- 
sions of the International Building Code or the International 
Residential Code shall apply, as required. 

[B] CIO 1.2 Scope. The following prescriptive methods are 
intended for applications where the gable end wall framing is 
provided by a metal-plate-connected gable end frame or a 
conventionally framed gable end. The retrofits are appropri- 
ate for wall studs or webs spaced 24 inches (610 mm) on cen- 
ter maximum and oriented with the wide face either parallel 
or perpendicular to the surface of the gable end. Gable ends 
to be strengthened shall be permitted to be retrofitted using 
methods prescribed by provisions of this chapter. 



SECTION C1 02 
DEFINITIONS 

The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this 
chapter have the meanings shown herein. 

[B] ANCHOR BLOCK. A piece of lumber secured to hori- 
zontal braces and filling the gap between existing framing 
members for the purpose of restraining horizontal braces 
from movement perpendicular to the framing members. 

[B] COMPRESSION BLOCK. A piece of lumber used to 
restrain in the compression mode (force directed towards the 
interior of the attic) an existing or retrofit stud. It is attached 
to a horizontal brace and bears directly against the existing or 
retrofit stud. 

[B] CONVENTIONALLY FRAMED GABLE END. A 
gable end framed with studs whose faces are perpendicular to 
the gable end wall. 

[B] GABLE END FRAME. A factory or site-fabricated 
frame, installed as a complete assembly that incorporates ver- 
tical webs with their faces parallel to the plane of the frame. 

[B] HORIZONTAL BRACE. A piece of lumber used to 
restrain both compression and tension loads applied by a ret- 
rofit stud. It is typically installed horizontally on the top of 
attic floor framing members (truss bottom chords or ceiling 
joists) or on the bottom of pitched roof framing members 
(truss top chord or rafters). 



[B] HURRICANE TIES. Manufactured metal connectors 
designed to provide uplift and lateral restraint for roof fram- 
ing members. 

[B] NAIL PLATE. A manufactured metal plate made of 
galvanized steel with factory-punched holes for fasteners. A 
nail plate may have the geometry of a strap. 

[B] RETROFIT. The voluntary process of strengthening or 
improving buildings or structures, or individual components 
of buildings or structures for the puipose of making existing 
conditions better serve the purpose for which they were origi- 
nally intended or the purpose that current building codes 
intend. 

[B] RETROFIT STUD. A lumber member used to structur- 
ally supplement an existing gable end wall stud or gable end 
frame web. 

[B] STUD-TO-PLATE CONNECTOR. A manufactured 
metal connector designed to connect studs to plates. 



SECTION C103 
MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION 

[B] C103.1 Existing materials. All existing wood materials 
that will be part of the retrofitting work (trusses, rafters, ceil- 
ing joists, top plates, wall studs, etc.) shall be in sound condi- 
tion and free from defects or damage that substantially 
reduces the load-carrying capacity of the member. Any wood 
materials found to be damaged or deteriorated shall be 
strengthened or replaced with new materials to provide a net 
dimension of sound wood equivalent to its undamaged origi- 
nal dimensions. 

[B] C103.2 New materials. All new materials shall comply 
with the standards for those materials as specified in the 
International Building Code or the International Residential 
Code. 

[B] C103.3. Material specifications for retrofits. Materials 
for retrofitting gable end walls shall comply with Table 
C103.3. 

[B] C103.4 Twists in straps. Straps shall be permitted to be 
twisted or bent where they transition between framing mem- 
bers or connection points. Straps shall be bent only once at a 
given location though it is permissible that they be bent or 
twisted at multiple locations along their length. 

[B] C103.5 Fasteners. Fasteners shall meet the require- 
ments of Table C103.6, Sections C103.6.1 and C103.6.2, and 
shall be permitted to be screws or nails meeting the minimum 
length requirement shown in the figures and specified in the 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



127 



APPENDIX C 



tables of this appendix. Fastener spacing shall meet the 

requirements of Section C103.6.3. 

[B] CI 03.5.1 Screws. Unless otherwise indicated in the 
appendix, screw sizes and lengths shall be in accordance 
with Table C103.6. Permissible screws include deck 
screws and wood screws. Screws shall have at least 1 inch 
(25 mm) of thread. Fine threaded screws or drywall 
screws shall not be permitted. Select the largest possible 
diameter screw such that the shank adjacent to the head 
fits through the hole in the strap. 

[B] C103.5.2 Nails. Unless otherwise indicated in this 
appendix, nail sizes and lengths shall be in accordance 
with Table CI 03 .6. 



[B] C103.5.3 General fastener spacing. Fastener spac- 
ing for shear connections of lumber-to-lumber shall meet 
the requirements shown in Figure C103.6.3 and the fol- 
lowing conditions. 

[B] C103.5.3.1 General fastener spacing. Fastener 
spacing shall meet the following conditions except as 
provided for in Section C103.6.3.3. 

The distance between fasteners and the edge of lum- 
ber that is less than 3'/ 2 inches deep (89 mm) in the 
direction of the fastener length shall be a minimum of 3 / 4 
inch (19 mm). 

1. The distance between fasteners and the edge of 
lumber that is more than 2 inches (51 mm) thick 



[B] TABLE C103.3 
MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR RETROFITS 



COMPONENT 


MINIMUM SIZE OR THICKNESS 


MINIMUM MATERIAL GRADE 


MINIMUM CAPACITY 


Anchor blocks, compression 
blocks, and horizontal braces 


2x4 nominal lumber 


#2 Spruce-Pine-Fir or better 


N/A 


Nail plates 


20 gauge thickness 
8d minimum nail holes 


Galvanized sheet steel 


N/A 


Retrofit studs 


2x4 nominal lumber 


#2 Spruce-Pine-Fir or better 


N/A 


Gusset angle 


1 4 gage thickness 


Galvanized sheet steel 


350 pounds uplift and lateral load 


Stud-to-plate connector 


20 gage thickness 


Galvanized sheet steel 


500 pounds uplift 


Metal plate connectors, straps, and 
anchors 


20 gage thickness 


Galvanized sheet steel 


N/A 



For SI: 1 pound = 4.4 N. 

N/A = Not applicable 

a. Metal plate connectors, nail plates, stud-to-plate connectors, straps and anchors shall be products approved for connecting wood-to-wood or wood-to-concrete 

as appropriate. 

[B] TABLE C1 03.6 
NAIL AND SCREW REQUIREMENTS 



FASTENER TYPE 



#8 screws 



8d common nails 



lOd common nails 



MINIMUM SHANK DIAMETER 



N/A 



0.131 inches 



0.148 inches 



MINIMUM HEAD DIAMETER 



0.28 inches 



0.28 inches 



0.28 inches 



MINIMUM FASTENER LENGTH 



l-'/ 4 inches 



2-7, inches 



3 inches 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



8 % 



2X4 

3-1 »* FACE 



" ' - END DISTANCE MINIMUM 2-V2"' ' 

' :: - EDGE DISTANCE MINIMUM IS" " : " 
DISTANCE ACROSS GRAIN MINIMUM 1" 



DISTANCE PARALLEL TO GRAIN 
MINIMUM 2-1/2" 



© # 



2X6 

5-1/2" FACE 



For SI: I inch = 25.4 mm. 



[B] FIGURE C103.6.3 
FASTENER SPACINGS FOR LUWIBER-TO-LUMBER CONNECTIONS OPERATING IN SHEAR PARALLEL TO GRAIN 



128 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



APPENDIX C 



in the direction of the fastener length shall be a 
minimum of V 2 inch (13 mm). 

2. The distance between a fastener and the end of 
lumber shall be a minimum of 2'/ 2 inches (64 
mm). 

3. The distance between fasteners parallel to the 
grain (center-to-center) shall be a minimum of 2'/ 2 
inches (64 mm). 

4. The distance between fasteners perpendicular to 
the grain (center-to-center) in lumber that is less 
than 3'/ 2 inches (89 mm) deep in the direction of 
the fastener length shall be 1 inch (25 mm). 

5. The distance between fasteners perpendicular to 
the grain (center-to-center) in lumber that is more 
than 2 inches (51 mm) thick in the direction of 
the fastener length shall be '/, inch (13 mm). 

[B] C103.5.3.2 Wood-to-wood connections of two 

members each 2 inches or less in thickness. Wood- 
to-wood connections fastener spacing shall meet the 
following conditions. 

1. The distance between fasteners parallel to grain 
(center-to-center) shall be a minimum of 2'/ 2 
inches (64 mm). 

2. The distance between fasteners across grain (cen- 
ter-to-center) shall be a minimum of 1 inch (25 
mm). 

3. For wood-to-wood connections of lumber at right 
angles, fasteners shall be spaced a minimum of 
2'/ 2 inches (64 mm) parallel to the grain and 1 
inch (25 mm) perpendicular to the grain in any 
direction. 



[B] C103.5.3.3 Metal connectors for wood-to-wood 
connections. Metal connectors for wood-to-wood con- 
nections shall meet the following conditions. 

1. Fastener spacing to edge or ends of lumber shall 
be as dictated by the prefabricated holes in the 
connectors and the connectors shall be installed 
in a configuration that is similar to that shown by 
the connector manufacturer. 

2. Fasteners in l'/ 4 -inch-wide (32 mm) metal straps 
that are installed on the narrow face of lumber 
shall be a minimum 7 4 inch (6 mm) from either 
edge of the lumber. Consistent with Section 
CI 03 .6. 3.1, fasteners shall be permitted to be 
spaced according to the fastener holes fabricated 
into the strap. 

3. Fasteners in metal nail plates shall be spaced a 
minimum of 7 2 inch (13 mm) perpendicular to 
grain and a minimum of 1 V 2 inches (38 mm) par- 
allel to grain. 



SECTION C1 04 
RETROFSTTING GABLE END WALLS 

TO ENHANCE WIND RESISTANCE 

[B] C104.1 General. These prescriptive methods of retrofit- 
ting are intended to increase the resistance of existing gable 
end construction for out-of-plane wind loads resulting from 
high-wind events. The ceiling diaphragm shall be comprised 
of minimum 7 2 -inch-thick (13 mm) gypsum board, minimum 
nominal 3 / 8 -inch-thick (10 mm) wood structural panels, or 
plaster. An overview isometric drawing of one type of gable 
end retrofit to improve wind resistance is shown in Figure 
C 104. 1.1. 




i. HORIZON ? AL BRACES 
FASTENED TO ROOF 
AND C61LWS 
DIAPHRAGMS VIA THE 
ROOF AMD CBLWG 
L - . f ' i I 



2. H£TftOf n STUD 
FASTENED TO 
EXISTING STUD 
70SUPW.EMENT 
5 J 



^^ 




.. RETROFIT STUDS 
C • N6CTEDTO 
HOWSONTALBRAC 



GABLE 6NO TRAM! NO 

I i 

TQWALi.8£lOW 



THIS rr ' ' H ' A TRUSS OABiE EW 

TH6METH0OOI.OGT FOR A CONVE 

r i; i»'-r r , i , ~ i -• ~ r 

IN ORDER TO SHOW STRAPS COMPRESSION SLOCKS ABE NOT SHOWN. 

[B] FIGURE C104.1.1 

BASIC GABLE END RETROFIT METHODOLOGY 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



129 



APPENDIX C 



[B] CI 04.2 Horizontal braces. Horizontal braces shall be 
installed perpendicular to the roof and ceiling framing mem- 
bers at the location of each existing gable end stud greater 
than 3 feet (91 cm) in length. Unless it is adjacent to an omit- 
ted horizontal brace location, horizontal braces shall be mini- 
mum 2x4 dimensional lumber as defined in Section C103.3. 
A single horizontal brace is required at the top and bottom of 
each gable end stud for Retrofit Configuration A, B, or C. 
Two horizontal braces are required at the top and bottom of 
each gable end stud for Retrofit Configuration D. Maximum 
heights of gable end wall studs and associated retrofit studs 
for each Retrofit Configuration shall not exceed the values 
listed in Table C104.2. Horizontal braces shall be oriented 
with their wide faces across the roof or ceiling framing mem- 
bers, be fastened to a minimum of three framing members, 
and extend at least 6 feet (183 cm) measured perpendicularly 
from the gable end plus 2'/ 2 inches (64 mm) beyond the last 
top chord or bottom chord member (rafter or ceiling joist) 
from the gable end as shown in Figures CI 04.2(1), 
C104.2(2), C104.2(3) and C104.2(4). 

[B] C.104.2.1 Existing gable end studs. If the spacing of 
existing vertical gable end studs is greater than 24 inches 
(64 mm), a new stud and corresponding horizontal braces 
shall be installed such that the maximum spacing between 
existing and added studs shall be no greater than 24 inches 
(64 mm). Additional gable end wall studs shall not be 
required at locations where their length would be 3 feet 
(91 cm) or less. Each end of each required new stud shall 
be attached to the existing roofing framing members (truss 
top chord or rafter and truss bottom chord or ceiling joist) 
using a minimum of two 3-inch (76 mm) toenail fasteners 
(#8 wood screws or lOd nails) and a metal connector with 
minimum uplift capacity of 175 pounds (778 N), or nail 
plates with a minimum of four 1 V 4 -inch-long (32 mm) fas- 
teners (#8 wood screws or 8d nails). 

[B] C104.2.2 Main method of installation. Each horizon- 
tal brace shall be fastened to each existing roof or ceiling 



member that it crosses using three 3-inch-long (76 mm) 
fasteners (#8 wood screws or lOd nails) as indicated in 
Figure 004.2(1) and Figure C104.2(3) for trusses and 
Figure CI 04.2(2) and Figure CI 04.2(4) for conventionally 
framed gable end walls. Alternative methods for provid- 
ing horizontal bracing of the gable end studs as provided 
in Sections CI 04.2.3 through C104.2.9 shall be permitted. 

[B] C 104.2.3 Omitted horizontal brace. Where condi- 
tions exist that prevent installation in accordance with Sec- 
tion CI 04.2.2, horizontal braces shall be permitted to be 
omitted for height limitations corresponding to Retrofit 
Configurations A and B as defined in Table CI 04.2 pro- 
vided installation is as indicated in Figure C104.2.3 and 
provided all of the following conditions are met. This 
method is not permitted for Retrofit Configurations C or 
D. 

1. There shall be at least two horizontal braces on 
each side of an omitted horizontal brace or at least 
one horizontal brace if it is the end horizontal 
brace. Omitted horizontal braces must be separated 
by at least two horizontal braces even if that loca- 
tion is comprised of two retrofit studs and two hori- 
zontal braces. 

2. Horizontal braces adjacent to the omitted horizontal 
brace shall be 2x6 lumber, shall butt against the 
existing studs, and shall be fastened to each exist- 
ing roof or ceiling member crossed using three 3- 
inch-long (76 mm) fasteners (#8 wood screws or 
lOd nails). For Retrofit Configuration B, four fas- 
teners shall be required on at least one of the con- 
nections between the horizontal brace and the 
existing roof and ceiling framing members. Fasten- 
ers shall be spaced a minimum of 3 / 4 inch (19 mm) 
from the edges of the horizontal braces and a mini- 
mum of l 3 / 4 inch (44 mm) from adjacent fasteners. 



[B] TABLE C1 04.2 
STUD LENGTH LIMITATIONS BASED ON EXPOSURE AND DESIGN WIND SPEED 



EXPOSURE 
CATEGORY 


MAXIMUM 3-SEC GUST 
BASIC WIND SPEED" 


MAXIMUM HEIGHT OF GABLE END RETROFIT STUD" 


C 


110 


8'-0" 


ll'-3" 


14'-9" 


1.6'-0" 


c 


120 


7'-6" 


10'-6" 


13-6" 


16-0" 


c 


130 


7'-0" 


lO'-O" 


12'-3" 


16-0" 


c 


140 


7'-0" 


lO'-O" 


12'-3" 


16-0" 


c 


150 


6'-6" 


8'-9" 


ll'-O" 


16-0" 


B 


110 


8'-0" 


12'-3" 


16'-0" 


N/R c 


B 


120 


8'-0" 


ll'-3" 


14'-9" 


16'-0" 


B 


130 


8'-0" 


H'-3" 


14'-9" 


16'-0" 


B 


140 


7-6" 


10'-6" 


13'-6" 


16'-0" 


B 


1.50 


7-0" 


lO'-O" 


12'-3" 


16'-0" 




Retrofit Configuration 


A 


B 


C 


D 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. Interpolation between given wind speeds is not permitted. 

b. Existing gable end studs less than or equal to 3'-0" in height shall not require retrofitting. 

c. N/R = Not Required. Configuration C is acceptable to 16'-0" maximum height. 



130 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



APPENDIX C 



3. Where the existing studs on each side of an omitted 
horizontal brace have their wide face perpendicular 
to the gable end wall, the retrofit studs at those 
locations and the retrofit stud at the omitted hori- 
zontal brace locations shall extend a minimum of 
3 3 / 4 inches (95 mm) beyond the interior edge of the 
existing studs for both Retrofit Configurations A 
and B. The edges of the three retrofit studs facing 
towards the interior of the attic shall be aligned 
such that they are the same distance from the gable 
end wall. 

4. Retrofit studs shall be fastened to existing studs in 
accordance with Section CI 04.3. 

5. Retrofit studs adjacent to the omitted horizontal 
brace shall be fastened to the horizontal brace using 
straps in accordance with Table CI 04.4.1 consis- 
tent with the size of the retrofit stud. The method 
applicable to Table C104.4.2 is not permitted. 

6. A strong back made of minimum of 2x8 lumber 
shall be placed parallel to the gable end and shall be 
located on and span between horizontal braces on 
the two sides of the omitted horizontal brace and 
shall extend beyond each horizontal brace by a 



minimum of 2V 2 inches (64 mm). The strong back 
shall be butted to the three retrofit studs. The 
strong back shall be attached to each of the horizon- 
tal braces on which it rests with five 3-inch-long 
(76 mm) fasteners (#8 screws or 8d nails). The fas- 
teners shall have a minimum V 4 -inch (19 mm) edge 
distance and a minimum 2'/ 2 -inch (64 mm) spacing 
between fasteners. Additional compression blocks 
shall not be required at locations where a strong 
back butts against a retrofit stud. 

7. The retrofit stud at the location of the omitted hori- 
zontal braces shall be fastened to the strong back 
using a connector with minimum uplift capacity of 
800 pounds (3559 N) and installed such that this 
capacity is oriented in the direction perpendicular 
to the gable end wall. 

8. The use of shortened horizontal braces using the 
alternative method of Section CI 04.2.5 is not per- 
mitted for horizontal braces adjacent to the omitted 
horizontal braces. 

9. Horizontal braces shall be permitted to be inter- 
rupted in accordance with Section C104.2.8. 



■ EXISTING STUD OF TRUSS FLAT AGAINST GABLE END WALL 



ELEVATION VIEW 




RETROFIT STUD. MINIMUM 2X4 SECURED TO EXISTING STUD WITH MINIMUM 3" FASTENERS 6" ON CENTER WITH MINIMUM END DISTANCE OF 2-1/2" 
MINIMUM 2X4 FOR RETROFIT CONFIGURATION A 
MINIMUM 2X6 FOR RETROFIT CONFIGURATION B 
MINIMUM 2X8 FOR RETROFIT CONFIGURATION C 
MINIMUM 2 EACH 2X8 FOR RETROFIT CONFIGURATION D 

METAL STRAP. BENT INTO X' SHAPE AND SECURED TO BACK OF RETROFIT STUD AND FACE OF HORIZONTAL BRACE 
MINIMUM THICKNESS 20 GAUGE FASTENED WITH MINIMUM 6 EACH 1-1/4" FASTENERS AT EACH END FOR RETROFIT CONFIGURATION A 
MINIMUM THICKNESS 20 GAUGE FASTENED WITH MINIMUM 9 EACH 1-1/4" FASTENERS AT EACH END FOR RETROFIT CONFIGURATION B 
MINIMUM THICKNESS 18 GAUGE FASTENED WITH MINIMUM 12 EACH 1-1/4" FASTENERS AT EACH END FOR RETROFIT CONFIGURATION C 
MINIMUM THICKNESS 18 GAUGE FASTENED WITH MINIMUM 8 EACH 1-1/4" FASTENERS AT EACH END OF EACH STRAP FOR RETROFIT CONP D 

COMPRESSION BLOCK. MINIMUM 2X4. COMPRESSION BLOCKS ARE PERMITTED TO BE PLACED OVER STRAPS 
SECURED TO HORIZONTAL BRACE WITH MINIMUM 6 EACH FOR RETROFIT CONFIGURATION A 
SECURED TO HORIZONTAL BRACE WITH MINIMUM 8 EACH FOR RETROFIT CONFIGURATION B 
SECURED TO HORIZONTAL BRACE WITH MINIMUM 10 EACH FOR RETROFIT CONFIGURATION C 
SECURED TO HORIZONTAL BRACE WITH MINIMUM 12 EACH FOR RETROFIT CONFIGURATION D 

, HORIZONTAL BRACE. MINIMUM 2X4 SECURED TO EACH ATTIC FRAMING MEMBER WITH 3 EACH 3" FASTENERS 
/ 1 HORIZONTAL BRACE FOR RETROFIT CONFIGURATIONS A, B, AND C 
/ 2 HORIZONTAL BRACES FOR RETROFIT CONFIGURATION D 

, ATTIC FRAMING MEMBERS* 



_^ ^_, ^ 

FASTENERS SHALL NOT BE PLACED CLOSER TO ENDS OF LUMBER THAN 2-1/2", 

FASTENERS SHALL NOT BE PLACED CLOSER TO EDGES OF LUMBER THAN 1/2" EXCEPT WHERE STRAPS DICTATE OTHERWISE 

THE NUMBER OF FASTENERS SHOWN IS NOT NECESSARILY THE NUMBER REQUIRED. 



PLAN VIEWS 
, RETROFIT CONFIGURATIONS A, B, ANDC 



/ EXISTING STUD 



^ T^-7? 



Zk 



\ \ 

RETROFIT STUD) \ METAL STRAP \ COMPRESSION BLOCK •> ATTIC FRAMING 

f\ i\ / (CAN BE PLACED OVER STRAP.) 

'I / \ / (EACH CAN BUTT EXISTING 

/; : STUD.) 



/ RETROFIT CONFIGURATION D„ 



^ 



> HORIZONTAL BRACE 



/// \ /i! 



^ESa_^ 



*-' 



v EXISTING STUD I 

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



[B] FIGURE C104.2(1) 
TRUSS FRAMED GABLE END 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



131 



APPENDIX C 



i >'K> 


mvic 




>;if«A 


f ^ 1 


HJK* 


K$?Q!?jmm^kTcm? 


■mm 



- • - I ' ' ' I f, 1 I 



8 F<5R i- 



■IT C 



■*#K 



AfiOr; ! 



. W sn^3 .v a^ p ji$wr ifciYs v sihapi? *M<r; sexT^o to s&c*; o-.i- R^ffsrir >t;kt^p ?<&£ &r H 



AT V;A(;;H i^iB -OR Mi PGk 
=T EACH BNO Or EACH £T&« 






COMPSE£S!DW BLOCK ' ' , . J ;i:'X* &O;M!: : WS>'0N BLOCKS .A«i f L- TO BE ?'LA€t." I"' 1 

n • « (■ f If.": 

HH:UiR: ; IS ^Izd^'AL L ' VJ'iTK r „ < r.i t: *£ ! , £ OS ~ " ~\- € 

SECURED IKS Hv-S<S0'^l'.% BRACT; V¥iii"H ^T^'^y'^ 1? ;:;>-v:H FOR RFi'^N]- CO'^CUIaAT iiG^ <D 






M« 



-' ' 2£ 1 



'!!'D : E,AQH ATT'C riSAMSNC 
' , T is - f , 



AfjIH 3- EACH r f AST'ENEI^S. 



„.jz- 






":]!_:::: 



FASTENERS SEIAU. 



BEiEACtUUtJSEEiTf. "\ 
SE:ELACg;EEgECT:ETE ETTEr 

'JESS sHtStMHi B MOT K IFCE 



F EUf^EEA FEETA; 5 "aa 
CJ= LtjHSER tM*K 12" EJ4 
- I •' . .. j 



iR^svasj^^er; 



i i i ii' >r . f 1 



• T-±T-t- ' -• 



i '■< t r 

c ' ' ', -■ ' I 



:: ERa'.EETEa 

A ' M ' II 



•lOS: : K^"i AL FEEEACE 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



[B] FIGURE C1 04.2(2) 
CONVENTIALLY FRAMED GABLE END L-BENT STRAP 



"I" -'-II IF* 



EA'SmEEEifmipAiEHEEA. 



S « ESERS 5' Clf CEJi 



i' m .n. j 



: lEEEEETSEn EEEEiO r ' " 2X4 L' ^ _ TEE. E:;AiEEnEEE, a TUP E I^H^^U.;^ E: 
EATEE-iO MEXA FDft E^TRfTElTCEEEFETAiETAEEEEEj A. 

-'-. r,i -l • f • ""' i .' i " i 

!• \ FOR EigTEEDEIT CONRuyRATtOS C 

" I I" C ' i ■ 'I i 

-»- . - - L ,, I - It - - < l- I 

,' i.:H*S».> T.Jin«Ni-';s ;>d KJUKii f^sstlndO w,tb t > i i • • , ! i , i»:n , i rej-rofit siyufsumran a 

fi- !l _]i„-^ s?p '"ii T l~-u^r^.- 

• I • . 1 I I •' ' ' . I ' II ■ • r I . ' ' ' ' I ~ ' 

. ., - - , ( . r i - - i ^.T .f . i. 



I ' I - BE^i'iES ^:iNi?^UM SK^ 4|eCl>RS'0 

I ' •(-,' ii 

2 I "_ r E!((*QgS FOrf RETROFIT COME IS 

r^crrrrizzEz|p 



.CH«n'2! 
TlDN D : 



iSiiNti MEWBtR afifi 3 E«H 



- Wtit 8B.GW 



lETiE! KOI i : 'T-.;l 

r-r n r t i i ■ ■ ( c ,. i r n e . 



IPIAM UiE:Wa. 



£1- 



SETROf IT STOW > agTjTL $TSA:P .. RETRO? '" "• ';- 



rn -ii" 



■ HSJRIE'OHTM [SPACE: 



g : fferl 




EXSSTWS STUB ; 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



[B] FIGURE C1 04.2(3) 
TRUSS FRAMED GABLE END U-BENT STRAP 



132 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



APPENDIX C 



.. EXISTING STUD WITH EDGE AGAINST GABUE END WALL 



ELEVATION VIEW 



MINIMUM 2X6 FOB RETROff] 4i t , - u J I 

• <• < > , i - , - , , , 

MINIMUM -. <',M'> ; r r - ~, ,-. T J(> r 

METAL ; •' ' , , ■ ■ I ,i - - ( NQ RETROFIT ST,jr> « S'l SFCHBPn TO » PIVSP<4 rtc urusi7r.MT*i =».« 

• •''.-. , - i . . .,i i • r ,, - - ,, , .-; Jh ' ' , , , - 

'!;[ ! ! ' :" ' -» - ' j ' .i . a , , , : ' 

- 1 „• ,m M1 „ . . * , .. , ASTe , ED . - , , vv , s , ., , ,- L T „ ,.', ^,, - ■, , , — 1. J, , v r ^jt. j ■ _ ^ d 



E3I 



"'' r " ■ -h -- ■ ■I'-iv.cmmm member with a each i 

. rl • if, ,,J , 

ATTIC FRAMING , 
'"" ""RS 



FASTENERS. 



^ 



WAlL below 
FASTENERS SHALL NOT 8E PLACED CLQSCT TO S«S OF LUMBER TBAM 2-1S«. 

K-' HALLf E WOOOt' T , - BERTHA' EXCEPT RAPS KCtAI In 

THENUMBESO^FIVSTF'F. i" I r L ,. HL Th( j, M k . :QU | RED 



KISTINi rui 



PLAN 

RETROFjTCONHOURAHOMSA B, AND C 



1^1 



-rr- 

1 i ' 



RETROFIT 8TUO'- 



E i. W. STRAP , -, , , , , r. 



■it a r^ .:, 






^ 



•TTTTT- 



12' 



EXISTINaSTUD! 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



[B] FIGURE C1 04.2(4) 
CONVENTSALLY FRAMED GABLE END U-BENT STRAP 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



133 



APPENDIX C 



OVERVIEW 

PLAN VIEWS 

RETROFIT CONFIGURATION A AND B ONLY 

NOT ALLOWED FO'R RETROFIT CONFIGURATION C OR D 

UNOENT1F1ED NUMBERS INDICATE THE NUMBER OF FASTENERS. 



TRUSS GABLE END 
.4.EACH1-1M" FASTENERS- 




*? 



CONVENTIONALLY FRAMED GA9LE END 
4 EACH 1-1M" FA8TgNfif?S 

- m~ " is 



TO ' 



• 2X9 HORIZONTAL 

BRACES 



?•■. [ih ' HOP 



I'l, 



RiZONTM " E 

,!.Y BUTTED TO 

Mi} STUDS 



, ,. ., ei 

TO RETROFIT STUD 



" ■ OMITTtD ■" 

HORIZONTAL BRACE 
LGCATiOMS 



-ATTIC FRAMING MEMBERS 



PI _ 

[I 2XS STRONG BACK 



a)-— t 



2X8 HORIZONTAL 
BRACES 



DETAILS OF CONVENTIONALLY FRAMED GABLE. 



4 BACK 1-1M- FASTENERS EACH 
SIDE It ROFiT STU 



HORIZONTAL BRACE SOTTED 

EXISTING STUD ■"•*"'"" ' j 

STRONG BACK BUTTED TO RETROFIT STUD -r j* ^Kl 



STRONG BACK SHALL EXTEND 2-1/2"BEYON0 ' 

f T i -• ill 

HORIZONTAL BRACE FASTENED TO ' 

FRAMING MEMBERS WITH 3" 

t Hi' • L CM/ 1 ,' LOCATIONS 

-'! 14 EACH* i • IHI! 5} LOCATION 

fasteners spaced a minimum of 
3/4' from edge of horizontal brace 
and a minimum of 112' from edge 
of framing member. fasteners 
spaced a minimum of i-w from 
each other. 




•i 



. : r 1 -1 ,.• FASTENERS 



2X8 < 
Sr RUNG SACK, 



4 # 3" FASTENERS 2-tffl" APART 
AND 3i ! 4" FROM LUM9ER EDGES 



STRAPS FASTENED TO HOK Z n I r ^ "ESW.TH 
1-1M' FASTENERS AT EACH END OF EACH STRAP 
) FOR 'RETROFIT CONFii gAAND 

12 FOR RETROFIT CONFIGURATION B 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



[B] FIGURE C104.2.3 
OMITTED HORIZONTAL BRACE 



[B] C 104.2.4 Omitted horizontal brace and retrofit 

stud. Where conditions exist that prevent installation in 
accordance with Section C104.2.2 or Section C104.2.3, 
then retrofit studs and horizontal braces shall be permitted 
to be omitted from those locations by installation of ladder 
assemblies for Retrofit Configurations A and B as defined 
in Table C104.2 provided all of the following conditions 
are met. This method is not permitted for Retrofit Config- 
urations C or D. 

1 . No more than two ladder assemblies are permitted 
on a single gable end. 



2. There shall be at least two retrofit studs and hori- 
zontal brace assemblies on either side of the loca- 
tions where the retrofit studs and horizontal bracing 
members are omitted (no two ladder braces bearing 
on a single retrofit stud). 

3. Where the existing studs on each side of an omitted 
horizontal brace have their wide face parallel to the 
gable end wall the retrofit studs at those locations 
and the retrofit stud at the omitted horizontal brace 
locations shall be 2x6 lumber for Retrofit Configu- 
ration A and 2x8 lumber for Retrofit Configuration 
B. 



134 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



APPENDIX C 



4. Horizontal braces adjacent to the omitted horizontal 
brace shall be 2x6 lumber and be fastened to each 
existing roof or ceiling member crossed using three 
3-inch-long (76 mm) fasteners (#8 wood screws or 
lOd nails) as indicated in Figure 004.2(1) and Fig- 
ure CI 04.2(3) for gable end frames and Figure 
C104.2(2) and Figure CI 04.2(4) for conventionally 
framed gable end walls. For Retrofit Configuration 
B, four fasteners shall be required on at least one of 
the connections between the horizontal brace and 
the existing roof and ceiling framing members. 

5. Ladder rungs shall be provided across the location 
of the omitted retrofit studs as indicated in Figure 
004.2.4(1) for gable end frames and Figure 
004.2.4(2) for conventionally framed gable end 
walls. 

6. Ladder rungs shall be minimum 2x4 lumber ori- 
ented with their wide face horizontal and spaced a 
maximum of 16 inches (41 cm) on center verti- 
cally. 

7. Where ladder rungs cross wall framing members 
they shall be connected to the wall framing mem- 
bers with a metal connector with a minimum capac- 
ity of 175 pounds (778 N) in the direction 
perpendicular to the gable end wall. 

8. Notching of the ladder rungs shall not be permitted 
unless the net depth of the framing member is a 
minimum of 37, inches (89 mm). 

[B] C104.2.5 Short horizontal brace. Where conditions 
exist that prevent installation in accordance with Sections 
C104.2.2, O04.2.3 or O04.2.4 the horizontal braces shall 
be permitted to be shortened provided installation is as 
indicated in Figure O04.2.5 and all of the following con- 
ditions are met. 

1 . The horizontal brace shall be installed across a min- 
imum of two framing spaces, extend a minimum of 
4 feet (122 cm) from the gable end wall plus 2'/ 2 
inches (64 mm) beyond the farthest roof or ceiling 
framing member from the gable end, and be fas- 
tened to each existing framing member with three 
3-inch-long (76 mm) fasteners (#8 wood screws or 
lOd nails) 

2. An anchor block shall be fastened to the side of the 
horizontal brace in the second framing space from 
the gable end wall as shown in Figure CI 04.2.5. 
The anchor block lumber shall have a minimum 
edge thickness of 1 '/, inches (38 mm) and the depth 
shall be as a minimum the depth of the existing roof 
or ceiling framing member. Six 3-inch-long (76 
mm) fasteners (#8 wood screws or lOd nails) shall 
be used to fasten the anchor block to the side of the 
horizontal brace. 

3. The anchor block shall extend into the space 
between the roof or ceiling framing members a 
minimum of one-half the depth of the existing 
framing members at the location where the anchor 



block is installed. The anchor block shall be 
installed tightly between the existing framing mem- 
bers such that the gap at either end shall not exceed 
7 8 inch (3 mm). 

4. The use of omitted horizontal braces using the 
method of Section C 104.2.3 adjacent to a short hor- 
izontal brace as defined in this section is not per- 
mitted. 

[B] C 104.2.6 Installation of horizontal braces onto 

webs of trusses. Where existing conditions preclude 
installation of horizontal braces on truss top or bottom 
chords they shall be permitted to be installed on trass webs 
provided all of the following conditions are met. 

1. Horizontal braces shall be installed as close to the 
top or bottom chords as practical without altering 
the truss or any of its components and not more 
than three times the depth of the truss member to 
which it would ordinarily be attached. 

2. A racking block, comprised of an anchor block 
meeting the definition of anchor block of Section 
002 or comprised of minimum l5 / 32 -inch (12 mm) 
plywood or 7 / 16 -inch (11 mm) Oriented Strand 
Board (OSB), shall be fastened to the horizontal 
brace in the second framing space from the gable 
end wall. The racking block shall extend toward 
the roof or ceiling diaphragm so that the edge of the 
racking block closest to the diaphragm is within '/, 
the depth of the existing framing member from the 
diaphragm surface. The racking block shall be 
attached to horizontal braces using six fasteners (#8 
wood screws or lOd nails) of sufficient length to 
provide l'/ 2 inches (38 mm) of penetration into the 
horizontal brace. 

3. Racking blocks shall be permitted to be fastened to 
any face or edge of horizontal braces between each 
web or truss vertical posts to which a horizontal 
brace is attached. Racking blocks shall be permit- 
ted to be on alternate sides of horizontal braces. 
Racking blocks shall be installed tightly between 
the lumber of truss members or truss plates such 
that the gap at either end shall be a maximum of 7 8 
inch (3 mm). 

[B] C104.2.7 Alternative method of installation of hori- 
zontal braces at truss ridges. Where conditions exist 
that limit or restrict installation of horizontal braces near 
the peak of the roof, ridge ties shall be added to provide 
support for the required horizontal brace. The top of addi- 
tional ridge tie members shall be installed a maximum of 
16 inches below the existing ridge line or 4 inches below 
impediments. A minimum 2x4 member shall be used for 
each ridge tie and fastening shall consist of two 3-inch (76 
mm) long wood screws, four 3-inch-long (76 mm) lOd 
nails or two 3'/ 2 -inch-long (89 mm) 16d nails driven 
through and clinched at each top chord or web member 
intersected by the ridge tie as illustrated in Figure 
C 104.2.7. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE 8 



135 



APPENDIX C 



E.vSIiATi truss . 
CABLE END t'./VLI 



w li i ' i I i 1 ii r 

fas ;oio;s i t: ROr,? existing gable end stud to 

i-i- I Ii , I i i L 

n I r J 1 t 



-44 



,s 



flt'GUiRSD LA RETROFIT ARE) 
r II L L i I •! 

i- i ,\ 
I ' I t <■' , I' 



. 



I I •,, 

i i RTICAl 



■ -I i <-F r ,r. i h I- WIN , I 'i 
CAPAOTT peRFEhiOlCUl Afi TO V.'ALL? 
W i'. LCf i 

RETROFIT STUD IT" Slit! TO 
WOOFS 1IC, 



EXISTING TRUSS - 
i ' IF i 




II H I 1 IV 1TH.C i 

"- i '•■ II • : ,11 ..'..i, i 

I ■ I I LIM 1 

ESiSTiSG GABS.tr END STUO TO', 
LADDER BLOCKING . n . r. 
IN <l h I' > ' F' 

I 



«!AEFITAM!PiS 
'.'! ,< »r, I SLB 

I • t 'I J! I 

I'OWaEUWHK" 
LOMGfASlCNeRS 

r ■ 
RE TROf IT STUO 

' OSBE1TC 
LADOET. BLOCKING 



• -I F'H 'I r I 

*CHE*SMSI^),WrACHTO 
■ ' IN , . il, "I - 

1 -.. _•!! 'I • ' 



.FuTiTbaijasL. 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm; 1 pound = 4.4 N. 



[B] FIGURE C104.2.4(1) 
LADDER BRACING FOR OMITTED RETROFIT STUD (GABLE END FRAME) 



EXISTING COHVE'NTiOMAI. \< 
' 1 L I L i 



i-[T in: r . l \ 

FASTEN*: ITS I'l vpi FROM EXISTING GABLE EfsD STUO fO 

Ii I i I' Ml ill 

ARE PRESS ST 1 >l i_H WALL SHEATHING IS ATTACHED 



fit 



I 



- I - J . RETROFIT SrtlD ■ I « ' 

SIZET ATTACH fO EXSTlNLi STUD W KIN. 
i, >' i ■• 



v 



::] 



I "J L . LADDER: ■"•[<. MiKh 
ig. Vi' O.C VERTiCAl 



PjAN.ViEAf 



HNG ANA l 

< - r ' I f-' I III i' J 1 1 i / ' l 

< i cNER O'VPs FROM 
RETROF STUD (INCREASED - TO 
ii] i, 



- . irn> - ■< TIE i IN ■ ', I.S l , ,. I ,'. 1 , LONG 
FASTENERS ~ FROM EXISTING GAELS END 'II P I' ' >OER 
r if ' V.'HFN EXISTING 'Fill l lh u i> is PRESENT 



EXISTING CONVEMTICNAELY - 

FRAMED GABLE EMO WALL 



- < 



REQUIRED ' aETBOFTT »T U D I ' r I 

;a f !-■ i rot a: .. mil a ks 
j- LONG f astemers ;6T 6' O c 



u 

■T 



TEN 2ic4 LADDER 
RUNG • ■'. 

mU ' - I 
SPACING 



- METAL FFWMifjG ANGLE (WIN 
ITS L8. CAPACITY 
FERPENDWULAR TO VJALLl 

1 _ I "■ '.I i 

FROM RETROFIT STUO 
INCREASED SIZE. l TO I. ADDER 
BLOCKING 



TA»Tl]AN.V;tW 



For SI: ] inch = 25.4 mm; 1 pound = 4.4 N. 



[B] FIGURE C104.2.4(2) 
LADDER BRACING FOR OMITTED RETROFIT STUD (CONVENTIONALLY FRAMED GABLE END) 



136 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



APPENDIX C 



FLAT HORIZONTAL BRACE 



EXISTING FRAMING MEMBER 




ANCHOR BLOCKS ALLOWED AT ALL FRAMING 
SPACES EXCEPT THE SPACE CLOSEST TO THE 
GABLE END 



ANCHOR BLOCK (MIN. SIZE EQUIVALENT 
TO EXISTING FRAMING MEMBER), ATTACH 
TO HORIZONTAL BRACE VW MSN, 3'' LONG 
FASTENERS AT MIN. 214" SPACING 
BETWEEN FASTENERS AND TO END OF 
BLOCK 



MIN. (3) 3" LONG FASTENERS @ HORIZONTAL 
BRACE CONNECTION TO EACH FRAMING MEMBER 



V l >!L',- 



FLAT HORIZONTAL BRACE VW 
MIN, (3) 3" LONG FASTENERS @ 
CONNECTION TO EACH FRAMING - 
MEMBER 



\ 



ANCHOR BLOCK {MIN. SIZE EQUIVALENT 
TO EXISTING FRAMING MEMBER), ATTACH 
TO HORIZONTAL BRACE VW MIN. (6) 3" LONG 
FASTENERS 



/ 



gcarra 



EXISTING FRAMING MEMBER - 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



sr< .cm /lEu- 



[B] FIGURE C104.2.5 
ANCHOR BLOCK INSTALLATION 




2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



137 



APPENDIX C 



FLAT 2x4 HORIZONTAL BRACES- 



,' 



y 



m^ 




WHEN ADDITIONAL SUPPORTS ARE NEEDED FOR HORIZONTAL 
' BRACE NEAR RIDGE, MIN, 2x4 RAFTER TIE, ATTACH TO EACH 
INTERSECTING MEMBER 



- REQUIRED 2x RETROFIT STUD, ATTACH TO EXISTING 
STUD IN ACCORDANCE WtTH SECTION 1804.2,? 



w- 



_|pL 



,4; 



'"•■■-=, 



2x4 COMPRESSION BLOCK OF 
REQUIRED LENGTH, ATTACH TO 
HORIZONTAL 8RACE VW REQUIRED 

NUMBER OF 3' LONG FASTENERS 



.l,;i. 



INSTALL 2x4 COMPRESSION BLOCK .'TIGHT , 
FITS BETWEEN CENTER EXISTING GABLE END~ J 
STUD OR RETROFIT STUD {TOP AND BOTTOM) 



CENTER FLAT 2x4 HORIZONTAL BR V .K • 
• SIDE C i JTER EXISTING GABLE END 
SJ"UDANDLI\ r 1 ' H iLROFITSTUO 



GABLE END 
STUDS s3'-C* 
NO RETROFITS 



RETROFITS REQUIRED FOR 
GABLE END STUDS > 3'-0" AND LESS 1 HAN 16'-0" TALL 



GABLE. END 
STUDS .£3'-0" 
NO RETROFITS 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm; 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 



r • > ion view 



[B] FIGURE C104.2.7 
DETAIL OF RETROFIT TIE INSTALLATION 



[B] C 104.2.8 Interrupted horizontal braces. Where 
conditions exist that prevent the installation of a continu- 
ous horizontal brace then horizontal braces shall be per- 
mitted to be interrupted using the methods shown in 
Figure 004.2.8(1), Figure 004.2.8(2), and Figure 
004.2.8(3). For interruptions that occur in the attic fram- 
ing space closest to the gable end, nine 3-inch (76 mm) 
fasteners shall be used to connect each section of the inter- 
rupted horizontal braces. For interruptions that occur in 
the second attic space from the gable end, six 3-inch (76 
mm) fasteners shall be used to connect each section of the 
interrupted horizontal braces. For interruptions that occur 
in the attic framing space farthest from the gable end, three 
3-inch (76 mm) fasteners shall be used to connect each 
section of the interrupted horizontal braces. Horizontal 
braces shall be continued far enough to allow connections 
to three existing roof framing members as shown in Fig- 
ures 004.2.8(1), 004.2.8(2) or 004.2.8(3). Fasteners 
shall be spaced in accordance with Section C 103.6.3. Hor- 
izontal braces shall be the same width and depth as 
required for an uninterrupted member. 

[B] C104.2.9 Piggyback gable end frames. Piggyback 
gable end frames (gable end frames built in two sections 
one above the other) shall be permitted to be retrofitted if 
either of the following cases is true. 

1 . The existing studs in both the upper gable end 
frames and the lower gable end frames to which 
wall sheathing, panel siding, or other wall covering 
are attached are sufficiently in line that retrofit 



studs can be installed and connections made 
between the two with retrofit stud(s). 

2. Existing studs in the upper frame are not suffi- 
ciently in line with the studs in the frame below and 
the existing studs in the upper frame are 3 feet (91 
cm) or shorter. 

For Condition 1 both the lower stud and the upper stud 
shall be retrofitted using the methods of Section C 104.2. 
For Condition 2 the retrofit stud shall be connected to the 
lower studs using the methods of Section C 104.2 and be 
continuous from the bottom horizontal brace to the top 
horizontal brace. No connection is required between the 
retrofit stud and the upper stud. In both conditions the 
bottom chord of the piggyback truss section shall be fas- 
tened to each retrofit stud using a connector with mini- 
mum axial capacity of 175 pounds (778 N). 

[B] C104.3 Retrofit studs. Retrofit studs shall be installed in 
accordance with Section CI 04.3. 1 using one of the five meth- 
ods of Sections O04.3.2, O04.3.3, O04.3.4, O04.3.5, or 
C104.3.6. Figure O04.3 shows these methods of installa- 
tion. For the Retrofit Configuration obtained from Table 
C104.2, the size of retrofit studs shall be as indicated in Table 
C104.4.1 or Table O04.4.2. Retrofit studs shall extend from 
the top of the lower horizontal brace to the bottom of the 
upper horizontal brace except that a maximum gap of 7 8 inch 
(3 mm) is permitted at the bottom and 7 2 inch (13 mm) at the 
top. Where wall sheathing, panel siding, or other wall cover- 
ing is fastened to a conventionally framed gable end, retrofit 
studs shall be applied in accordance with Section C 104.2.1. 



138 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



APPENDIX C 



a , 



fa) 



SECTION VIEWS 
3 FASTENERS •--- __ 

= f 



A TOTAL OF 6 FASTENERS 
OF 2 ROWS 2-1/2" APART 
EACH WITH 3 FASTENERS 

_- 3 FASTENERS ^— 



=F 



R 



•' 2-1/2" WIN. 
CEILING DIAPHRAGM 



P) 



2-1/2" MIN 



x 2-1/2" MIN. 
CEILING DIAPHRAGM 



. A TOTAL OF 6 FASTENERS 
Of 2 ROWS 2-1/2" APART 
EACH WITH 3 FASTENERS 



a : 



c 



sHa 



3 FASTENERS 



(c) 



'2-1/2" MIN, 



v 2-1/2" MIN, 
CEILING DIAPHRAGM 



A TOTAL OF 6 FASTENERS 
OF 2 ROWS 2-1/2" APART 
EACH WITH 3 FASTENERS % 



a 

s 


j| 




#"' 


/ 3 FASTENERS -,_ 


^ 4 


, 3 FASTENERS x 




a. 


_C 


3" 


f 


"Sfc. 


Z3 


"X 


m 
< 


* 1 


lULLD . : .f— T~^ 




— I — 1 






:[.*> ;' 


:/' r !' 




"~tv 




(«l) 

2-1/2" MIN. ' 






K - 2-1/2" MSN.' 7 






1 ■'- 

\ X 2-1/2" MIN, 
"'- CEILING DIAPHRAGM 



A TOTAL OF 8 FASTENERS 
OF 2 ROWS 2-1/2" APART 
EACH WITH 3 FASTENERS, 



3 FASTENERS 



3 FASTENERS 



r: 



u 



3T 



\ 



(e) 



ALL FASTENERS 3" 
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



2-1/2" MIN. 



-■ 2-1/2" MIN. 
CEILING DIAPHRAGM 



[B] FIGURE C1 04.2.8(1) 
SPLICED HORIZONTAL BRACES 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



139 



APPENDIX C 



3 



3 FASTENERS 



(?) 



o 

:z 
ijj 



3 FASTENERS 



0) 



o 
z 
yj 



< 



2-1/2" MIN 



(h) 



a 

z 

UJ 

m 
< 



3 FASTENERS 



3 FASTENERS 



SECTION VIEWS 



A TOTAL OF 6 FASTENERS 
OF 2 ROWS 2-1/2" APART 
EACH WITH 3 FASTENERS, 



3 FASTENERS 



r.ff? 



V 2-1/2" MSN,* 

A TOTAL OF 6 FASTENERS 

OF 2 ROWS 2-1/2" APART 

, v EACH WITH 3 FASTENERS/ 

/ ,,- 3 FASTENERS 



1 2-1/2" MIN, 
' CEILING DIAPHRAGM 



S 



3 



3 



^ 



1 



X 



2-1/2" MIN. 



1/ 



\ 



N 2-1/2" MIN. 
CEILING DIAPHRAGM 



A TOTAL OF 6 FASTENERS 
OF 2 ROWS 2-1/2" APART 
/EACH WITH 3 FASTENERS « 

/ k 



3 FASTENERS 



F? 



ffF5 



=H3 



\ 2-1/2" MIN, •'' 



^ 2-172" MIN, 



._ 3 FASTENERS v 



*• 2-1/2" MIN, 
■ CEIUNG DIAPHRAGM 

3 FASTENERS 



3= 



2-1/2" MIN, ' 



2-1/2* MIN 



\ 



x 2-1/2" MIN. / 
CEILING DIAPHRAGM 



n 


~(l) 


3 FASTENERS -,,.., 


""""^"ifc 




**>»-< 


„.„.,— 


- 3 FASTENERS-^ ^ 3 FASTENE rs x 




Z 


cz 


I , 




tj -- 


— f 1 


lli '; 




I "".: 




-4f 


i 


VH 


_jJ 


< : 




T 
















\ 2-1/2" MIN, f \ 2-1/2" MIN.''' 
'' CEILfNG DIAPHRAGM 





ALL FASTENERS 3" 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



[B] FIGURE C1 04.2.8(2) 
SPLICED HORIZONTAL BRACES 



140 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE* 



o 

2 
UJ 

m 

,_j 
m 

<: 
O 



APPENDIX C 



SECTION VIEWS 



3 FASTENERS, 



3 FASTENERS 



• 3 FASTENERS 







""""■**, 


/ 


; 1 


» ^ ' 


"""*> 




I 


ZZ] ... ' L . 


J I I 


l\ 


■; 


f c: 


^__ 


" ,» 


—]•■}■ -u 



(k) 



2-1/2" MIN.' 



3 FASTENERS . 



(I) 

ALL FASTENERS 3" 
For SI: I inch = 25.4 mm. 



3 FASTENERS 



/ 



2-1/2" MM. ' 
CEILING DIAPHRAGM 

,■ 3 FASTENERS x 



2-1/2" MIN.' 



■■2-1/2" MIN. 



% 2-1/2" MIN, ■ 
CEILING DIAPHRAGM 



[B] FIGURE C104.2.8(3) 
SPLICED HORIZONTAL BRACES 



[B] C104.3.1 Fastening. Where nail plates are not used, 
retrofit studs shall be attached to existing studs using 3- 
inch (76 mm) fasteners at a maximum of 6 inches (152 
mm) on center but no closer than 27 2 inches (64 mm) on 
center with fasteners no closer to ends of members than 
2'/ 2 inches (64 mm). 

[B] C104.3.2 Method #1: Face-to-edge or face-to-face 
method. Retrofit studs shall be installed immediately 
adjacent to existing gable end wall studs as indicated in 
Figure 004.3(a). The retrofit studs shall overlap the edge 
or side of the existing stud by a minimum of 1 V 4 inches 
(32 mm). Fasteners shall be installed as specified in Sec- 
tion C104.3.1. 

[B] C104.3.3 Method #2: Face-to-face offset method. 
Retrofit studs shall be installed against the face of existing 
studs as indicated in Figure 004.3(b) such that the faces 
overlap a minimum of l'/ 2 inches (38 mm) and the edge 
distance to fasteners is no less than 3 / 4 inch (19 mm). Fas- 
teners shall be installed as specified in Section O04.3.1. 

[B] C104.3.4 Method #3: Butted retrofit stud method. 
Provided that all of the following fastening conditions are 
met, retrofit studs shall be permitted to be butted by their 
edge to existing studs with the addition of nail plates as 
indicated in Figure 004.3(c) and Figure O04.3.4. 

1 . The narrow edge of retrofit studs shall be installed 
against the narrow or the wide face of existing 

studs. 



2. A minimum of two nail plates shall be used. 

3. Fasteners used to secure nail plates to studs shall be 
a minimum 1 '/ 4 inches (32 mm) long (#8 wood 
screws or 8d nails). 

4. Fasteners placed in nail plates shall have a mini- 
mum end distance of 2'/ 2 inches (64 mm) for both 
studs and a maximum end distance of 6 inches (152 
mm) from the ends of the shorter stud. 

5. Fasteners shall have a minimum V 2 -inch (13 mm) 
edge distance. Fasteners shall be placed a maxi- 
mum of 1 '/ 2 inches (38 mm) from the abutting ver- 
tical edges of existing studs and retrofit studs. 

6. There shall be at least three fasteners through nail 
plates into all existing and retrofit studs to which 
the nail plate is attached. 

7. Nail plates with three fasteners onto a single exist- 
ing or retrofit stud shall be spaced a maximum of 
15 inches (38 cm) on center. 

8. Nail plates with more than three fasteners onto a 
single existing or retrofit stud shall be spaced a 
maximum of 20 inches (51 cm) on center. 

9. Fasteners used to secure nail plates shall be spaced 
vertically a minimum of l'/ 2 inches (38 mm) on 
center. Staggered fasteners used to secure nail 
plates shall be spaced horizontally a minimum of 7 2 
inch (13 mm). 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



141 



APPENDIX C 



TRUSS FRAMING 
PLAN VIEWS 



CONVENTIONAL FRAMING 
PLAN VIEWS 



STUD FACES PERPENDICULAR TO WALL 



STUD FACES PARALLEL TO WALL 









E 


> 






. 






,-■■' "'" 


RS 


.... 


■--, 



■ES 




RS 





IX. 

O 





£S" u 




RS - 


'"- ,,_ 



ES 



RS 



METHOD #T FACE TO EDGE OR TO FACE METHOD OF G104.3.2 
MINIMUM 1-1/2" PENETRATION OF FASTENER INTO SECONDARY MEMBER 





Bi 




rs ;-.:■< 


I 



lb) 



METHOD #2: FACE TO OFFSET FACE METHOD OF C1043.3 

MINIMUM 1-1/2" PENETRATION OF FASTENER INTO SECONDARY MEMBER 







fs 




RS 


„„,,„„ >.:,.^ 




\ 


SI • 

NAIL PLATE 




- -*-,, 







RS> ,.. 


h 






k-, «*- * 





(c) 



"- NAIL PLATE 

METHOD #4 BUTTED RETROFIT STUD METHOD OF C1 04.3.4 
MINIMUM 1-1/4" PENETRATION OF FASTENER INTO LUMBER 










K 
O 






ES 




ATE 


RS~ : 




>-S 


x - NAIL PI 



(d) 



NAIL PLATE 



METHOD #4: OFFSET RETROFIT STUD METHOD OF C104.3.5 
MINIMUM 1-1/4" PENETRATION OF FASTENER INTO LUMBER 



(e) 



RS 



CAN BE MULTIPLE MEMBERS 



ES. 



rs ;; :.'. 




1 
_ J 


ES 






N 









UJ j 

I 



METHOD #5. NAfLER WITH RETROFIT STUD METHOD. OF C104.3.6 
MINIMUM 1-1/2" PENETRATION OF FASTENER INTO SECONDARY MEMBER 



THE FIGURES DO NOT REFLECT THE NUMBER OF REQUIRED FASTENERS OR SHOW HORIZONTAL BRACES OR STRAPS, 
FASTENERS SHALL BE PLACED MAXIMUM 6" ON CENTER AND A MINIMUM OF 2-1/2" FROM ENDS. 

3" FASTENERS CAN BE INSTALLED FROM EITHER SIDE OF LUMBER AS LONG AS THERE IS 1-1/2" FASTENER PENETRATION. 
ES INDICATES AN EXISTING STUD. RS INDICATES A RETROFIT STUD. N INDICATES A NAILER. 

For SI: 1 inch - 25.4 mm. 



[B] Figure C104.3 
METHOD OF INSTALLING RETROFIT STUDS 



142 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



APPENDIX C 



ElEVA 



3. THE CLOSEST FASTENER SHALL BE 
A MINIMUM OF 2H" AND 

A MAXIMUM OF 6" FROM 
THE END OF THE SHORTER Of 
i , T i R R E T ROFiT 

STUDS. 

4. FASTENERS ON EXISTING STUD SHALL BE 
A MINIMUM OF VS," FROM EITHER EDGE, 

5. A SET OF FASTENERS SHALL 
BE A MINIMUM OF W FROM 
THE EDGE NEAREST THE 
EXISTING STUD AND 
A MAXIMUM OF PA" 
I •,-(-!- -~P I,- 
RETROFIT STUD NEAREST 
THE EXISTING STUD, 
SEE NOTE BELOW. 

6. IN LIME FASTENERS SHALL BE 
SPACED VERTICALLY A MINIMUM 
OF1%''ON CENTER. 
IN LINE FASTENERS SHALL BE SPACED 

iORIZQI TAL i , i> ilMUM OFJ^ 
AND A MINIMUM OF 2%" 

7. THE DISTANCE BETWEEN 
FASTENERS ON PLATES SHALL 
BE A MAXIMUM OF 20" s 
ON CENTER. 

8. FASTENERS SHALL BE MINIMUM 
1 Hi" LONG f<«S WOOD 
SCREWS OR 8D NAILS) 



' N II TWO PI LIE ;Al - 

rjONNECTSNG 1 



NAIL PLATE 




STUD SIZES MAY DIFFER FROM THOSE SHOWN. 
DIAGONAL HATCHES INDICATE ALLOWABLE LATERAL RANGE 
FOB FASTENERS, 

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STUDS AND PLATES WILL VARY 
RTiCUL.w r- '•<<■<■• 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



[B] FIGURE C1 04.3.4 

NAIL PLATE FASTENING 



[B] C 104.3.5 Method #4: Offset retrofit stud method. 
Retrofit studs may be offset from existing studs by use of 
nail plates as shown in Figure C104.3(d) such that the ver- 
tical corner of a retrofit stud shall align with the vertical 
corner of an existing stud as indicated in Figure C104.3(d) 
and Figure C104.3.4, and the fastening conditions of Sec- 
tion C104.3.4 are met. 

[B] C104.3.6 Method #5: Nailer with retrofit stud 
method. Retrofit studs and existing studs shall be permit- 
ted to be connected using noncontinuous 2x4 nailers as 
indicated in Figure CI 04.3(e) provided the following con- 
ditions are met. 

1. Both the existing stud and the retrofit stud shall be 
butted to nailers and both shall be fastened to the 
nailer with 3-inch-long (76 mm) fasteners (#8 wood 
screws or 8d nails). Fasteners connecting each stud 
to the nailer shall be a spaced 6 inches (152 mm) 
o.c. 



Fasteners into nailers from any direction shall be 
offset vertically by a minimum of 2'/ 2 inches (64 
mm). 

Fasteners into nailers shall be a minimum of 2 '/, 
inches (64 mm) but not more than 6 inches (152 



mm) from the end of the shorter of the existing stud 
and retrofit stud to which they are fastened. 

[B] C104.3.7 Reduced depth of retrofit studs. Retrofit 
studs may be reduced in depth by notching, tapering, or 
other methods at any number of locations along their 
length provided that all of the following conditions are 
met. 

1 . Retrofit studs to be reduced in depth shall be sized 
such that the remaining minimum depth of member 
at the location of the notch (including cross-cut 
kerfs) shall not be less than that required by Table 
C104.4.1 or Table C 104.4.2. 

2. Reduced in-depth retrofit stud shall not be spliced 
within 12 inches (30 cm) of the location of 
notches. Splice members shall not be notched. 

3. The vertical extent of notches shall not exceed 12 
inches (30 cm) as measured at the depth of location 
of reduced depth. 

4. A reduced in-depth retrofit stud member shall be 
fastened to the side of the existing gable end wall 
studs in accordance with Section CI 04.3.1. Two 
additional 3-inch (76 mm) fasteners (#8 wood 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



143 



APPENDIX C 



screws or lOd nails) shall be installed on each side 
of notches in addition to those required by Section 
C104.3.1. 

[B] C 104.3.8 Retrofit stud splices. Retrofit studs greater 
than 8 feet (244 cm) in height may be field spliced in 
accordance with Figure C104.3.8. 

[B] C 104.4 Connection between horizontal braces and ret- 
rofit studs. Connections between horizontal braces and ret- 
rofit studs shall comply with Section C 104.4.1 or Section 
C 104.4.2. Each retrofit stud shall be connected to the top and 
bottom horizontal brace members with a minimum 20-gauge 
1 V 4 -inch-wide (32 mm) flat or coil metal strap with pre- 



punched holes for fasteners. Straps shall be fastened with I 1 / 
4 -inch-long (32 mm) fasteners (#8 wood screws or 8d nails) 
with the number of fasteners as indicated in Table CI 04.4.1 
and Table C 104.4.2. Fasteners shall be no closer to the end of 
lumber than 2'/ 2 inches (64 mm). 

[B] C104.4.1 L-bent strap method. Retrofit studs shall 
be connected to horizontal braces or to strong backs in 
accordance with Figures C104.2(l), CI 04.2(2) or 
C104.2.3, and shall comply with the following conditions. 

1 . A strap shall be applied to the edges of a retrofit 
stud nearest the gable end wall and to the face of 
horizontal braces using at each end of the strap the 



ELEVATIO N VIEW 



SECT ION VIEW 



REQUIRED 

CONNECTION TO 

HORIZONTAL BRACE " 



- EXISTING GABLE END STUD- 



- REQUIRED 2x RETROFIT- 
STUD W/ 3" LONG 
FASTENERS @ 6" O.C. 



50" LONG SPLICE MEMBER - 

(MATCH SIZE OF RETROFIT STUD) " 

- CENTER ON SPLICE LOCATION 



- INSTALL MINIMUM (27) 3" LONG - 
FASTENERS FROM SPLICE MEMBER 
TO RETROFIT STUD (EACH SIDE OF 
SPLICE LOCATION) 






REQUIRED 

CONNECTION TO 

HORIZONTAL BRACE 



SI 



m 

LU U_ 

yo 



NOTE: 
SPLICE LOCATION MAY BE REQUIREDATTOP OF GABLE END STUD IF HEIGHT > 11'-0" TO 12'-0" 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm; 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 



[B] FIGURE C104.3.8 
RETROFIT STUD SPLICES 



144 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



APPENDIX C 



number of fasteners specified in Table CI 04.4.1. 
Straps shall be long enough so that each strap 
extends sufficient distance onto the vertical face of 
the retrofit stud that the fastener closest to the ends 
of the studs is a minimum of 2'/ 2 inches (64 mm) 
from the end of the stud. Straps shall be permitted 
to be twisted to accommodate the transition 
between the tops of retrofit studs and horizontal 
bracings following roof pitches. 

2. Compression blocks shall be installed on the hori- 
zontal braces directly against either the existing 
vertical gable end wall stud or the retrofit stud. 
Figure C104.2(l) (trusses) and Figure CI 04.2(2) 
(conventionally framed) show the installation of the 
compression block against the existing vertical 
gable end wall stud with the strap from the retrofit 
stud running beside the compression block. Com- 
pression blocks shall be permitted to be placed over 
straps. Compression blocks shall be fastened to the 
horizontal braces with at least the minimum num- 
ber of 3-inch-long (76 mm) fasteners (#8 wood 
screws or lOd nails) specified in Table C104.4.1. 
End and edge distances for fasteners shall be in 
accordance with Section CI 03.6.3. 

[B] CI 04.4.2 U-bent strap method. Retrofit studs shall 
be connected to horizontal braces in accordance with Fig- 
ure CI 04.2(3) or Figure CI 04.2(4), shall be limited to Ret- 
rofit Configurations A and B as defined in Table C104.2, 
and shall comply with the following conditions. 

1. Straps of sufficient length to meet the requirements 
for the number of fasteners in accordance with 
Table C104.4.2 and meet the end distance require- 



ments of Section CI 03.6.3 shall be shaped around 
retrofit studs and fastened to the edges of horizontal 
braces. Straps shall wrap the back edge of the ret- 
rofit stud snuggly with a maximum gap of V 4 inch 
(6 mm). Rounded bends of straps shall be permit- 
ted. One fastener shall be installed that connects 
each strap to the side of the associated retrofit stud. 

2. The horizontal brace shall butt snugly against the 
retrofit stud with a maximum gap of 7 4 inch (6 
mm). 

3. Straps shall be permitted to be twisted to accommo- 
date the transition between the tops of retrofit studs 
and horizontal braces that follow the roof pitch. 

[B] C104.5 Connection of gable end wall to wall below. 

The bottom chords or bottom members of wood- framed gable 
end walls shall be attached to the wall below using one of the 
methods prescribed in Sections C104.5.1 or C104.5.2. The 
particular method chosen shall correspond to the framing sys- 
tem and type of wall construction encountered. 

[B] C104.5.1 Gable end frame. The bottom chords of the 
gable end frame shall be attached to the wall below using 
gusset angles. A minimum of two fasteners shall be 
installed into the bottom chord. The gusset angles shall be 
installed throughout the portion of the gable end where the 
gable end wall height is greater than 3 feet (91 cm) at the 
spacing specified in Table C104.5.1. Connection to the 
wall below shall be by one of the methods listed below: 

1 . For a wood-frame wall below, a minimum of two 
fasteners shall be installed. The fasteners shall be 
of the same diameter and style specified by the gus- 
set angle manufacturer and sufficient length to 



[B] TABLE C104.4.1 
ELEMENT SIZING AND SPACING FOR L-BENT RETROFIT METHOD 



RETROFIT ELEMENTS 



Minimum size and number of Horizontal Braces 



Minimum size and number of Retrofit Studs 



Minimum number of fasteners connecting each end 
of straps to Retrofit Studs or to Horizontal Braces 
#8 screws or lOd nails lV 4 " long 



Minimum number of fasteners to connect 

Compression Blocks to Horizontal Braces #8 
screws or lOd nails 3" long 



RETROFIT CONFIGURATION 



2x4 



2x4 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 



B 



2x4 



2x6 



2x4 



2x8 



12 



10 



2 each 2x4 



2 each 2x8 



> on each strap 



12 



[B] TABLE C1 04.4.2 
ELEMENT SIZING AND SPACING FOR U-BENT RETROFIT METHOD 



RETROFIT ELEMENTS 


RETROFIT CONFIGURATION 


A 


B 


c 


D 


Minimum size and number of 
Horizontal Braces 


2x4 


2x4 


2x4 


2 each 2x4 


Minimum size and number of Retrofit Studs 


2x4 


2x6 


2x8 


2 each 2x8 


Minimum number of fasteners connecting 
Straps to each edge of Horizontal 
Braces #8 screws or lOd nails 1 V 4 " long 


6 


7 

— _ 


7 


6 on each side of strap 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



145 



APPENDIX C 



extend through the double top plate of the wall 
below. 

2. For a concrete or masonry wall below without a sill 
plate, the type and number of fasteners into the wall 
shall be consistent with the gusset angle manufac- 
turer's specifications for fasteners installed in con- 
crete or masonry. 

3. For a concrete or masonry wall below with a 2x sill 
plate, the fasteners into the wall below shall be of 
the diameter and style specified by the gusset angle 
manufacturer for concrete or masonry connections; 
but, long enough to pass through the wood sill 
plate and provide the required embedment into the 
concrete or masonry below. Alternatively, the 
gusset angle can be anchored to the sill plate using 
four each 1 7 2 -inch-long (38 mm) fasteners of the 
same type as specified by the gusset angle manu- 
facturer for wood connections, provided that the 
sill plate is anchored to the wall on each side of the 



gusset 



angle 



by a 7 4 -inch-diameter (6 mm) 



masonry screw with 2 3 / 4 inches (70 mm) of embed 
ment into the concrete or masonry wall. A V 4 -inch 
(6 mm) washer shall be placed under the heads of 
the masonry screws. 

[B] C104.5.2 Conventionally framed gable end wall. 

Each stud in a conventionally framed gable end wall, 



throughout the length of the gable end wall where the wall 
height is greater than 3 feet (91 cm), shall be attached to 
the bottom or sill plate using a stud to plate connector with 
minimum uplift capacity of 175 pounds (778 N). The bot- 
tom or sill plate shall then be connected to the wall below 
using one of the methods listed below: 

1 . For a wood frame wall below, the sill or bottom 
plate shall be connected to the top plate of the wall 
below using 7 4 -inch-diameter (6 mm) lag bolt fas- 
teners of sufficient length to penetrate the bottom 
plate of the upper gable end wall and extend 
through the bottom top plate of the wall below. A 
washer sized for the diameter of the lag bolt shall 
be placed under the head of each lag bolt. The fas- 
teners shall be installed at the spacing indicated in 
Table C104.5.2. 

2. For a concrete or masonry wall below, the sill or 
bottom plate shall be connected to the concrete or 
masonry wall below using 7 4 -inch-diameter (6 mm) 
concrete or masonry screws of sufficient length to 
provide 2 3 / 4 inches (70 mm) of embedment into the 
top of the concrete or masonry wall. A washer 
sized for the diameter of the lag bolt shall be placed 
under the head of each lag bolt. The fasteners shall 
be installed at the spacing indicated in Table 
C104.5.2. 



[B] TABLE C1 04.5.1 
SPACING OF GUSSET ANGLES 



EXPOSURE CATEGORY 


BASIC WIND SPEED 
(mph) 


SPACING OF GUSSET ANGLES 
(inches) 


c 


110 


38 


c 


120 


32 


c 


130 


28 


c 


r 140 


24 


c 


150 


20 


B 


110 


j 48 


B 


120 


40 


B 


130 


36 


B 


140 


30 


B 


150 


26 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.45 m/s. 

[B] TABLE C1 04. 5.2 
SPACING OF LAG OR MASONRY SCREWS USED TO CONNECT SILL PLATE OF GABLE END WALL TO TOP OF THE WALL BELOW 



EXPOSURE CATEGORY 



C 



c 



c 



B 



B 



BASIC WIND SPEED 
(mph) 



no 



120 



130 



140 



150 



110 



120 



130 



SPACING OF LAG OR MASONRY SCREWS 
(inches) 



19 



16 



14 



14 



24 



20 



140 



150 



18 



15 



13 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 
146 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



CHAPTER C2 

ROOF DECK FASTENING FOR HIGH^WiND AREAS 

The provisions contained in this appendix are not mandatory unless specifically referenced in the adopting ordinance. 



SECTION C201 
GENERAL 

[B] C201.1 Intent and purpose. The provisions of this 
chapter provide prescriptive methods for selected structural 
retrofitting of existing buildings. Compliance with these pro- 
visions will not always meet the requirements for new con- 
struction in the International Building Code or the 
International Residential Code. The provisions of this chap- 
ter are intended to provide methods for strengthening existing 
buildings to increase resistance to wind loads. 

[B] C201.2 Scope. The provisions of this chapter are a pre- 
scriptive alternative for one- and two-family dwellings 
located where the wind speed according to Section 1609 of 
the International Building Code exceeds 100 mph (44.7 m/s) 
to achieve compliance with Section 706.3 of the International 
Existing Building Code. 



2. Ring diameter a minimum of 0.012 inch (0.3 mm) 
greater than shank diameter. 

3. 16 to 20 rings per inch. 

4. A minimum 0.280-inch (7 mm) full round head 
diameter. 

5. Ring shank to extend a minimum of 1 '/, inches (38 
mm) from the tip of the nail. 

6. Minimum 2'/ 4 -inch (57 mm) nail length. 



SECTION C202 
ROOF DECK ATTACHMENT FOR WOOD ROOFS 

[Bj C202.1 Roof decking attachment for one- and two- 
family dwellings. For one- and two-family dwellings, fasten- 
ing shall be in accordance with Section C202.1.1 or C202.1.2 
as appropriate for the existing construction. The diameter of 
8d nails shall be a minimum of 0.131 inch (3 mm) and the 
length shall be a minimum of 2'/ 4 inches (57 mm) to qualify 
for the provisions of this section for existing nails regardless 
of head shape or head diameter. 

[B] C202.1.1 Sawn lumber or wood plank roofs. Roof 
decking consisting of sawn lumber or wood planks up to 
12 inches (30 cm) wide and secured with at least two nails 
(minimum size 8d) to each roof framing member it crosses 
shall be deemed to be sufficiently connected. Sawn lum- 
ber or wood plank decking secured with smaller fasteners 
than 8d nails or with fewer than two nails (minimum size 
8d) to each framing member it crosses shall be deemed 
sufficiently connected if fasteners are added such that two 
clipped head, round head, or ring shank nails (minimum 
size 8d) are in place on each framing member the nail 
crosses. 

[B] C202.1.2 Wood structural panel roofs. For roof 
decking consisting of wood structural panels, fasteners 
and spacings required in Table C202.1.2 are deemed to 
comply with the requirements of Section 706.3 of the 
International Existing Building Code. 

Supplemental fasteners as required by Table C202.1.2 
shall be 8d ring shank nails with round heads and the fol- 
lowing minimum dimensions: 

1. 0.1 13-inch-nominal (3 mm) shank diameter. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



147 



APPENDIX C 



[B]TABLEC202.1.2 
SUPPLEMENT FASTENERS AT PANEL EDGES AND INTERMEDIATE FRAMING 



EXISTING FASTENERS 


EXISTING FASTENER 

SPACING (EDGE OR 

INTERMEDIATE SUPPORTS) 


MAXIMUM SUPPLEMENTAL 

FASTENER SPACING FOR 

WIND SPEEDS GREATER 

THAN 100 MPH BUT LESS 

THAN OR EQUAL TO 1 10 MPH 


MAXIMUM SUPPLEMENTAL 

FASTENER SPACING FOR 

INTERIOR ZONE c LOCATIONS 

FOR WIND SPEEDS 

EXCEEDING 110 MPH AND 

EDGE ZONES NOT COVERED 

BY THE COLUMN TO RIGHT 


EDGE ZONE" FOR WIND 
SPEED GREATER THAN 
120 MPH AND EXPOSURE 

C, OR WIND SPEED 

GREATER THAN 140 MPH 

AND EXPOSURE B 


Staples or 6d 


Any 


6" o.c. b 


6" o.c. b 


4" o.c. b at panel edges and 
4" o.c." at intermediate 
supports 


8d clipped head or round 
head smooth shank 


6" o.c. or less 


None necessary 


None necessary along 
edges of panels but 6" o.c. b 
at intermediate supports of 
panel 


4" o.c. a at panel edges and 
4" o.c." at intermediate 
supports 


8d clipped head or round 
head ring shank 


6" ox. or less 


None necessary 


None necessary 


4" o.c. a at panel edges and 
4" o.c." at intermediate 
supports 


8d clipped head or round 
head smooth shank 


Greater than 6" o.c. 


6" o.c." 


6" o.c. a along panel edges 
and 6" o.c. b at intermediate 
supports of panel 


4" o.c." at panel edges and 
4" o.c." at intermediate 
supports 


8d clipped head or round 
head ring shank 


Greater than 6" o.c. 


6" o.c. a 


6" o.c." 


4" o.c." at panel edges and 
4" o.c." at intermediate 
supports 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm; I mile per hour = 0.447 m/s. 

a. Maximum spacing determined based on existing fasteners and supplemental fasteners. 

b. Maximum spacing determined based on supplemental fasteners only. 

c. Interior zone = sheathing that is not located within 4 feet of the perimeter edge of the roof or within 4 feet of each side of a ridge. 

d. Edge zone = sheathing that is located within 4 feet of the perimeter edge of the roof and within 4 feet of each side of a ridge. 



148 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



RESOURCE A 

GUIDELINES ON FSRE RATINGS OF 
ARCHAIC MATERIALS AND ASSEMBLIES 

Introduction 

The International Existing Building Code 9 (IEBC 8 ) is a comprehensive code with the goal of addressing all aspects of work tak- 
ing place in existing buildings and providing user-friendly methods and tools for regulation and improvement of such buildings. 
This resource document is included within the cover of the IEBC with that goal in mind and as a step towards accomplishing that 
goal. 

In the process of repair and alteration of existing buildings, based on the nature and the extent of the work, the IEBC might 
require certain upgrades in the fire-resistance rating of building elements, at which time it becomes critical for the designers and 
the code officials to be able to determine the fire-resistance rating of the existing building elements as part of the overall evalua- 
tion for the assessment of the need for improvements. This resource document provides a guideline for such an evaluation for 
fire-resistance ratings of archaic materials that are not typically found in the modern model building codes. 

Resource A is only a guideline and is not intended to be a document for specific adoption as it is not written in the format or 
language of ICC's International Codes and is not subject to the code development process. 

PURPOSE 

The Guideline on Fire Ratings of Archaic Materials and Assemblies focuses upon the fire-related performance of archaic con- 
struction. "Archaic" encompasses construction typical of an earlier time, generally prior to 1950. "Fire-related performance" 
includes fire resistance, flame spread, smoke production and degree of combustibility. 

The purpose of this guideline is to update the information which was available at the time of original construction, for use by 
architects, engineers and code officials when evaluating the fire safety of a rehabilitation project. In addition, information rele- 
vant to the evaluation of general classes of materials and types of construction is presented for those cases when documentation 
of the fire performance of a particular archaic material or assembly cannot be found. 

It has been assumed that the building materials and their fastening, joining and incorporation into the building structure are 
sound mechanically. Therefore, some determination must be made that the original manufacture, the original construction prac- 
tice, and the rigors of aging and use have not weakened the building. This assessment can often be difficult because process and 
quality control was not good in many industries, and variations among locally available raw materials and manufacturing tech- 
niques often resulted in a product which varied widely in its strength and durability. The properties of iron and steel, for exam- 
ple, varied widely, depending on the mill and the process used. 

There is nothing inherently inferior about archaic materials or construction techniques. The pressures that promote funda- 
mental change are most often economic or technological matters not necessarily related to concerns for safety. The high cost of 
labor made wood lath and plaster uneconomical. The high cost of land and the congestion of the cities provided the impetus for 
high-rise construction. Improved technology made it possible. The difficulty with archaic materials is not a question of suitabil- 
ity, but familiarity. 

Code requirements for the fire performance of key building elements (e.g., walls, floor/ceiling assemblies, doors, shaft enclo- 
sures) are stated in performance terms: hours of fire resistance. It matters not whether these elements were built in 1908 or 1980, 
only that they provide the required degree of fire resistance. The level of performance will be defined by the local community, 
primarily through the enactment of a building or rehabilitation code. This guideline is only a tool to help evaluate the various 
building elements, regardless of what the level of performance is required to be. 

The problem with archaic materials is simply that documentation of their fire performance is not readily available. The appli- 
cation of engineering judgment is more difficult because building officials may not be familiar with the materials or construction 
method involved. As a result, either a full-scale fire test is required or the archaic construction in question removed and replaced. 
Both alternatives are time consuming and wasteful. 

This guideline and the accompanying appendix are designed to help fill this information void. By providing the necessary 
documentation, there will be a firm basis for the continued acceptance of archaic materials and assemblies. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 149 



RESOURCE A 



1 

FIRE-RELATED PERFORMANCE OF ARCHAIC 
MATERIALS AND ASSEMBLIES 



1.1 

FIRE PERFORMANCE MEASURES 

This guideline does not specify the level of performance 
required for the various building components. These require- 
ments are controlled by the building occupancy and use and 
are set forth in the local building or rehabilitation code. 

The fire resistance of a given building element is estab- 
lished by subjecting a sample of the assembly to a "standard" 
fire test which follows a "standard" time-temperature curve. 
This test method has changed little since the 1920s. The test 
results tabulated in the Appendix have been adjusted to 
reflect current test methods. 

The current model building codes cite other fire-related 
properties not always tested for in earlier years: flame spread, 
smoke production, and degree of combustibility. However, 
they can generally be assumed to fall within well defined val- 
ues because the principal combustible component of archaic 
materials is cellulose. Smoke production is more important 
today because of the increased use of plastics. However, the 
early flame spread tests, developed in the early 1940s, also 
included a test for smoke production. 

"Plastics," one of the most important classes of contempo- 
rary materials, were not found in the review of archaic mate- 
rials. If plastics are to be used in a rehabilitated building, they 
should be evaluated by contemporary standards. Information 
and documentation of their fire-related properties and perfor- 
mance is widely available. 

Flame spread, smoke production and degree of combusti- 
bility are discussed in detail below. Test results for eight 
common species of lumber, published in an Underwriter's 
Laboratories' report (104), are noted in the following table: 

TUNNEL TEST RESULTS FOR EIGHT SPECIES OF LUMBER 



SPECIES OF LUMBER 


FLAME 
SPREAD 


FUEL 
CONTRIBUTED 


SMOKE 
DEVELOPED 


Western White Pine 


75 


50-60 


50 


Northern White Pine 


120-215 


120-140 


60-65 


Ponderosa Pine 


80-215 


120-135 


100-110 


Yellow Pine 


180-190 


130-145 


275-305 


Red Gum 


140-155 


125-175 


40-60 


Yellow Birch 


105-110 


100-105 


45-65 


Douglas Fir 


65-100 


50-80 


10-100 



Flame Spread 

The flame spread of interior finishes is most often mea- 
sured by the ASTM E 84 "tunnel test." This test measures 
how far and how fast the flames spread across the surface of 
the test sample. The resulting flame spread rating (FSR) is 
expressed as a number on a continuous scale where cement- 
asbestos board is and red oak is 100. (Materials with a 
flame spread greater than red oak have an FSR greater than 



100.) The scale is divided into distinct groups or classes. The 
most commonly used flame spread classifications are: Class I 
or A*, with a 0-25 FSR; Class II or B, with a 26-75 FSR; and 
Class III or C, with a 76-200 FSR. The NFPA Life Safety 
Code also has a Class D (201-500 FSR) and Class E (over 
500 FSR) interior finish. 

These classifications are typically used in modern building 
codes to restrict the rate of fire spread. Only the first three 
classifications are normally permitted, though not all classes 
of materials can be used in all places throughout a building. 
For example, the interior finish of building materials used in 
exits or in corridors leading to exits is more strictly regulated 
than materials used within private dwelling units. 

In general, inorganic archaic materials (e.g., bricks or tile) 
can be expected to be in Class I. Materials of whole wood are 
mostly Class II. Whole wood is defined as wood used in the 
same form as sawn from the tree. This is in contrast to the 
contemporary reconstituted wood products such as plywood, 
fiberboard, hardboard, or particle board. If the organic 
archaic material is not whole wood, the flame spread classifi- 
cation could be well over 200 and thus would be particularly 
unsuited for use in exits and other critical locations in a build- 
ing. Some plywoods and various wood fiberboards have 
flame spreads over 200. Although they can be treated with 
fire retardants to reduce their flame spread, it would be advis- 
able to assume that all such products have a flame spread 
over 200 unless there is information to the contrary. 

Smoke Production 

The evaluation of smoke density is part of the ASTM E 84 
tunnel test. For the eight species of lumber shown in the table 
above, the highest levels are 275-305 for Yellow Pine, but 
most of the others are less smoky than red oak which has an 
index of 100. The advent of plastics caused substantial 
increases in the smoke density values measured by the tunnel 
test. The ensuing limitation of the smoke production for wall 
and ceiling materials by the model building codes has been a 
reaction to the introduction of plastic materials. In general, 
cellulosic materials fall in the 50-300 range of smoke density 
which is below the general limitation of 450 adopted by many 
codes. 



Degree of Combustibility 

The model building codes tend to define "noncombustibil- 
ity" on the basis of having passed ASTM E 136 or if the 
material is totally inorganic. The acceptance of gypsum wall- 
board as noncombustible is based on limiting paper thickness 
to not over V 8 inch and a 0-50 flame spread rating by ASTM 
E 84. At times there were provisions to define a Class I or A 
material (0-25 FSR) as noncombustible, but this is not cur- 
rently recognized by most model building codes. 

If there is any doubt whether or not an archaic material is 
noncombustible, it would be appropriate to send out samples 
for evaluation. If an archaic material is determined to be non- 
combustible according to ASTM E 1 36, it can be expected 
that it will not contribute fuel to the fire. 

* Some codes are Roman numerals, others use letters. 



150 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



RESOURCE A 



1.2 

COMBUSTIBLE CONSTRUCTION TYPES 

One of the earliest forms of timber construction used exte- 
rior load-bearing masonry walls with columns and/or wooden 
walls supporting wooden beams and floors in the interior of 
the building. This form of construction, often called "mill" or 
"heavy timber" construction, has approximately 1 hour fire 
resistance. The exterior walls will generally contain the fire 
within the building. 

With the development of dimensional lumber, there was a 
switch from heavy timber to "balloon frame" construction. 
The balloon frame uses load-bearing exterior wooden walls 
which have long timbers often extending from foundation to 
roof. When longer lumber became scarce, another form of 
construction, "platform" framing, replaced the balloon fram- 
ing. The difference between the two systems is significant 
because platform framing is automatically fire-blocked at 
every floor while balloon framing commonly has concealed 
spaces that extend unblocked from basement to attic. The 
architect, engineer, and code official must be alert to the 
details of construction and the ease with which fire can 
spread in concealed spaces. 



BUILDING EVALUATION 

A given rehabilitation project will most likely go through 
several stages. The preliminary evaluation process involves 
the designer in surveying the prospective building. The fire 
resistance of existing building materials and construction sys- 
tems is identified; potential problems are noted for closer 
study. The final evaluation phase includes: developing design 
solutions to upgrade the fire resistance of building elements, 
if necessary; preparing working drawings and specifications; 
and the securing of the necessary code approvals. 



2.1 

PRELIMINARY EVALUATION 

A preliminary evaluation should begin with a building sur- 
vey to determine the existing materials, the general arrange- 
ment of the structure and the use of the occupied spaces, and 
the details of construction. The designer needs to know "what 
is there" before a decision can be reached about what to keep 
and what to remove during the rehabilitation process. This 
preliminary evaluation should be as detailed as necessary to 
make initial plans. The fire-related properties need to be 
determined from the applicable building or rehabilitation 
code, and the materials and assemblies existing in the build- 
ing then need to be evaluated for these properties. Two work 
sheets are shown below to facilitate the preliminary evalua- 
tion. 

Two possible sources of information helpful in the prelim- 
inary evaluation are the original building plans and the build- 
ing code in effect at the time of original construction. Plans 
may be on file with the local building department or in the 



offices of the original designers (e.g., architect, engineer) or 
their successors. If plans are available, the investigator should 
verify that the building was actually constructed as called for 
in the plans, as well as incorporate any later alterations or 
changes to the building. Earlier editions of the local building 
code should be on file with the building official. The code in 
effect at the time of construction will contain fire perfor- 
mance criteria. While this is no guarantee that the required 
performance was actually provided, it does give the investi- 
gator some guidance as to the level of performance which 
may be expected. Under some code administration and 
enforcement systems, the code in effect at the time of con- 
struction also defines the level of performance that must be 
provided at the time of rehabilitation. 

Figure 1 illustrates one method for organizing preliminary 
field notes. Space is provided for the materials, dimensions, 
and condition of the principal building elements. Each floor 
of the structure should be visited and the appropriate informa- 
tion obtained. In practice, there will often be identical materi- 
als and construction on every floor, but the exception may be 
of vital importance. A schematic diagram should be prepared 
of each floor showing the layout of exits and hallways and 
indicating where each element described in the field notes fits 
into the structure as a whole. The exact arrangement of inte- 
rior walls within apartments is of secondary importance from 
a fire safety point of view and need not be shown on the 
drawings unless these walls are required by code to have a 
fire resistance rating. 

The location of stairways and elevators should be clearly 
marked on the drawings. All exterior means of escape (e.g., 
fire escapes) should be identified. 1 

The following notes explain the entries in Figure 1. 

Exterior Bearing Walls: Many old buildings utilize heavily 
constructed walls to support the floor/ceiling assemblies at 
the exterior of the building. There may be columns and/or 
interior bearing walls within the structure, but the exterior 
walls are an important factor in assessing the fire safety of a 
building. 

The field investigator should note how the floor/ceiling 
assemblies are supported at the exterior of the building. If 
columns are incorporated in the exterior walls, the walls may 
be considered non-bearing. 

I nterior Bearing Walls : It may be difficult to determine 
whether or not an interior wall is load bearing, but the field 
investigator should attempt to make this determination. At a 
later stage of the rehabilitation process, this question will 
need to be determined exactly. Therefore, the field notes 
should be as accurate as possible. 

Exterior Nonhealing Walls- The fire resistance of the exterior 
walls is important for two reasons. These walls (both bearing 
and non-bearing) are depended upon to: a) contain a fire 
within the building of origin; or b) keep an exterior fire out- 
side the building. It is therefore important to indicate on the 
drawings where any openings are located as well as the mate- 
rials and construction of all doors or shutters. The drawings 



Problems providing adequate exiting are discussed at length in the Egress Guideline for Residential 



Rehabilitation. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



151 



RESOURCE A 



should indicate the presence of wired glass, its thickness and 
framing, and identify the materials used for windows and 
door frames. The protection of openings adjacent to exterior 
means of escape (e.g., exterior stairs, fire escapes) is particu- 
larly important. The ground floor drawing should locate the 
building on the property and indicate the precise distances to 
adjacent buildings. 

Interior Nonhearing Walls (Partitions) : A partition is a "wall 
that extends from floor to ceiling and subdivides space within 
any story of a building." (48) Figure 1 has two categories (A 
& B) for Interior Nonbearing Walls (Partitions) which can be 
used for different walls, such as hallway walls as compared to 
inter-apartment walls. Under some circumstances there may 
be only one type of wall construction; in others, three or more 
types of wall construction may occur. 

The field investigator should be alert for differences in 
function as well as in materials and construction details. In 
general, the details within apartments are not as important as 
the major exit paths and stairwells. The preliminary field 
investigation should attempt to determine the thickness of all 
walls. A term introduced below called "thickness design" will 
depend on an accurate (± 7 4 inch) determination. Even 
though this initial field survey is called "preliminary," the 
data generated should be as accurate and complete as possi- 
ble. 

The field investigator should note the exact location from 
which observations are recorded. For instance, if a hole is 
found through a stairwell wall which allows a cataloguing of 
the construction details, the field investigation notes should 
reflect the location of the "find." At the preliminary stage it is 
not necessary to core every wall; the interior details of con- 
struction can usually be determined at some location. 



Structural Frame : There may or may not be a complete skele- 
tal frame, but usually there are columns, beams, trusses, or 
other like elements. The dimensions and spacing of the struc- 
tural elements should be measured and indicated on the draw- 
ings. For instance, if there are ten inch square columns 
located on a thirty foot square grid throughout the building, 
this should be noted. The structural material and cover or pro- 
tective materials should be identified wherever possible. The 
thickness of the cover materials should be determined to an 
accuracy of ± 7 4 inch. As discussed above, the preliminary 
field survey usually relies on accidental openings in the cover 
materials rather than a systematic coring technique. 
Floor/Ceiling Structural Systems : The span between supports 
should be measured. If possible, a sketch of the cross-section 
of the system should be made. If there is no location where 
accidental damage has opened the floor/ceiling construction 
to visual inspection, it is necessary to make such an opening. 
An evaluation of the fire resistance of a floor/ceiling assem- 
bly requires detailed knowledge of the materials and their 
arrangement. Special attention should be paid to the cover on 
structural steel elements and the condition of suspended ceil- 
ings and similar membranes. 

Roofs : The preliminary field survey of the roof system is ini- 
tially concerned with water-tightness. However, once it is 
apparent that the roof is sound for ordinary use and can be 
retained in the rehabilitated building, it becomes necessary to 
evaluate the fire performance. The field investigator must 
measure the thickness and identify the types of materials 
which have been used. Be aware that there may be several 
layers of roof materials. 

Doors : Doors to stairways and hallways represent some of the 
most important fire elements to be considered within a build- 



FlGURE 1 
PRELIMINARY EVALUATION FIELD NOTES 



BUILDING ELEMENT 


MATERIALS 


THICKNESS 


CONDITION 


NOTES 


Exterior Bearing Walls 










Interior Bearing Walls 










Exterior Nonbearing Walls 










Interior Nonbearing 
Walls or Partitions: 


A 










B 










Structural Frame: 
Columns 










Beams 










Other 











Floor/Ceiling 
Structural System 
Spanning 










Roofs 










Doors (including frame and hardware): 
a) Enclosed vertical exitway 










b) Enclosed horizontal exitway 










c) Other 








_ 



152 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE 19 



ing. The uses of the spaces separated largely controls the 
level of fire performance necessary. Walls and doors enclos- 
ing stairs or elevator shafts would normally require a higher 
level of performance than between a the bedroom and bath. 
The various uses are differentiated in Figure 1 . 

Careful measurements of the thickness of door panels 
must be made, and the type of core material within each door 
must be determined. It should be noted whether doors have 
self-closing devices; the general operation of the doors 
should be checked. The latch should engage and the door 
should fit tightly in the frame. The hinges should be in good 
condition. If glass is used in the doors, it should be identified 
as either plain glass or wired glass mounted in either a wood 
or steel frame. 

Materials : The field investigator should be able to identify 
ordinary building materials. In situations where an unfamiliar 
material is found, a sample should be obtained. This sample 
should measure at least 10 cubic inches so that an ASTM E 
1 36 fire test can be conducted to determine if it is combusti- 
ble. 

Thickness : The thickness of all materials should be measured 
accurately since, under certain circumstances, the level of fire 
resistance is very sensitive to the material thickness. 

Condition : The method of attaching the various layers and 
facings to one another or to the supporting structural element 



RESOURCE A 



should be noted under the appropriate building element. The 
"secureness" of the attachment and the general condition of 
the layers and facings should be noted here. 

Notes : The "Notes" column can be used for many purposes, 
but it might be a good idea to make specific references to 
other field notes or drawings. 

After the building survey is completed, the data collected 
must be analyzed. A suggested work sheet for organizing this 
information is given below as Figure 2. 

The required fire resistance and flame spread for each 
building element are normally established by the local build- 
ing or rehabilitation code. The fire performance of the exist- 
ing materials and assemblies should then be estimated, using 
one of the techniques described below. If the fire perfor- 
mance of the existing building element(s) is equal to or 
greater than that required, the materials and assemblies may 
remain. If the fire performance is less than required, then cor- 
rective measures must be taken. 

The most common methods of upgrading the level of pro- 
tection are to either remove and replace the existing building 
element(s) or to repair and upgrade the existing materials and 
assemblies. Other fire protection measures, such as automatic 
sprinklers or detection and alarm systems, also could be con- 
sidered, though they are beyond the scope of this guideline. If 
the upgraded protection is still less than that required or 



FIGURE 2 

PRELIMINARY EVALUATION WORKSHEET 



BUILDING ELEMENT 


REQUIRED FIRE 
RESISTANCE 


REQUIRED 
FLAME SPREAD 


ESTIMATED FIRE 
RESISTANCE 


ESTIMATED 
FLAME SPREAD 


METHOD OF 
UPGRADING 


ESTIMATED 

UPGRADED 

PROTECTION 


NOTES 


Exterior Bearing 
Walls 
















Interior Bearing 
Walls 
















Exterior Nonbearing 
Walls 
















Interior 
Nonbearing 
Walls or 
Partitions: 


A 
















B 
















Structural Frame: 
Columns 
















Beams 
















Other 
















Floor/Ceiling 
Structural System 
Spanning 
















Roofs 
















Doors (including frame and 
hardware): 

a) Enclosed vertical exitway 
















b) Enclosed horizontal 
exitway 
















c) Others 

















2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



153 



RESOURCE A 



deemed to be acceptable, additional corrective measures must 
be taken. This process must continue until an acceptable level 
of performance is obtained. 



2.2 

FIRE RESISTANCE OF EXISTING BUILDING 
ELEMENTS 

The fire resistance of the existing building elements can be 
estimated from the tables and histograms contained in the 
Appendix. The Appendix is organized first by type of build- 
ing element: walls, columns, floor/ceiling assemblies, beams, 
and doors. Within each building element, the tables are orga- 
nized by type of construction (e.g., masonry, metal, wood 
frame), and then further divided by minimum dimensions or 
thickness of the building element. 

A histogram precedes every table that has 10 or more 
entries. The X-axis measures fire resistance in hours; the Y- 
axis shows the number of entries in that table having a given 
level of fire resistance. The histograms also contain the loca- 
tion of each entry within that table for easy cross-referencing. 

The histograms, because they are keyed to the tables, can 
speed the preliminary investigation. For example, Table 
1.3.2, Wood Frame Walls 4" to Less Than 6" Thick, contains 
96 entries. Rather than study each table entry, the histogram 
shows that every wall assembly listed in that table has a fire 
resistance of less than 2 hours. If the building code required 
the wall to have 2 hours fire resistance, the designer, with a 
minimum of effort, is made aware of a problem that requires 
closer study. 

Suppose the code had only required a wall of 1 hour fire 
resistance. The histogram shows far fewer complying ele- 
ments (19) than noncomplying ones (77). If the existing 
assembly is not one of the 19 complying entries, there is a 
strong possibility the existing assembly is deficient. The his- 
tograms can also be used in the converse situation. If the 
existing assembly is not one of the smaller number of entries 
with a lower than required fire resistance, there is a strong 
possibility the existing assembly will be acceptable. 

At some point, the existing building component or assem- 
bly must be located within the tables. Otherwise, the fire 
resistance must be determined through one of the other tech- 
niques presented in the guideline. Locating the building com- 
ponent in the Appendix Tables not only guarantees the 
accuracy of the fire resistance rating, but also provides a 
source of documentation for the building official. 



2.3 

EFFECTS OF PENETRATIONS IN FIRE 

RESISTANT ASSEMBLIES 

There are often many features in existing walls or floor/ceil- 
ing assemblies which were not included in the original certifi- 
cation or fire testing. The most common examples are pipes 
and utility wires passed through holes poked through an 
assembly. During the life of the building, many penetrations 
are added, and by the time a building is ready for rehabilita- 
tion it is not sufficient to just consider the fire resistance of 



the assembly as originally constructed. It is necessary to con- 
sider all penetrations and their relative impact upon fire per- 
formance. For instance, the fire resistance of the corridor wall 
may be less important than the effect of plain glass doors or 
transoms. In fact, doors are the most important single class of 
penetrations. 

A fully developed fire generates substantial quantities of 
heat and excess gaseous fuel capable of penetrating any holes 
which might be present in the walls or ceiling of the fire com- 
partment. In general, this leads to a severe degradation of the 
fire resistance of those building elements and to a greater 
potential for fire spread. This is particularly applicable to 
penetrations located high in a compartment where the posi- 
tive pressure of the fire can force the unburned gases through 
the penetration. 

Penetrations in a floor/ceiling assembly will generally 
completely negate the barrier qualities of the assembly and 
will lead to rapid spread of fire to the space above. It will not 
be a problem, however, if the penetrations are filled with non- 
combustible materials strongly fastened to the structure. The 
upper half of walls are similar to the floor/ceiling assembly in 
that a positive pressure can reasonably be expected in the top 
of the room, and this will push hot and/or burning gases 
through the penetration unless it is completely sealed. 

Building codes require doors installed in fire resistive 
walls to resist the passage of fire for a specified period of 
time. If the door to a fully involved room is not closed, a large 
plume of fire will typically escape through the doorway, pre- 
venting anyone from using the space outside the door while 
allowing the fire to spread. This is why door closers are so 
important. Glass in doors and transoms can be expected to 
rapidly shatter unless constructed of listed or approved wire 
glass in a steel frame. As with other building elements, pene- 
trations or non-rated portions of doors and transoms must be 
upgraded or otherwise protected. 

Table 5.1 in Section V of the Appendix contains 41 entries 
of doors mounted in sound tightfitting frames. Part 3.4 below 
outlines one procedure for evaluating and possibly upgrading 
existing doors. 



FINAL EVALUATION AND DESIGN SOLUTION 

The final evaluation begins after the rehabilitation project 
has reached the final design stage and the choices made to 
keep certain archaic materials and assemblies in the rehabili- 
tated building. The final evaluation process is essentially a 
more refined and detailed version of the preliminary evalua- 
tion. The specific fire resistance and flame spread require- 
ments are determined for the project. This may involve local 
building and fire officials reviewing the preliminary evalua- 
tion as depicted in Figures 1 and 2 and the field drawings and 
notes. When necessary, provisions must be made to upgrade 
existing building elements to provide the required level of fire 
performance. 

There are several approaches to design solutions that can 
make possible the continued use of archaic materials and 
assemblies in the rehabilitated structure. The simplest case 



154 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



RESOURCE A 



occurs when the materials and assembly in question are found 
within the Appendix Tables and the fire performance proper- 
ties satisfy code requirements. Other approaches must be 
used, though, if the assembly cannot be found within the 
Appendix or the fire performance needs to be upgraded. 
These approaches have been grouped into two classes: exper- 
imental and theoretical. 



3.1 

THE EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH 

If a material or assembly found in a building is not listed 
in the Appendix Tables, there are several other ways to evalu- 
ate fire performance. One approach is to conduct the appro- 
priate fire test(s) and thereby determine the fire-related 
properties directly. There are a number of laboratories in the 
United States which routinely conduct the various fire tests. 
A current list can be obtained by writing the Center for Fire 
Research, National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C. 
20234. 

The contract with any of these testing laboratories should 
require their observation of specimen preparation as well as 
the testing of the specimen. A complete description of where 
and how the specimen was obtained from the building, the 
transportation of the specimen, and its preparation for testing 
should be noted in detail so that the building official can be 
satisfied that the fire test is representative of the actual use. 

The test report should describe the fire test procedure and 
the response of the material or assembly. The laboratory usu- 
ally submits a cover letter with the report to describe the pro- 
visions of the fire test that were satisfied by the material or 
assembly under investigation. A building official will gener- 
ally require this cover letter, but will also read the report to 
confirm that the material or assembly complies with the code 
requirements. Local code officials should be involved in all 
phases of the testing process. 

The experimental approach can be costly and time con- 
suming because specimens must be taken from the building 
and transported to the testing laboratory. When a load bearing 
assembly has continuous reinforcement, the test specimen 
must be removed from the building, transported, and tested in 
one piece. However, when the fire performance cannot be 
determined by other means, there may be no alternative to a 
full-scale test. 

A "nonstandard" small-scale test can be used in special 
cases. Sample sizes need only be 10-25 square feet (0.93-2.3 
m 2 ), while full-scale tests require test samples of either 100 or 
180 square feet (9.3 or 17 m 2 ) in size. This small-scale test is 
best suited for testing nonload-bearing assemblies against 
thermal transmission only. 



3.2 

THE THEORETICAL APPROACH 

There will be instances when materials and assemblies in a 
building undergoing rehabilitation cannot be found in the 



Appendix Tables. Even where test results are available for 
more or less similar construction, the proper classification 
may not be immediately apparent. Variations in dimensions, 
loading conditions, materials, or workmanship may markedly 
affect the performance of the individual building elements, 
and the extent of such a possible effect cannot be evaluated 
from the tables. 

Theoretical methods being developed offer an alternative 
to the full-scale fire tests discussed above. For example, Sec- 
tion 4302(b) of the 1979 edition of the Uniform Building 
Code specifically allows an engineering design for fire resis- 
tance in lieu of conducting full-scale tests. These techniques 
draw upon computer simulation and mathematical modeling, 
thermodynamics, heat-flow analysis, and materials science to 
predict the fire performance of building materials and assem- 
blies. 

One theoretical method, known as the "Ten Rules of Fire 
Endurance Ratings," was published by T. Z. Harmathy in the 
May, 1965 edition of Fire Technology. (35) Harmathy's 
Rules provide a foundation for extending the data within the 
Appendix Tables to analyze or upgrade current as well as 
archaic building materials or assemblies. 



HARMATHY'S TEN RULES 

Rule 1: The "thermal"' fire endurance of a construction 
consisting of a number of parallel layers is greater than the 
sum of the "thermal" fire endurances characteristic of the 
individual layers when exposed separately to fire. 

The minimum performance of an untested assembly can 
be estimated if the fire endurance of the individual compo- 
nents is known. Though the exact rating of the assembly can- 
not be stated, the endurance of the assembly is greater than 
the sum of the endurance of the components. 

When a building assembly or component is found to be 
deficient, the fire endurance can be upgraded by providing a 
protective membrane. This membrane could be a new layer of 
brick, plaster, or drywall. The fire endurance of this mem- 
brane is called the "finish rating." Appendix Tables 1.5.1 and 
1.5.2 contain the finish ratings for the most commonly 
employed materials. (See also the notes to Rule 2). 

The test criteria for the finish rating is the same as for the 
thermal fire endurance of the total assembly: average temper- 
ature increases of 250°F (121°C) above ambient or 325°F 
(163°C) above ambient at any one place with the membrane 
being exposed to the fire. The temperature is measured at the 
interface of the assembly and the protective membrane. 

Rule 2: The fire endurance of a construction does not 
decrease with the addition of further layers. 

Harmathy notes that this rule is a consequence of the pre- 
vious rule. Its validity follows from the fact that the addi- 
tional layers increase both the resistance to heat flow and the 
heat capacity of the construction. This, in turn, reduces the 
rate of temperature rise at the unexposed surface. 



1. The "thermal" fire endurance is the time at which the average temperature on the unexposed side of a construction exceeds its initial value by 250° when the 
other side is exposed to the "standard" fire specified by ASTM Test Method E- 1 9. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



155 



RESOURCE A 



This rule is not just restricted to "thermal" performance 
but affects the other fire test criteria: direct flame passage, 
cotton waste ignition, and load bearing performance. This 
means that certain restrictions must be imposed on the mate- 
rials to be added and on the loading conditions. One restric- 
tion is that a new layer, if applied to the exposed surface, 
must not produce additional thermal stresses in the construc- 
tion, i.e., its thermal expansion characteristics must be similar 
to those of the adjacent layer. Each new layer must also be 
capable of contributing enough additional strength to the 
assembly to sustain the added dead load. If this requirement is 
not fulfilled, the allowable live load must be reduced by an 
amount equal to the weight of the new layer. Because of these 
limitations, this rule should not be applied without careful 
consideration. 

Particular care must be taken if the material added is a 
good thermal insulator. Properly located, the added insulation 
could improve the "thermal" performance of the assembly. 
Improperly located, the insulation could block necessary ther- 
mal transmission through the assembly, thereby subjecting 
the structural elements to greater temperatures for longer 
periods of time, and could cause premature structural failure 
of the supporting members. 

Rule 3: The fire endurance of constructions containing 
continuous air gaps or cavities is greater than the fire endur- 
ance of similar constructions of the same weight, but contain- 
ing no air gaps or cavities. 

By providing for voids in a construction, additional resis- 
tances are produced in the path of heat flow. Numerical heat 
flow analyses indicate that a 10 to 15 percent increase in fire 
endurance can be achieved by creating an air gap at the mid- 
plane of a brick wall. Since the gross volume is also increased 
by the presence of voids, the air gaps and cavities have a ben- 
eficial effect on stability as well. However, constructions 
containing combustible materials within an air gap may be 
regarded as exceptions to this rule because of the possible 
development of burning in the gap. 

There are numerous examples of this rule in the tables. For 
instance: 

Table 1.1.4; Item W-8-M-82: Cored concrete masonry, 
nominal 8 inch thick wall with one unit in wall thickness and 
with 62 percent minimum of solid material in each unit, load 
bearing (80 PSI). Fire endurance: 2'/ 2 hours. 

Table 1.1.5; Item W-10-M-11: Cored concrete mansonry, 
nominal 1 inch thick wall with two units in wall thickness 
and a 2-inch (51 mm) air space, load bearing (80 PSI). The 
units are essentially the same as item W-8-M-82. Fire endur- 
ance: 3 V 2 hours. 

These walls show 1 hour greater fire endurance by the 
addition of the 2-inch (5 1 mm) air space. 

Rule 4: The farther an air gap or cavity is located from the 
exposed surface, the more beneficial is its effect on the fire 
endurance. 



Radiation dominates the heat transfer across an air gap or 
cavity, and it is markedly higher where the temperature is 
higher. 

The air gap or cavity is thus a poor insulator if it is located 
in a region which attains high temperatures during fire expo- 
sure. 

Some of the clay tile designs take advantage of these fac- 
tors. The double cell design, for instance, ensures that there is 
a cavity near the unexposed face. Some floor/ceiling assem- 
blies have air gaps or cavities near the top surface and these 
enhance their thermal performance. 

Rule 5: The fire endurance of a construction cannot be 
increased by increasing the thickness of a completely 
enclosed air layer. 

Harmathy notes that there is evidence that if the thickness 
of the air layer is larger than about 7 2 inch (12.7 mm), the 
heat transfer through the air layer depends only on the tem- 
perature of the bounding surfaces, and is practically indepen- 
dent of the distance between them. This rule is not applicable 
if the air layer is not completely enclosed, i.e., if there is a 
possibility of fresh air entering the gap at an appreciable rate. 

Rule 6: Layers of materials of low thermal conductivity 
are better utilized on that side of the construction on which 
fire is more likely to happen. 

As in Rule 4, the reason lies in the heat transfer process, 
though the conductivity of the solid is much less dependent 
on the ambient temperature of the materials. The low thermal 
conductor creates a substantial temperature differential to be 
established across its thickness under transient heat flow con- 
ditions. This rule may not be applicable to materials undergo- 
ing physico-chemical changes accompanied by significant 
heat absorption or heat evolution. 

Rule 7: The fire endurance of asymmetrical constructions 
depends on the direction of heat flow. 

This rule is a consequence of Rules 4 and 6 as well as 
other factors. This rule is useful in determining the relative 
protection of corridors and stairwells from the surrounding 
spaces. In addition, there are often situations where a fire is 
more likely, or potentially more severe, from one side or the 
other. 

Rule 8: The presence of moisture, if it does not result in 
explosive spalling, increases the fire endurance. 

The flow of heat into an assembly is greatly hindered by 
the release and evaporation of the moisture found within 
cementitious materials such as gypsum, portland cement, or 
magnesium oxychloride. Harmathy has shown that the gain in 
fire endurance may be as high as 8 percent for each percent 
(by volume) of moisture in the construction. It is the moisture 
chemically bound within the construction material at the time 
of manufacture or processing that leads to increased fire 
endurance. There is no direct relationship between the rela- 
tive humidity of the air in the pores of the material and the 
increase in fire endurance. 



156 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



Under certain conditions there may be explosive spalling 
of low permeability cementitious materials such as dense 
concrete. In general, one can assume that extremely old con- 
crete has developed enough minor cracking that this factor 
should not be significant. 

Rule 9: Load-supporting elements, such as beams, girders 
and joists, yield higher fire endurances when subjected to fire 
endurance tests as parts of floor, roof, or ceiling assemblies 
than they would when tested separately. 

One of the fire endurance test criteria is the ability of a 
load-supporting element to carry its design load. The element 
will be deemed to have failed when the load can no longer be 
supported. 

Failure usually results for two reasons. Some materials, 
particularly steel and other metals, lose much of their struc- 
tural strength at elevated temperatures. Physical deflection of 
the supporting element, due to decreased strength or thermal 
expansion, causes a redistribution of the load forces and 
stresses throughout the element. Structural failure often 
results because the supporting element is not designed to 
carry the redistributed load. 

Roof, floor, and ceiling assemblies have primary (e.g., 
beams) and secondary (e.g., floor joists) structural members. 
Since the primary load-supporting elements span the largest 
distances, their deflection becomes significant at a stage 
when the strength of the secondary members (including the 
roof or floor surface) is hardly affected by the heat. As the 
secondary members follow the deflection of the primary 
load-supporting element, an increasingly larger portion of the 
load is transferred to the secondary members. 

When load-supporting elements are tested separately, the 
imposed load is constant and equal to the design load 
throughout the test. By definition, no distribution of the load 
is possible because the element is being tested by itself. With- 
out any other structural members to which the load could be 
transferred, the individual elements cannot yield a higher fire 
endurance than they do when tested as parts of a floor, roof or 
ceiling assembly. 

Rule 10: The load-supporting elements (beams, girders, 
joists, etc.) of a floor, roof, or ceiling assembly can be 
replaced by such other load- supporting elements which, 
when tested separately, yielded fire endurances not less than 
that of the assembly. 

This rule depends on Rule 9 for its validity. A beam or 
girder, if capable of yielding a certain performance when 
tested separately, will yield an equally good or better perfor- 
mance when it forms a part of a floor, roof, or ceiling assem- 
bly. It must be emphasized that the supporting element of one 
assembly must not be replaced by the supporting element of 
another assembly if the performance of this latter element is 
not known from a separate (beam) test. Because of the load- 
reducing effect of the secondary elements that results from a 
test performed on an assembly, the performance of the sup- 
porting element alone cannot be evaluated by simple arithme- 



RESOURCE A 



tic. This rule also indicates the advantage of performing 
separate fire tests on primary load-supporting elements. 

ILLUSTRATION OF HARMATHY'S RULES 

Harmathy provided one schematic figure which illustrated 
his Rules. 1 It should be useful as a quick reference to assist in 
applying his Rules. 

EXAMPLE APPLICATION OF HARMATHY'S RULES 

The following examples, based in whole or in part upon 
those presented in Harmathy's paper (35), show how the 
Rules can be applied to practical cases. 

Example 1 

Problem 

A contractor would like to keep a partition which consists of 
a 3 3 / 4 inch (95 mm) thick layer of red clay brick, a 1 V 4 inch 
(32 mm) thick layer of plywood, and a 3 / 8 inch (9.5 mm) thick 
layer of gypsum wallboard, at a location where 2-hour fire 
endurance is required. Is this assembly capable of providing a 
2-hour protection? 

Solution 

(1) This partition does not appear in the Appendix Tables. 

(2) Bricks of this thickness yield fire endurances of 
approximately 75 minutes (Table 1.1.2, Item W-4-M- 

2). 

(3) The 1 V 4 inch (32 mm) thick plywood has a finish rat- 
ing of 30 minutes. 

(4) The % inch (9.5 mm) gypsum wallboard has a finish 
rating of 10 minutes. 

(5) Using the recommended values from the tables and 
applying Rule 1, the fire endurance (FI) of the assem- 
bly is larger than the sum of the individual layers, or 

FI> 75 + 30 +10 =115 minutes 
Discussion 

This example illustrates how the Appendix Tables can be uti- 
lized to determine the fire resistance of assemblies not explic- 
itly listed. 

Example 2 

Problem 

(1) A number of buildings to be rehabilitated have the 
same type of roof slab which is supported with differ- 
ent structural elements. 

(2) The designer and contractor would like to determine 
whether or not this roof slab is capable of yielding a 2- 
hour fire endurance. According to a rigorous interpre- 
tation of ASTM E 1 19, however, only the roof assem- 
bly, including the roof slab as well as the cover and 
the supporting elements, can be subjected to a fire test. 
Therefore, a fire endurance classification cannot be 
issued for the slabs separately. 



Reproduced from the May 1065 Fire Technology (Vol. I , No. 2). Copyright National Fire Protection Association, Boston. Reproduced by permission. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



157 



RESOURCE A 



(3) The designer and contractor believe this slab will 
yield a 2-hour fire endurance even without the cover, 
and any beam of at least 2~hour fire endurance will 
provide satisfactory support. Is it possible to obtain a 
classification for the slab separately? 

Solution 

(1) The answer to the question is yes. 

(2) According to Rule 10 it is not contrary to common 
sense to test and classify roofs and supporting ele- 
ments separately. Furthermore, according to Rule 2, if 
the roof slabs actually yield a 2 hour fire endurance, 
the endurance of an assembly, including the slabs, 
cannot be less than 2 hours. 

(3) The recommended procedure would be to review the 
tables to see if the slab appears as part of any tested 
roof or floor/ceiling assembly. The supporting system 
can be regarded as separate from the slab specimen, 
and the fire endurance of the assembly listed in the 
table is at least the fire endurance of the slab. There 
would have to be an adjustment for the weight of the 



roof cover in the allowable load if the test specimen 
did not contain a cover. 

(4) The supporting structure or element would have to 
have at least a 2-hour fire endurance when tested sepa- 
rately. 
Discussion 

If the tables did not include tests on assemblies which con- 
tained the slab, one procedure would be to assemble the roof 
slabs on any convenient supporting system (not regarded as 
part of the specimen) and to subject them to a load which, 
besides the usually required superimposed load, includes 
some allowances for the weight of the cover. 

Example 3 

Problem 

A steel-joisted floor and ceiling assembly is known to have 
yielded a fire endurance of 1 hour and 35 minutes. At a cer- 
tain location, a 2-hour endurance is required. What is the 
most economical way of increasing the fire endurance by at 
least 25 minutes? 



t 12 > t, + 1 2 

RULE 1 



m.. 



<>: 



m. 



m 



■M 






t 2 >t, 
RULE 2 



% 



m 



■s 



t 2 >t 1 

RULE 3 



FIRE 




t 2 >t 1 

RULE 4 



'/< 



ti = x 2 
RULE 5 



FIRE 



V- <s: 



S, >t 12 
RULE 6 



FIRE 



FIRE 



:> 



I 
f 



FIRE 



ti*t 2 
RULE 7 



m 



w 
o 

5 



m 
M 

Q 

t, 



t, >t 2 

RULE! 



BEAM TESTED AS 
PART OF FLOOR 



BEAM TESTED 
SEPARATELY 




FOR THE FLOOR 
ASSEMBLY 



FOR A BEAM WHEN 
TESTED SEPARATELY 




t,>t 2 

RULE 9 



BEAM A CAN BE REPLACED BY BEAM B IF t z > t, 
RULE 10 



Diagrammatic illustration often rules, 
t = fire endurance 



158 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



Solution 

(1) The most effective technique would be to increase the 
ceiling plaster thickness. Existing coats of paint would 
have to be removed and the surface properly prepared 
before the new plaster could be applied. Other materi- 
als (e.g., gypsum wallboard) could also be considered. 

(2) There may be other techniques based on other princi- 
ples, but an examination of the drawings would be 
necessary. 

Discussion 

(1) The additional plaster has at least three effects: 

a) The layer of plaster is increased and thus there is a 
gain of fire endurance (Rule 1). 

b) There is a gain due to shifting the air gap farther 
from the exposed surface (Rule 4). 

c) There is more moisture in the path of heat flow to 
the structural elements (Rules 7 and 8). 

(2) The increase in fire endurance would be at least as 
large as that of the finish rating for the added thick- 
ness of plaster. The combined effects in (1) above 
would further increase this by a factor of 2 or more, 
depending upon the geometry of the assembly. 

Example 4 

Problem 

The fire endurance of item W-10-M-1 in Table 1.1.5 is 4 
hours. This wall consists of two 3 3 / 4 inch (95 mm) thick lay- 
ers of structural tiles separated by a 2-inch (51 mm) air gap 
and 3 / 4 inch (19 mm) portland cement plaster or stucco on 
both sides. If the actual wall in the building is identical to 
item W-lO-M-1 except that it has a 4-inch (102 mm) air gap, 
can the fire endurance be estimated at 5 hours? 

Solution 

The answer to the question is no for the reasons contained in 
Rule 5. 

Example 5 

Problem 

In order to increase the insulating value of its precast roof 
slabs, a company has decided to use two layers of different 
concretes. The lower layer of the slabs, where the strength of 
the concrete is immaterial (all the tensile load is carried by 
the steel reinforcement), would be made with a concrete of 
low strength but good insulating value. The upper layer, 
where the concrete is supposed to carry the compressive load, 
would remain the original high strength, high thermal con- 
ductivity concrete. How will the fire endurance of the slabs 
be affected by the change? 

Solution 

The effect on the thermal fire endurance is beneficial: 

(1) The total resistance to heat flow of the new slabs has 
been increased due to the replacement of a layer of 
high thermal conductivity by one of low conductivity. 



RESOURCE A 



(2) The layer of low conductivity is on the side more 
likely to be exposed to fire, where it is more effec- 
tively utilized according to Rule 6. The layer of low 
thermal conductivity also provides better protection 
for the steel reinforcement, thereby extending the time 
before reaching the temperature at which the creep of 
steel becomes significant. 



3.3 

"THICKNESS DESIGN" STRATEGY 

The "thickness design" strategy is based upon Harmathy's 
Rules 1 and 2. This design approach can be used when the 
construction materials have been identified and measured, but 
the specific assembly cannot be located within the tables. The 
tables should be surveyed again for thinner walls of like 
material and construction detail that have yielded the desired 
or greater fire endurance. If such an assembly can be found, 
then the thicker walls in the building have more than enough 
fire resistance. The thickness of the walls thus becomes the 
principal concern. 

This approach can also be used for floor/ceiling assem- 
blies, except that the thickness of the cover 1 and the slab 
become the central concern. The fire resistance of the 
untested assembly will be at least the fire resistance of an 
assembly listed in the table having a similar design but with 
less cover and/or thinner slabs. For other structural elements 
(e.g., beams and columns), the element listed in the table 
must also be of a similar design but with less cover thickness. 



3.4 

EVALUATION OF DOORS 

A separate section on doors has been included because the 
process for evaluation presented below differs from those 
suggested previously for other building elements. The impact 
of unprotected openings or penetrations in fire resistant 
assemblies has been detailed in Part 2.3 above. It is sufficient 
to note here that openings left unprotected will likely lead to 
failure of the barrier under actual fire conditions. 

For other types of building elements (e.g., beams, col- 
umns), the Appendix Tables can be used to establish a mini- 
mum level of fire performance. The benefit to rehabilitation 
is that the need for a full-scale fire test is then eliminated. For 
doors, however, this cannot be done. The data contained in 
Appendix Table 5.1, Resistance of Doors to Fire Exposure, 
can only provide guidance as to whether a successful fire test 
is even feasible. 

For example, a door required to have 1 hour fire resistance 
is noted in the tables as providing only 5 minutes. The likeli- 
hood of achieving the required 1 hour, even if the door is 
upgraded, is remote. The ultimate need for replacement of the 
doors is reasonably clear, and the expense and time needed 
for testing can be saved. However, if the performance docu- 
mented in the table is near or in excess of what is being 
required, then a fire test should be conducted. The test docu- 



Cover: the protective layer or membrane of material which slows the flow of heat to the structural elements. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



159 



RESOURCE A 



mentation can then be used as evidence of compliance with 
the required level of performance. 

The table entries cannot be used as the sole proof of per- 
formance of the door in question because there are too many 
unknown variables which could measurably affect fire per- 
formance. The wood may have dried over the years; coats of 
flammable varnish could have been added. Minor deviations 
in the internal construction of a door can result in significant 
differences in performance. Methods of securing inserts in 
panel doors can vary. The major non-destructive method of 
analysis, an x-ray, often cannot provide the necessary detail. 
It is for these, and similar reasons, that a fire test is still felt to 
be necessary. 

It is often possible to upgrade the fire performance of an 
existing door. Sometimes, "as is" and modified doors are 
evaluated in a single series of tests when failure of the 
unmodified door is expected. Because doors upgraded after 
an initial failure must be tested again, there is a potential sav- 
ings of time and money. 

The most common problems encountered are plain glass, 
panel inserts of insufficient thickness, and improper fit of a 
door in its frame. The latter problem can be significant 
because a fire can develop a substantial positive pressure, and 
the fire will work its way through otherwise innocent-looking 
gaps between door and frame. 



One approach to solving these problems is as follows. The 
plain glass is replaced with approved or listed wire glass in a 
steel frame. The panel inserts can be upgraded by adding an 
additional layer of material. Gypsum wallboard is often used 
for this purpose. Intumescent paint applied to the edges of the 
door and frame will expand when exposed to fire, forming an 
effective seal around the edges. This seal, coupled with the 
generally even thermal expansion of a wood door in a wood 
frame, can prevent the passage of flames and other fire gases. 
Figure 3 below illustrates these solutions. 

Because the interior construction of a door cannot be 
determined by a visual inspection, there is no absolute guar- 
antee that the remaining doors are identical to the one(s) 
removed from the building and tested. But the same is true for 
doors constructed today, and reason and judgment must be 
applied. Doors that appear identical upon visual inspection 
can be weighed. If the weights are reasonably close, the doors 
can be assumed to be identical and therefore provide the same 
level of fire performance. Another approach is to fire test 
more than one door or to dismantle doors selected at random 
to see if they had been constructed in the same manner. Orig- 
inal building plans showing door details or other records 
showing that doors were purchased at one time or obtained 
from a single supplier can also be evidence of similar con- 
struction. 




n 




A ORIGINAL 



TEST DOOR 



WOOD FRAME 




r GLASS (WIRED) 

RATED METAL FRAME 



A MODIFIED 




THRU BOLTS 

INTUMESCENT PAINT- 



B ORIGINAL 




-GYPSUM WALLBOARD 
OAK BATTEN 



B MODIFIED 




INTUMESCENT- 
PAINT 



FIGURE 3 
MODIFICATION DETAILS 



160 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



RESOURCE A 



More often though, it is what is visible to the eye that is 
most significant. The investigator should carefully check the 
condition and fit of the door and frame, and for frames out of 
plumb or separating from the wall. Door closers, latches, and 
hinges must be examined to see that they function properly 
and are tightly secured. If these are in order and the door and 
frame have passed a full-scale test, there can be a reasonable 
basis for allowing the existing doors to remain. 



SUMMARY 

This section summarizes the various approaches and 
design solutions discussed in the preceding sections of the 
guideline. The term "structural system" includes: frames, 
beams, columns, and other structural elements. "Cover" is a 
protective layer(s) of materials or membrane which slows the 
flow of heat to the structural elements. It cannot be stressed 
too strongly that the fire endurance of actual building ele- 
ments can be greatly reduced or totally negated by removing 
part of the cover to allow pipes, ducts, or conduits to pass 
through the element. This must be repaired in the rehabilita- 
tion process. 

The following approaches shall be considered equivalent. 

4.1 The fire resistance of a building element can be estab- 
lished from the Appendix Tables. This is subject to the fol- 
lowing limitations: 

The building element in the rehabilitated building shall be 
constructed of the same materials with the same nominal 
dimensions as stated in the tables. 

All penetrations in the building element or its cover for 
services such as electricity, plumbing, and HVAC shall be 
packed with noncombustible cementitious materials and 
so fixed that the packing material will not fall out when it 
loses its water of hydration. 

The effects of age and wear and tear shall be repaired so 
that the building element is sound and the original thickness 
of all components, particularly covers and floor slabs, is 
maintained. 

This approach essentially follows the approach taken by 
model building codes. The assembly must appear in a table 
either published in or accepted by the code for a given fire 
resistance rating to be recognized and accepted. 

4.2 The fire resistance of a building element which does not 
explicitly appear in the Appendix Tables can be established if 
one or more elements of same design but different dimen- 
sions have been listed in the tables. For walls, the existing 
element must be thicker than the one listed. For floor/ceiling 
assemblies, the assembly listed in the table must have the 
same or less cover and the same or thinner slab constructed of 
the same material as the actual floor/ceiling assembly. For 
other structural elements, the element listed in the table must 
be of a similar design but with less cover thickness. The fire 
resistance in all instances shall be the fire resistance recom- 



mended in the table. This is subject to the following limita- 
tions: 

The actual element in the rehabilitated building shall be 
constructed of the same materials as listed in the table. 
Only the following dimensions may vary from those spec- 
ified: for walls, the overall thickness must exceed that 
specified in the table; for floor/ceiling assemblies, the 
thickness of the cover and the slab must be greater than, or 
equal to, that specified in the table; for other structural ele- 
ments, the thickness of the cover must be greater than that 
specified in the table. 

All penetrations in the building element or its cover for 
services such as electricity, plumbing, or HVAC shall be 
packed with noncombustible cementitious materials and 
so fixed that the packing material will not fall out when it 
loses its water of hydration. 

The effects of age and wear and tear shall be repaired so 
that the building element is sound and the original thick- 
ness of all components, particularly covers and floor slabs, 
is maintained. 

This approach is an application of the "thickness design" 
concept presented in Part 3.3 of the guideline. There should 
be many instances when a thicker building element was uti- 
lized than the one listed in the Appendix Tables. This guide- 
line recognizes the inherent superiority of a thicker design. 
Note: "thickness design" for floor/ceiling assemblies and 
structural elements refers to cover and slab thickness rather 
than total thickness. 

The "thickness design" concept is essentially a special 
case of Harmathy's Rules (specifically Rules 1 and 2). It 
should be recognized that the only source of data is the 
Appendix Tables. If other data are used, it must be in connec- 
tion with the approach below. 

4.3 The fire resistance of building elements can be estab- 
lished by applying Harmathy's Ten Rules of Fire Resistance 
Ratings as set forth in Part 3.2 of the guideline. This is subject 
to the following limitations: 

The data from the tables can be utilized subject to the lim- 
itations in 4.2 above. 

Test reports from recognized journals or published papers 
can be used to support data utilized in applying Harma- 
thy's Rules. 

Calculations utilizing recognized and well established 
computational techniques can be used in applying Harma- 
thy's Rules. These include, but are not limited to, analysis 
of heat flow, mechanical properties, deflections, and load 
bearing capacity. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



161 



162 2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



APPENDIX 

INTRODUCTION 

The fire resistance tables that follow are a part of Resource A and provide a tabular form of assigning fire resistance ratings to 
various archaic building elements and assemblies. 

These tables for archaic materials and assemblies do for archaic materials what Tables 720.1(1), 720.1(2) and 720.1(3) of the 
International Building Code 9 do for more modern building elements and assemblies. The fire resistance tables of Resource A 
should be used as described in the "Purpose and Procedure" that follows the table of contents for these tables. 

RESOURCE A TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Purpose and Procedure 




Section I- 


-Walls 




1.1.1 


Masonry 


in. - 4 in. thick 


1.1.2 


Masonry 


4 in. - 6 in. thick 


1.1.3 


Masonry 


6 in. - 8 in. thick 


1.1.4 


Masonry 


8 in. - 10 in. thick 


1.1.5 


Masonry 


10 in. - 12 in. thick 


1.1.6 


Masonry 


12 in. - 14 in. thick 


1.1.7 


Masonry 


14 in. or more thick 


1.2.1 


Metal Frame 


in. - 4 in. thick 


1.2.2 


Metal Frame 


4 in. - 6 in. thick 


1.2.3 


Metal Frame 


6 in. - 8 in. thick 


1.2.4 


Metal Frame 


8 in. - 10 in. thick 


1.3.1 


Wood Frame 


in. - 4 in. thick 


1.3.2 


Wood Frame 


4 in. - 6 in. thick 


1.3.3 


Wood Frame 


6 in. - 8 in. thick 


1.4.1 


Miscellaneous Materials 


in. - 4 in. thick 


1.4.2 


Miscellaneous Materials 


4 in. - 6 in. thick 


1.5.1 


Finish Ratings — Inorganic Materials 


Thickness 


1.5.2 


Finish Ratings — Organic Materials 


Thickness 


Section II- 


— Columns 




2.1.1 


Reinforced Concrete 


Min. Dim. in. - 6 in. 


2.1.2 


Reinforced Concrete 


Min. Dim. 10 in. - 12 in. 


2.1.3 


Reinforced Concrete 


Min. Dim. 12 in. - 14 in. 


2.1.4 


Reinforced Concrete 


Min. Dim. 14 in. - 16 in. 


2.1.5 


Reinforced Concrete 


Min. Dim. 16 in. - 18 in. 


2.1.6 


Reinforced Concrete 


Min. Dim. 18 in. -20 in. 


2.1.7 


Reinforced Concrete 


Min. Dim. 20 in. - 22 in. 


2.1.8 


Hexagonal Reinforced Concrete 


Diameter — 12 in. - 14 in. 



165 

166 

169 

176 

181 

189 

193 

199 

202 

206 

208 

209 

210 

211 

219 

219 

220 

221 

222 

223 
224 
227 
228 
229 
231 
232 
233 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTiNG BUILDING CODE 18 



163 



RESOURCE A 



2. 1 .9 Hexagonal Reinforced Concrete 

2.1.10 Hexagonal Reinforced Concrete 

2.1.11 Hexagonal Reinforced Concrete 

2.2 Round Cast Iron Columns 

2.3 Steel — Gypsum Encasements 

2.4 Timber 

2.5.1.1 Steel/Concrete Encasements 

2.5.1.2 Steel/Concrete Encasements 

2.5.1.3 Steel/Concrete Encasements 

2.5 . 1 .4 Steel/Concrete Encasements 

2.5.1 .5 Steel/Concrete Encasements 

2.5. 1 .6 Steel/Concrete Encasements 

2.5.1.7 Steel/Concrete Encasements 

2.5.2.1 Steel/Brick and Block Encasements 

2.5.2.2 Steel/Brick and Block Encasements 

2.5.2.3 Steel/Brick and Block Encasements 

2.5.3.1 Steel/Plaster Encasements 

2.5.3.2 Steel/Plaster Encasements 

2.5.4.1 Steel/Miscellaneious Encasements 

2.5.4.2 Steel/Miscellaneious Encasements 

2.5.4.3 Steel/Miscellaneious Encasements 

2.5.4.4 Steel/Miscellaneious Encasements 
Section III — Floor/Ceiling Assemblies 

3.1 Reinforced Concrete 

3.2 Steel Structural Elements 

3.3 Wood Joist 

3.4 Hollow Clay Tile with Reinforced Concrete 

Section IV — Beams 

4.1.1 Reinforced Concrete 

4. 1.2 Reinforced Concrete 

4.1.3 Reinforced Concrete 

4.2.1 Reinforced Concrete/Unprotected 

4.2.2 Steel/Concrete Protection 

Section V — Doors 

5.1 Resistance of Doors to Fire Exposure 

164 



Diameter — 14 in. - 16 in. 
Diameter — 16 in. - 18 in. 
Diameter — 20 in. - 22 in. 
Minimum Dimension 
Minimum Area of Solid Material 
Minimum Dimension 
Minimum Dimension less than 6 in. 
Minimum Dimension 6 in. - 8 in. 
Minimum Dimension 8 in. - 1 in. 
Minimum Dimension 10 in. - 12 in. 
Minimum Dimension 12 in. - 14 in. 
Minimum Dimension 14 in. - 16 in. 
Minimum Dimension 16 in. - 18 in. 
Minimum Dimension 10 in. - 12 in. 
Minimum Dimension 12 in. - 14 in. 
Minimum Dimension 14 in. - 16 in. 
Minimum Dimension 6 in. - 8 in. 
Minimum Dimension 8 in. - 10 in. 
Minimum Dimension 6 in. - 8 in. 
Minimum Dimension 8 in. - 10 in. 
Minimum Dimension 10 in. - 12 in. 
Minimum Dimension 12 in. - 14 in. 

Assembly thickness 
Membrane thickness 
Membrane thickness 
Membrane thickness 

Depth— 10 in.- 12 in. 
Depth— 12 in. - 14 in. 
Depth— 14 in. - 16 in. 
Depth— 10 in.- 12 in. 
Depth— 10 in. - 12 in. 



234 

234 

234 

235 

236 

237 

237 

238 

239 

241 

245 

247 

249 

249 

250 

250 

251 

251 

251 

252 

252 

252 

253 
259 
265 
269 

272 
275 
277 
278 
278 



Thickness 279 

2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



RESOURCE A 



PURPOSE AND PROCEDURE 

The tables and histograms which follow are to be used only 
within the analytical framework detailed in the main body of 
this guideline. 

Histograms precede any table with 10 or more entries. The 
use and interpretation of these histograms is explained in Part 
2 of the guideline. The tables are in a format similar to that 
found in the model building codes. The following example, 
taken from an entry in Table 1.1.2, best explains the table for- 
mat. 

1. Item Code: The item code consists of a four place series 
in the general form w-x-y-z in which each member of 
the series denotes the following: 

w = Type of building element (e.g., W=Walls; 
F=Floors, etc.) 

x = The building element thickness rounded 
down to the nearest one inch increment (e.g., 
4 5 / 8 inches is rounded off to 4 inches) 

y = The general type of material from which the 
building element is constructed (e.g., 
M=Masonry; W=Wood, etc.) 

z = The item number of the particular building 
element in a given table 

The item code shown in the example W-4-M-50 
denotes the following: 

W = Wall, as the building element 

4 = Wall thickness in the range of 4 inches (102 
mm) to less than 5 inches (127 mm) 

M = Masonry construction 

50 = The 50th entry in Table 1.1.2 

2. The specific name or heading of this column identifies 
the dimensions which, if varied, has the greatest impact 
on fire resistance. The critical dimension for walls, the 
example here, is thickness. It is different for other 
building elements (e.g., depth for beams; membrane 
thickness for some floor/ceiling assemblies). The table 
entry is the named dimension of the building element 
measured at the time of actual testing to within ±'/ 8 inch 



(3.2 mm) tolerance. The thickness tabulated includes 
facings where facings are a part of the wall construc- 
tion. 

3. Construction Details: The construction details provide 
a brief description of the manner in which the building 
element was constructed. 

4. Performance: This heading is subdivided into two col- 
umns. The column labeled "Load" will either list the 
load that the building element was subjected to during 
the fire test or it will contain a note number which will 
list the load and any other significant details. If the 
building element was not subjected to a load during the 
test, this column will contain "n/a," which means "not 
applicable." 

The second column under performance is labeled 
"Time" and denotes the actual fire endurance time 
observed in the fire test. 

5. Reference Number: This heading is subdivided into 
three columns: Pre-BMS-92; BMS-92; and Post-BMS- 
92. The table entry under this column is the number in 
the Bibliography of the original source reference for the 
test data. 

6. Notes: Notes are provided at the end of each table to 
allow a more detailed explanation of certain aspects of 
the test. In certain tables the notes given to this column 
have also been listed under the "Construction Details" 
and/or "Load" columns. 

7. Rec Hours: This column lists the recommended fire 
endurance rating, in hours, of a building element. In 
some cases, the recommended fire endurance will be 
less than that listed under the "Time" column. In no 
case is the "Rec Hours" greater than given in the 
"Time" column. 



ITEM CODE 


THICKNESS 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE- 
BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST- 
BMS-92 


W-4-M-50 


^ '8 


Core: structural clay tile, See notes 12, 
16, 21 ; Facings on unexposed side 
only, see note 18 


N/A 


25 min. 




1 




3, 4, 24 


% 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



165 



RESOURCE A 



SECTION I - WALLS 



NUMBER OF 
ASSEMBLIES 

A 



FIGURE 1.1.1 

MASONRY WALLS 

0" TO LESS THAN 4" THICK 



The number in each box is 
keyed to the last number in the 
Item Code column in the Table. 
For example: 




1 2 

FIRE RESISTANCE RATING (HOURS) 



TABLE 1.1.1 
MASONRY WALLS 
TO LESS THAN 4" THICK 



ITEM 
CODE 


THICKNESS 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE- 
BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST- 
BMS-92 


W-2-M-1 


IV 


Solid partition; 3 / 4 " gypsum plank- 1 0' xl'6" ; %" 
plus gypsum plaster each side. 


N/A 


1 hr. 
22 min. 






7 


1 


iv 4 


W-3-M-2 


3" 


Concrete block (1 8" x 9" x 3") of fuel ash, port- 
land cement and plasticizer; cement/sand mortar. 


N/A 


2hrs. 






7 


2,3 


2 


W-2-M-3 


2" 


Solid gypsum block wall; No facings 


N/A 


lhr. 




1 




4 


1 


W-3-M-4 


3" 


Solid gypsum blocks, laid in 1 :3 sanded gypsum 
mortar. 


N/A 


lhr. 




1 




4 


1 


W-3-M-5 


3" 


Magnesium oxy sulfate wood fiber blocks; 
2" thick, laid in portland cement-lime mortar; 
Facings: '/," of 1:3 sanded gypsum plaster on 
both sides. 


N/A 


1 hr. 




1 




4 


1 


W-3-M-6 


3" 


Magnesium oxysulfate bound wood fiber blocks; 
3" thick; laid in portland cement-lime mortar; 
Facings: '/," of 1:3 sanded gypsum plaster on 
both sides. 


N/A 


2hrs. 




1 




4 


2 



{continued) 



166 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



RESOURCE A 



TABLE 1.1.1— continued 

MASONRY WALLS 

0" TO LESS THAN 4" THICK 



ITEM 
CODE 


THICKNESS 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE- 
BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST- 
BMS-92 


W-3-M-7 


3" 


Clay tile; Ohio fire clay; single cell thick; Face plas- 
ter: V g " (both sides) 1:3 sanded gypsum; Design "E," 
Construction "A." 


N/A 


lhr. 
6 min. 







2 


5, 6, 7, 

11, 12, 

39 


1 


W-3-M-8 


3" 


Clay tile; Illinois surface clay; single cell thick; Face 
plaster: 5 / 8 " (both sides) 1:3 sanded gypsum; Design 
"A," Construction "E." 


N/A 


1 hr. 
1 min 






2 


5, 8, 9, 

11,12, 

39 


1 


W-3-M-9 


3" 


Clay tile; Illinois surface clay; single cell thick; 
No face plaster; Design "A," Construction "C." 


N/A 


25 min. 






2 


5,10,11, 
12,39 


X 


W-3-M-10 


3 7 / 8 " 


8" x 4 7 / s " glass blocks; weight 4 lbs. each; portland 
cement- lime mortar; horizontal mortar joints 
reinforced with metal lath. 


N/A 


15 min. 




1 




4 


X 


W-3-M-H 


3" 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 14, 18, 13; 
No facings. 


N/A 


10 min. 




1 




5, 1 1 , 26 


X 


W-3-M-12 


3" 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 14, 19, 23; 
No facings. 


N/A 


20 min. 




1 




5, 11,26 


X 


W-3-M-13 


3%" 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 14, 18, 23; 
Facings: unexposed side; see Note 20. 


N/A 


20 min. 




1 




5, 11,26 


X 


W-3-M-14 


3V 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 14, 19, 23; 
Facings: unexposed side only; see Note 20. 


N/A 


20 min. 




1 




5, 11,26 


X 


W-3-M-15 


3 5 4" 


Core: clay structural tile; see Notes 14, 18, 23; 
Facings: side exposed to fire; see Note 20. 


N/A 


30 min. 




1 




5, 11,26 


X 


W-3-M-16 


3%" 


Core: clay structural tile; see Notes 14, 19, 23; 
Facings: side exposed to fire; see Note 20. 


N/A 


45 min. 




1 




5, 11,26 


% 


W-2-M-I7 


2" 


2" thick solid gypsum blocks; see Note 27. 


N/A 


lhr. 




1 




27 


1 


W-3-M-18 


3" 


Core: 3" thick gypsum blocks 70% solid; see Note 2; 
No facings. 


N/A 


lhr. 




1 




27 


1 


W-3-M-19 


3" 


Core: hollow concrete units; see Notes 29, 35, 36, 38; 
No facings. 


N/A 


lhr. 




1 




27 


1 


W-3-M-20 


3" 


Core: hollow concrete units; see Notes 28, 35, 36, 37, 
38; No facings. 


N/A 


1 hr. 




1 






1 


W-3-M-21 


3'/ 2 " 


Core: hollow concrete units; see Notes 28, 35, 36, 37, 
38; Facings: one side; see Note 37. 


N/A 


I7 2 hrs. 




1 






17, 


W-3-M-22 


37," 


Core: hollow concrete units; see Notes 29, 35, 36, 38; 
Facings: one side, see Note 37. 


N/A 


l'/ 4 hrs. 




1 






i [ 4 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 0.00689 MPa. °C = [(°F) - 32]/1.8. 
Notes: 

1. Failure mode — flame thru. 

2. Passed 2-hour fire test (Grade "C" fire res. - British). 

3. Passed hose stream test. 

4. Tested at NBS under ASA Spec. No. A2-I9.34. As nonload bearing partitions. 

5. Tested al NBS under ASA Spec. No. 42-1934 (ASTM C 1 9-33) except that hose stream testing where carried was run on test specimens exposed for ful I test 
duration, not for a reduced period as is contemporarily done. 

6. Failure by thermal criteria — maximum temperature rise 325°F. 

7. Hose stream failure. 

8. Hose stream — pass. 

9. Specimen removed prior to any failure occurring. 
10. Failure mode — collapse. 

1 1 . For clay tile walls, unless the source or density of the clay can be positively identified or determined, it is suggested that the lowest hourly rating for the fire 
endurance of a clay tile partition of that thickness be followed. Identified sources of clay showing longer fire endurance can lead to longer time 
recommendations. 

(continued) 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



167 



RESOURCE A 



TABLE 1.1.1— continued 

MASONRY WALLS 

0" TO LESS THAN 4" THICK 

12. See appendix for construction and design details for clay tile walls. 

13. Load: 80 psi for gross wall area. 

14. One cell in wall thickness. 

15. Two cells in wall thickness. 

16. Double shells plus one cell in wall thickness. 

17. One cell in wall thickness, cells filled with broken tile, crushed stone, slag cinders or sand mixed with mortar. 
Dense hard-burned clay or shale tile. 
Medium-burned clay tile. 

Not less than 5 / g inch thickness of 1 :3 sanded gypsum plaster. 
Units of not less than 30 percent solid material. 
Units of not less than 40 percent solid material. 
Units of not less than 50 percent solid material. 
Units of not less than 45 percent solid material. 
Units of not less than 60 percent solid material. 

26. All tiles laid in portland cement-lime mortar. 

27. Blocks laid in 1 :3 sanded gypsum mortar voids in blocks not to exceed 30 percent. 
Units of expanded slag or pumice aggregate. 

Units of crushed limestone, blast furnace, slag, cinders and expanded clay or shale. 
Units of calcareous sand and gravel. Coarse aggregate, 60 percent or more calcite and dolomite. 
Units of siliceous sand and gravel. Ninety percent or more quartz, chert or flint. 
Unit at least 49 percent solid. 
Unit at least 62 percent solid. 
Unit at least 65 percent solid. 
Unit at least 73 percent solid. 

Ratings based on one unit and one cell in wall thickness. 
Minimum of V, inch — 1 :3 sanded gypsum plaster. 
Nonload bearing. 
See Clay Tile Partition Design Construction drawings, below. 



18. 

19. 

20. 
21. 

22. 
23. 
24. 

25. 



28. 
29. 
30. 
31. 
32. 
33. 
34. 
35. 
36. 
37. 
38. 
39. 




CHECKERBOARD-C 



>\ 



4-Or 



^j^gfcS 






ALTER NATE-G 




D E 

DESIGNS OF TILES USED IN FIRE-TEST PARTITIONS 



THE FOUR TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION USED 
IN FIRE-TEST PARTITIONS 



168 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



FIGURE 1.1.2 

MASONRY WALLS 

4" TO LESS THAN 6" THICK 



RESOURCE A 



NUMBER OF 
ASSEMBLIES 



A 

15 — 


k 


99 
71 
70 
62 
56 
55 
51 
50 

41 






















104 
103 
95 
90 








110 
92 
91 
84 

81 














The number in each box is 


10- 


106 
88 

77 
74 




105 

_98 

96 


86 

79 

35 


keyed to the last number in the 
tern Code column in the Table. 


97 
87 


For example: 

W-5-M(U)8) 




109 
76 








80 
75 


J5_ 

78 


89 
68 


31 
25 








100 
94 


43 
42 


72 
63 


73 

64 










5 - 


65 


69 


67 


20 




102 

101 
83 
82 
26 
19 








93 


41 


58 


59 


60 


66 


22 


12 




108 

30 
29 
27 
18 


V-"""^ 




54 
46 


40 
37 


57 
52 


53 
49 


45 

44 


61 
32 


21 
13 


11 
10 










15 












39 


16 


48 


33 


34 

2 


9 
3 


8 
5 


6 

1 


14 
7 




107 
28 




— 


38 


36 


4 


24 


17 


23 










































i ► 



FIRE RESISTANCE RATING (HOURS) 

TABLE 1.1.2 

MASONRY WALLS 

4" TO LESS THAN 6" THICK 



ITEM 
CODE 


THICKNESS 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE- 
BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST- 

BMS-92 


W-4-M-1 


4" 


Solid 3" thick, gypsum blocks laid in 1:3 sanded gyp- 
sum mortar; Facings: '/," of 1:3 sanded gypsum plaster 
(both sides). 


N/A 


2 hrs. 




1 




1 


2 


W-4-M-2 


4" 


Solid clay or shale brick. 


N/A 


lhr. 
15 min 




1 




1,2 


iv 4 


W-4-M-3 


4" 


Concrete; No facings. 


N/A 


lhr. 
30 min. 




1 




1 


17 2 


W-4-M-4 


4" 


Clay tile; Illinois surface clay; single cell thick; No face 
plaster; Design "B," Construction "C." 


N/A 


25 min. 






2 


3-7, 36 


% 


W-4-M-5 


4" 


Solid sand-lime brick. 


N/A 


lhr. 
45 min. 




1 




1 


1% 


W-4-M-6 


4" 


Solid wall; 3" thick block; '/," plaster each side; 17%" x 
8 3 / 4 " x 4" "Breeze Blocks"; portland cement/sand mor- 
tar. 


N/A 


lhr. 

52 min. 






7 


2 


1% 


W-4-M-7 


4" 


Concrete (4020 psi); Reinforcement: vertical 3 / 8 "; hori- 
zontal V 4 "; 6" x 6" grid. 


N/A 


2 hrs. 
10 min. 






7 


2 


2 


W-4-M-8 


4" 


Concrete wall (4340 psi crush); reinforcement 7 4 " diam- 
eter rebar on 8" centers (vertical and horizontal). 


N/A 


lhr. 
40 min. 






7 


2 


1% 



(continued) 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



169 



RESOURCE A 



TABLE 1.1.2— continued 

MASONRY WALLS 

4" TO LESS THAN 6" THICK 



I 




CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


ITEM 
CODE 


THICKNESS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE- 
BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST- 

BMS-92 


W-4-M-9 


^ '16 


4 3 / 16 " x 2%" cellular fletton brick (1873 psi) with 7," 
sand mortar; bricks are U-shaped yielding hollow cover 
(approx. 2" x 4") in final cross-section configuration. 


N/A 


lhr. 
25 min. 






7 


2 


l'/ 3 


W-4-M-10 


4'/.," 


47 4 " x 27 2 " fletton (1831 psi) brick in 7 2 " sand mortar. 


N/A 


1 hr. 

53 min 






7 


2 


1% 


W-4-M-11 


4'/ 4 " 


47 4 " x 27," London stock (683 psi) brick; 7 2 " grout. 


N/A 


1 hr. 
52 min. 






7 


2 


l 3 / 4 


W-4-M-12 


4'/ 2 " 


47 4 " x 2'/ 2 " Leicester red, wire-cut brick (4465 psi) in 
7," sand mortar. 


N/A 


lhr. 
56 min. 






7 


6 


1% 


W-4-M-13 


47 4 " 


47/' x 27 2 " stairfoot brick (7527 psi) 7 2 " sand mortar. 


N/A 


lhr. 

37 min. 






7 


2 


17 2 


W-4-M-14 


47/ 


47/' x 27 2 " sand-lime brick (2603 psi) 7 2 " sand mortar. 


N/A 


2hrs. 
6 min. 






7 


2 


2 


W-4-M-15 


4V 4 " 


47/' x 27 2 " concrete brick (2527 psi) 7," sand mortar. 


N/A 


2hrs. 
10 min. 






7 


2 


2 


W-4-M-16 


4V 2 " 


4" thick clay tile; Ohio fire clay; single cell thick; No 
plaster exposed face; 7 2 " 1:2 gypsum back face; Design 
"F," Construction "S." 


N/A 


31 min. 






2 


3-6, 36 


% 


W-4-M-17 


47 2 " 


4" thick clay tile; Ohio fire clay; single cell thick; Plas- 
ter exposed face; 7," 1:2 sanded gypsum; Back Face: 
none; Construction "S," Design "F." 


80 
psi 


50 min. 






2 


3-5,8, 
36 


X 


W-4-M-18 


47 2 " 


Core: solid sand-lime brick; 7 2 " sanded gypsum plaster 
facings on both sides. 


80 
psi 


3 hrs. 




1 




1, 11 


3 


W-4-M-19 


47 2 " 


Core: solid sand-lime brick; 7," sanded gypsum plaster 
facings on both sides. 


80 
psi 


2hrs. 
30 min. 




1 




1, 11 


2% 


W-4-M-20 


47," 


Core: concrete brick 7," of 1:3 sanded gypsum plaster 
facings on both sides. 


80 
psi 


2 hrs. 




1 




1, 11 


2 


W-4-M-21 


47 2 " 


Core: solid clay or shale brick; 7 2 " thick, 1:3 sanded 
gypsum plaster facings on fire sides. 


80 
psi 


lhr. 
45 min. 




1 




1,2, 
11 


1% 


W-4-M-22 


4 3 / 4 " 


4" thick clay tile; Ohio fire clay; single cell thick; cells 
filled with cement and broken tile concrete; Plaster on 
exposed face; none on unexposed face; 3 / 4 " 1 :3 sanded 
gypsum; Design "G," Construction "E." 


N/A 


1 hr. 

48 min. 






2 


2,3-5, 
9,36 


1% 


W-4-M-23 


4-V 


4" thick clay tile; Ohio fire clay; single cell thick; cells 
filled with cement and broken tile concrete; No plaster 
exposed faced; 3 / 4 " neat gypsum plaster on unexposed 
face; Design "G," Construction "E." 


N/A 


2 hrs. 
1 4 min. 






2 


2, 3-5, 
9,36 


2 


W-5-M-24 


5" 


3" x 13" air space; 1" thick metal reinforced concrete 
facings on both sides; faces connected with wood 
splines. 


2,250 

lbs./ 

ft. 


45 min. 




1 




1 


% 


W-5-M-25 


5" 


Core: 3" thick void filled with "nondulated" mineral 
wool weighing 10 lbs./ft. 3 ; 1" thick metal reinforced 
concrete facings on both sides. 


2,250 

lbs./ 

ft. 


2 hrs. 




1 




1 


2 


W-5-M-26 


5" 


Core: solid clay or shale brick; 7 2 " thick, 1 :3 sanded 
gypsum plaster facings on both sides. 


40 
psi 


2 hrs. 
30 min. 




1 




1,2, 

11 


27 2 


W-5-M-27 


5" 


Core: solid 4" thick gypsum blocks, laid in 1:3 sanded 
gypsum mortar; 7 2 " of 1 :3 sanded gypsum plaster fac- 
ings on both sides. 


N/A 


3 hrs. 




1 




1 


3 



(continued) 



170 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



RESOURCE A 



TABLE 1.1.2— continued 

MASONRY WALLS 

4" TO LESS THAN 6" THICK 



ITEM 
CODE 


THICKNESS 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE- 
BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST- 

BMS-92 


W-5-M-28 


5" 


Core: 4" thick hollow gypsum blocks with 30% voids; 
blocks laid in 1:3 sanded gypsum mortar; No facings. 


N/A 


4hrs. 




1 




1 


4 


W-5-M-29 


5" 


Core: concrete brick; 7," of 1 :3 sanded gypsum plaster 
facings on both sides. 


160 psi 


3 hrs. 




1 




1 


3 


W-5-M-30 


57/' 


4" thick clay tile; Illinois surface clay; double cell 
thick; Plaster: V 8 " sanded gypsum 1:3 both faces; 
Design "D," Construction "S." 


N/A 


2 firs. 
53 min. 






2 


2-5, 9, 
36 


27 4 


W-5-M-31 


57 4 " 


4" thick clay tile; New Jersey fire clay; double cell 
thick; Plaster: 5 / 8 " sanded gypsum 1:3 both faces; 
Design "D," Construction "S." 


N/A 


1 hr. 
52 min. 






2 


2-5, 9, 
36 


1% 


W-5-M-32 


57 4 " 


4" thick clay tile; New Jersey fire clay; single cell 
thick; Plaster: V 8 " sanded gypsum 1:3 both faces; 
Design "D," Construction "S." 


N/A 


1 hr. 
34 min. 


2 




2 


2-5, 9, 
36 


17 2 


W-5-M-33 


57/' 


4" thick clay tile; New Jersey fire clay; single cell 
thick; Face plaster: V s " both sides; 1:3 sanded gypsum; 
Design "B," Construction "S." 


N/A 


50 min. 






2 


3-5, 8, 
36 


% 


W-5-M-34 


57/' 


4" thick clay tile; Ohio fire clay; single cell thick; Face 
plaster: 5 / 8 " both sides; 1:3 sanded gypsum; Design 
"B," Construction "A." 


N/A 


1 hr. 
19 min. 






2 


2-5, 9, 
36 


iv 4 


W-5-M-35 


57/' 


4" thick clay tile; Illinois surface clay; single cell thick; 
Face plaster: V 8 " both sides; 1:3 sanded gypsum; 
Design "B," Construction "S." 


N/A 


Ihr. 
59 min. 






2 


2-5, 
10 
36 


iv 4 


W-5-M-36 


4" 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 12, 16, 21; 
No facings. 


N/A 


15 min, 








3,4, 
24 


X 


W-4-M-37 


4" 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 12, 17, 21; 
No facings. 


N/A 


25 min. 








3,4, 

24 


'/, 


W-4-M-38 


4" 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 12, 16, 20; 
No facings. 


N/A 


10 min. 








3,4, 

24 


% 


W-4-M-39 


4" 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 12, 17, 20; 
No facings. 


N/A 


20 min. 








3,4, 

24 


% 


W-4-M-40 


4" 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 13, 16, 23; 
No facings. 


N/A 


30 min. 








3,4, 
24 


% 


W-4-M-41 


4" 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 13, 17, 23; 
No facings. 


N/A 


35 min. 








3,4, 
24 


% 


W-4-M-42 


4" 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 13, 16, 21; 
No facings. 


N/A 


25 min. 








3,4, 
24 


'/ 3 


W-4-M-43 


4" 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 13, 17, 21; 
No facings. 


N/A 


30 min. 








3,4, 
24 


v, 


W-4-M-44 


4" 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 15, 16, 20; 
No facings 


N/A 


Ihr. 
15 min. 








3,4, 
24 


17 4 


W-4-M-45 


4" 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 15, 17, 20; 
No facings. 


N/A 


1 hr. 
15 min. 








3,4, 
24 


l'/ 4 


W-4-M-46 


4" 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 14, 16, 22; 
No facings. 


N/A 


20 min. 








3,4, 

24 


'/, 


W-4-M-47 


4" 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 14, 17, 22; 
No facings. 


N/A 


25 min. 








3,4, 

24 


'/, 


W-4-M-48 


47/' 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 12, 16, 21; 
Facings: both sides; see Note 18. 


N/A 


45 min. 








3,4, 
24 


% 



(continued) 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



171 



RESOURCE A 



TABLE 1.1.2— continued 

MASONRY WALLS 

4" TO LESS THAN 6" THICK 



ITEM CODE 


THICKNESS 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE- 
BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST- 
BMS-92 


W-4-M-49 


4V 4 " 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 12, 17, 21; 
Facings: both sides; see Note 18. 


N/A 


1 hr. 








3, 4, 24 


1 


W-4-M-50 


4%" 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 12, 16, 21; 
Facings: unexposed side only; see Note 18. 


N/A 


25 min. 








3, 4, 24 


% 


W-4-M-51 


4%" 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 12, 17, 21; 
Facings: unexposed side only; see Note 18. 


N/A 


30 min. 








3, 4, 24 


% 


W-4-M-52 


4%" 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 12, 16, 21; 
Facings: unexposed side only; see Note 18. 


N/A 


45 min. 








3, 4, 24 


% 


W-4-M-53 


4\" 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 12, 17, 21; 
Facings: fire side only; see Note 18. 


N/A 


1 hr. 








3, 4, 24 


1 


W-4-M-54 


4%" 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 12, 16, 20; 
Facings: unexposed side; see Note 18. 


N/A 


20 min. 








3, 4, 24 


% 


W-4-M-55 


4%" 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 12, 17, 20; 
Facings: exposed side; see Note 18. 


N/A 


25 min. 








3, 4, 24 


% 


W-4-M-56 


4%" 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 12, 16, 20; 
Facings: fire side only; see Note 18. 


N/A 


30 min. 








3, 4, 24 


% 


W-4-M-57 


4%" 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 12, 17, 20; 
Facings: fire side only; see Note 18. 


N/A 


45 min. 








3, 4, 24 


% 


W-4-M-58 


4 5 / " 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 13, 16, 23; 
Facings: unexposed side only; see Note 18. 


N/A 


40 min. 








3, 4, 24 


% 


W-4-M-59 


4%" 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 13, 17, 23; 
Facings: unexposed side only; see Note 1 8. 


N/A 


Ihr. 








3, 4, 24 


1 


W-4-M-60 


4%" 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 13, 16, 23; 
Facings: fire side only; see Note 18. 


N/A 


Ihr. 
15 min. 








3, 4, 24 


l'/ 4 


W-4-M-61 


4\>> 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 13, 17, 23; 
Facings: fire side only; see Note 18. 


N/A 


Ihr. 
30 min. 








3, 4, 24 


1 '/, 


W-4-M-62 


4%" 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 13, 1 6, 21 ; 
Facings: unexposed side only; see Note 18. 


N/A 


35 min. 








3, 4, 24 


% 


W-4-M-63 


4%" 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 13, 17, 21; 
Facings: unexposed face only; see Note 18. 


N/A 


45 min. 








3, 4, 24 


% 


W-4-M-64 


4\" 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 13, 16, 23; 
Facings: exposed face only; see Note 18. 


N/A 


1 hr. 








3, 4, 24 


1 


W-4-M-65 


4%" 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 13, 17, 21; 
Facings: exposed side only; see Note 18. 


N/A 


Ihr. 
15 min. 








3, 4, 24 


1V 4 


W-4-M-66 


4 5 / 8 " 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 15, 17, 20; 
Facings: unexposed side only; see Note 18 


N/A 


Ihr. 
30 min. 








3, 4, 24 


l'/ 2 


W-4-M-67 


4 5 / " 

^ '8 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 15, 16, 20; 
Facings: exposed side only; see Note 1 8. 


N/A 


Ihr. 
45 min. 








3, 4, 24 


i-v 4 


W-4-M-68 


4 5 / " 

^ '8 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 15, 17, 20; 
Facings: exposed side only; see Note 18. 


N/A 


1 hr. 
45 min. 








3, 4, 24 


1% 


W-4-M-69 


4%" 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 15, 16, 20; 
Facings: unexposed side only; see Note 18. 


N/A 


Ihr. 
30 min. 








3, 4, 24 


l 3 / 4 


W-4-M-70 


4%" 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 14, 16, 22; 
Facings: unexposed side only; see Note 18. 


N/A 


30 min. 








3, 4, 24 


% 



(continued) 



172 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



RESOURCE A 



TABLE 1.1.2— continued 

MASOMRY WALLS 

4" TO LESS THAN 6" THICK 



ITEM CODE 


THICKNESS 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE- 
BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST- 

BMS-92 


W-4-M-71 


4%" 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 14, 17, 22; 
Facings: exposed side only; see Note 18. 


N/A 


35 min. 








3, 4, 24 


7, 


W-4-M-72 


4\" 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 14, 16, 22; 
Facings: fire side of wall only; see Note 18. 


N/A 


45 min. 








3, 4, 24 


% 


W-4-M-73 


4%" 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 14, 17, 22; 
Facings: lire side of wall only; see Note 18. 


N/A 


1 hr. 








3, 4, 24 


1 


W-4-M-74 


5V 4 " 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 12, 16, 21; 
Facings: both sides; see Note 18. 


N/A 


1 hr. 








3, 4, 24 


1 


W-5-M-75 


5'/ 4 " 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 12, 17, 21; 
Facings: both sides; see Note 18 


N/A 


lhr. 
15 min. 








3, 4, 24 


17 4 


W-5-M-76 


5V 4 " 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 12, 16, 20; 
Facings: both sides; see Note 18. 


N/A 


45 min. 








3, 4, 24 


% 


W-5-M-77 


57 4 " 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 12, 17, 20; 
Facings: both sides; see Note 18. 


N/A 


1 hr. 








3, 4, 24 


1 


W-5-M-78 


5'/ 4 " 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 13, 16, 23; 
Facings: both sides of wall; see Note 1 8. 


N/A 


1 hr. 
30 min. 








3, 4, 24 


17 2 


W-5-M-79 


5V 4 " 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 13, 17, 23; 
Facings: both sides of wall; see Note 18. 


N/A 


2 hrs. 








3, 4, 24 


2 


W-5-M-80 


57 4 " 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 13, 16, 21; 
Facings: both sides of wall; see Note 18. 


N/A 


lhr. 
15 min. 








3, 4, 24 


17 4 


W-5-M-81 


57 4 " 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 13, 16, 21; 
Facings: both sides of wall; see Note 18. 


N/A 


1 hr. 
30 min. 








3, 4, 24 


17, 


W-5-M-82 


57 4 " 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 15, 16, 20; 
Facings: both sides; see Note 18. 


N/A 


2 hrs. 
30 min. 








3, 4, 24 


2% 


W-5-M-83 


57 4 " 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 15, 17, 20; 
Facings: both sides; see Note 18. 


N/A 


2 hrs. 
30 min. 








3, 4, 24 


27 2 


W-5-M-84 


57" 

j ; 4 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 14, 16, 22; 
Facings: both sides of wall; see Note 1 8. 


N/A 


lhr. 
15 min. 








3, 4, 24 


17 4 


W-5-M-85 


57 4 " 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 14, 17, 22; 
Facings: both sides of wall; see Note 18. 


N/A 


1 hr. 
30 min. 








3, 4, 24 


17 2 


W-4-M-86 


4" 


Core: 3" thick gypsum blocks 70% solid; see Note 
26; Facings: both sides; see Note 25. 


N/A 


2 hrs. 










2 


W-4-M-87 


4" 


Core: hollow concrete units; see Notes 27, 34, 35; 
No facings. 


N/A 


lhr. 
30 min. 










17 2 


W-4-M-88 


4" 


Core: hollow concrete units; see Notes 28, 33, 35; 
No facings. 


N/A 


lhr. 










1 


W-4-M-89 


4" 


Core: hollow concrete units; see Notes 28, 34, 35; 
Facings: both sides; see Note 25. 


N/A 


1 hr. 
45 min. 










1% 


W-4-M-90 


4" 


Core: hollow concrete units; see Notes 27, 34, 35; 
Facings: both sides; see Note 25. 


N/A 


2 hrs. 










2 


W-4-M-91 


4" 


Core: hollow concrete units; see Notes 27, 32, 35; 
No facings. 


N/A 


lhr. 
15 min. 










17 4 


W-4-M-92 


4" 


Core: hollow concrete units; see Notes 28, 34, 35; 
No lacings. 


N/A 


lhr. 
15 min. 










1V 4 


W-4-M-93 


4" 


Core: hollow concrete units; see Notes 29, 32, 35; 
No facings. 


N/A 


20 min. 










% 



(continued) 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



173 



RESOURCE A 



TABLE 1.1.2— continued 

MASONRY WALLS 

4" TO LESS THAN 6" THICK 



ITEM CODE 


THICKNESS 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE- 
BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST- 
BMS-92 


W-4-M-94 


4" 


Core: hollow concrete units; see Notes 30, 34, 
35; No facings. 


N/A 


15 min. 










% 


W-4-M-95 


47 2 " 


Core: hollow concrete units; see Notes 27, 34, 
35; Facings: one side only; see Note 25. 


N/A 


2 firs. 










2 


W-4-M-96 


4V 2 " 


Core: hollow concrete units; see Notes 27, 32, 
35; Facings: one side only; see Note 25. 


N/A 


1 hr. 
45 min. 










1% 


W-4-M-97 


4V 2 " 


Core: hollow concrete units; see Notes 28, 33, 
35; Facings: one side; see Note 25. 


N/A 


Ihr. 
30 min. 










l'/ 2 


W-4-M-98 


47 2 " 


Core: hollow concrete units; see Notes 28, 34, 
35; Facings: one side only; see Note 25. 


N/A 


Ihr. 
45 min. 










1% 


W-4-M-99 


4V 2 " 


Core: hollow concrete units; see Notes 29, 32, 
35; Facings: one side; see Note 25. 


N/A 


30 min. 










% 


W-4-M-100 


4 1 /," 


Core: hollow concrete units; see Notes 30, 34, 
35; Facings: one side; see Note 25. 


N/A 


20 min. 










% 


W-5-M-101 


5" 


Core: hollow concrete units; see Notes 27, 34, 
35; Facings: both sides; see Note 25. 


N/A 


2 firs. 
30 min. 










2V 2 


W-5-M-102 


5" 


Core: hollow concrete units; see Notes 27, 32, 
35; Facings: both sides; see Note 25. 


N/A 


2hrs. 
30 min. 










2'/ 2 


W-5-M-103 


5" 


Core: hollow concrete units; see Notes 28, 33, 
35; Facings: both sides; see Note 25. 


N/A 


2 hrs. 










2 


W-5-M-104 


5" 


Core: hollow concrete units; see Notes 28, 31, 
35; Facings: both sides; see Note 25. 


N/A 


2 firs. 










2 


W-5-M-J05 


5" 


Core: hollow concrete units; see Notes 29, 32, 
35; Facings: both sides; see Note 25. 


N/A 


Ihr. 
45 min. 










1V 4 


W-5-M-106 


5" 


Core: hollow concrete units; see Notes 30, 34, 
35; Facings: both sides; see Note 25. 


N/A 


Ihr. 










1 


W-5-M-107 


5" 


Core: 5" thick solid gypsum blocks; see 
Note 26; No facings. 


N/A 


4 hrs. 










4 


W-5-M-108 


5" 


Core: 4" thick hollow gypsum blocks; see 
Note 26; Facings: both sides; see Note 25. 


N/A 


3 hrs. 










3 


W-5-M-109 


4" 


Concrete with 4" x 4" No. 6 welded wire mesh 
at wall center. 


100 
psi 


45 min. 






43 


2 


% 


W-4-M-110 


4" 


Concrete with 4" x 4" No. 6 welded wire mesh 
at wall center. 


N/A 


Ihr. 
15 min. 






43 


2 


l'/ 4 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 0.00689 MPa. 
Notes: 

1 . Tested as NBS under ASA Spec. No. A 2- 1 934. 

2. Failure mode — maximum temperature rise. 

3. Treated at NBS under ASA Spec. No. 42-1934 (ASTM C 19-53) except that hose stream testing where carried out was run on test specimens exposed for 
full test duration, not for or reduced period as is contemporarily done. 

4. For clay tile walls, unless the source the clay can be positively identified, it is suggested that the most pessimistic hour rating for the fire endurance of a clay 
tile partition of that thickness to be followed. Identified sources of clay showing longer fire endurance can lead to longer time recommendations. 

5. See appendix for construction and design details for clay tile walls. 

6. Failure mode — flame thru or crack formation showing flames. 

7. Hole formed at 25 minutes; partition collapsed at 42 minutes or removal from furnace. 

8. Failure mode — collapse. 

9. Hose stream pass. 

1.0. Hose stream hole formed in specimen. 

11. Load: 80 psi for gross wall cross sectional area. 

12. One cell in wall thickness. 

13. Two cells in wall thickness. 

(continued) 



174 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



RESOURCE A 



TABLE 1.1.2— continued 

MASONRY WALLS 

4" TO LESS THAN 6" THICK 

14. Double cells plus one cell in wall thickness. 

15. One cell in wall thickness, cells filled with broken tile, crashed stone, slag, cinders or sand mixed with mortar. 

16. Dense hard-burned clay or shale tile. 

17. Medium-burned clay tile. 

1 8. Not less than V 8 inch thickness of 1 :3 sanded gypsum plaster. 

19. Units of not less than 30 percent solid material. 

20. Units of not less than 40 percent solid material. 

21 . Units of not less than 50 percent solid material. 

22. Units of not less than 45 percent solid material. 

23. Units of not less than 60 percent solid material. 

24. All tiles laid in portland cement-lime mortar. 

25. Minimum '/, inch — 1:3 sanded gypsum plaster. 

26. Laid in 1 :3 sanded gypsum mortar. Voids in hollow units not to exceed 30 percent. 

27. Units of expanded slag or pumice aggregate. 

28. Units of crushed limestone, blast furnace slag, cinders and expanded clay or shale. 

29. Units of calcareous sand and gravel. Coarse aggregate, 60 percent or more calcite and dolomite. 

30. Units of siliceous sand and gravel. Ninety percent or more quartz, chert or flint. 

31 . Unit at least 49 percent solid. 

32. Unit at least 62 percent solid. 

33. Unit at least 65 percent solid. 

34. Unit at least 73 percent solid. 

35. Ratings based on one unit and one cell in wall thickness. 

36. See Clay Tile Partition Design Construction drawings, below. 






■\2*> 




CHECKERBOARD-C 






ALTERNATE-G 




D E 

DESIGNS OF TILES USED IN FIRE-TEST PARTITIONS 



THE FOUR TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION USED 
IN FIRE-TEST PARTITIONS 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



175 



RESOURCE A 



FIGURE 1.1.3 

MASONRY WALLS 

6" TO LESS THAN 8" THICK 



NUMBER OF 
ASSEMBLIES 

A, 

10- 



II 



The number in each box is 
keyed to the last number in the 
Item Code column in the Table. 



For example: 



63 |\r 

56 
20 
19 




2 3 4 

FIRE RESISTANCE RATING (HOURS) 

TABLE 1.1.3 

MASONRY WALLS 

6" TO LESS THAN 8" THICK 



ITEM CODE 


THICKNESS 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE- 
BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST- 

BMS-92 


W-6-M-1 


6" 


Core: 5" thick, solid gypsum blocks laid in 1 :3 
sanded gypsum mortar; 7," of 1:3 sanded 
gypsum plaster facings on both sides. 


N/A 


6 hrs. 




1 






6 


W-6-M-2 


6" 


6" clay tile; Ohio fire clay; single cell thick; No 
plaster; Design "C," Construction "A." 


N/A 


17 min. 






2 


1,3,4,6,55 


% 


W-6-M-3 


6" 


6" clay tile; Illinois surface clay; double cell 
thick; No plaster; Design "E," Construction "C." 


N/A 


45 min. 






2 


1-4,7,55 


\ 


W-6-M-4 


6" 


6" clay tile; New Jersey fire clay; double cell 
thick; No plaster; Design "E," Construction "S." 


N/A 


1 hr. 
1 min. 






2 


1-4, 8, 55 


1 


W-7-M-5 


77 4 " 


6" clay tile; Illinois surface clay; double cell 
thick; Plaster: V 8 " — 1:3 sanded gypsum both 
faces; Design "E," Construction "A." 


N/A 


lhr. 
41 min. 






2 


1-4, 55 


1% 


W-7-M-6 


ti: 


6" clay tile; New Jersey fire clay; double cell 
thick; Plaster: %" — 1:3 sanded gypsum both 
faces; Design "E," Construction "S." 


N/A 


2 hrs. 
23 min. 






2 


1-4,9,55 


2 [ / 3 


W-7-M-7 


77 4 " 


6" clay tile; Ohio fire clay; single cell thick; 
Plaster: V 8 " sanded gypsum; 1:3 both faces; 
Design "C," Construction "A." 


N/A 


lhr. 
54 min. 






2 


1-4, 9, 55 


2% 


W-7-M-8 


7V 4 " 


6" clay tile; Illinois surface clay; single cell 
thick; Plaster: 5 / 8 " sanded gypsum 1:3 both faces; 
Design "C," Construction "S." 


N/A 


2 hrs. 






2 


1, 3, 4, 9, 
10,55 


2 


W-7-M-8a 


77/ 


6" clay tile; Illinois surface clay; single cell 
thick; Plaster: 5 / g " sanded gypsum 1:3 both faces; 
Design "C," Construction "E." 


N/A 


lhr. 
23 min 






2 


1-4,9, 10, 

55 


17 4 



(continued) 



176 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



RESOURCE A 



TABLE 1.1.3— continued 

MASONRY WALLS 

6" TO LESS THAN 8" THICK 



ITEM CODE 


THICKNESS 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE- 
BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST- 
BMS-92 


W-6-M-9 


6" 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 12, 16, 20; 
No facings. 


N/A 


20 min. 








3,5, 
24 


% 


W-6-M-10 


6" 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 12, 17, 20; 
No facings. 


N/A 


25 min. 








3,5, 
24 


% 


W-6-M-11 


6" 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 12, 16, 19; 
No facings. 


N/A 


1 5 min. 








3,5, 
24 


% 


W-6-M-12 


6" 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 12, 17, 19; 
No facings. 


N/A 


20 min. 








3,5, 
24 


% 


W-6-M-13 


6" 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 13, 16, 22; 
No facings. 


N/A 


45 min. 








3,5, 
24 


% 


W-6-M-14 


6" 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 13, 17, 22; 
No facings. 


N/A 


1 hr. 








3,5, 
24 


1 


W-6-M-15 


6" 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 15, 17, 19; 
No facings. 


N/A 


2 hrs. 








3,5, 
24 


2 


W-6-M-16 


6" 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 15, 16, 19; 
No facings. 


N/A 


2 hrs. 








3,5, 
24 


2 


W-6-M-17 


6" 


Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 12, 34, 36, 38, 
41; No facings. 


80psi 


3 hrs. 30 
min. 








5,25 


3'A 


W-6-M-18 


6" 


Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 12, 33, 36, 38, 
41; No facings. 


80psi 


3 hrs. 








5,25 


3 


W-6-M-19 


67 2 " 


Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 12, 34, 36, 38, 
41 ; Facings: side 1; see Note 35. 


80psi 


4 hrs. 








5,25 


4 


W-6-M-20 


67," 


Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 12, 33, 36, 38, 
41 ; Facings: side 1; see Note 35. 


80psi 


4 hrs. 








5,25 


4 


W-6-M-21 


6V 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 12, 16, 20; 
Facings: unexposed face only; see Note 1 8. 


N/A 


30 min. 








3,5, 
24 


% 


W-6-M-22 


6 5 / s " 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 12, 17, 20; 
Facings: unexposed face only; see Note 1 8. 


N/A 


40 min. 








3,5, 
24 


% 


W-6-M-23 


6 5 / 8 " 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 12, 16, 20; 
Facings: exposed face only; see Note 18. 


N/A 


Ihr. 








3,5, 
24 


1 


W-6-M-24 


67 s " 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 12, 17, 20; 
Facings: exposed face only; see Note 1 8. 


N/A 


Ihr. 
5 min. 








3,5, 
24 


1 


W-6-M-25 


6%" 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 12, 16, 19; 
Facings: unexposed side only; see Note 18. 


N/A 


25 min. 








3,5, 
24 


% 


W-6-M-26 


6%" 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 12, 7, 19; 
Facings: unexposed face only; see Note 18. 


N/A 


30 min. 








3,5, 
24 


% 


W-6-M-27 


6%" 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 12, 16, 19; 
Facings: exposed side only; see Note 18. 


N/A 


1 hr. 








3,5, 
24 


1 


W-6-M-28 


6%" 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 12, 17, 19; 
Facings: fire side only; see Note 18. 


N/A 


Ihr. 








3,5, 
24 


1 


W-6-M-29 


6%" 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 13, 16, 22; 
Facings: unexposed side only; see Note 18. 


N/A 


1 hr. 








3,5, 
24 


1 


W-6-M-30 


6V 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 13, 17, 22; 
Facings: unexposed side only; see Note 18. 


N/A 


Ihr. 
15 min. 








3,5, 

24 


1V 4 


W-6-M-31 


67 8 " 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 13, 16, 22; 
Facings: fire side only; see Note 18. 


N/A 


Ihr. 
15 min. 








3,5, 
24 


iv 4 


W-6-M-32 


6 5 / 8 " 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 13, 17, 22; 
Facings: fire side only; see Note 1 8. 


N/A 


Ihr. 
30 min. 








3,5, 
24 


17 2 



(continued) 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



177 



RESOURCE A 



TABLE 1.1.3— continued 

MASONRY WALLS 

6" TO LESS THAN 8" THICK 



ITEM CODE 


THICKNESS 






PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE- 

BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST- 

BMS-92 


W-6-M-33 


6%" 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 15, 16, 19 
Facings: unexposed side only; see Note 18. 




N/A 


2 hrs. 
30 min. 








3, 5, 24 


27 2 


W-6-M-34 


6%" 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 15, 17, 19 
Facings: unexposed side only; see Note 18. 




N/A 


2 hrs. 
30 min. 








3, 5, 24 


27 2 


W-6-M-35 


6%" 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 15, 16, 19 
Facings: fire side only; see Note 18. 




N/A 


2 hrs. 
30 min. 








3, 5, 24 


27, 


W-6-M-36 


6\" 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 15, 17, 19 
Facings: fire side only; see Note 1 8. 




N/A 


2 hrs. 
30 min. 








3, 5, 24 


27 2 


W-6-M-37 


1" 


Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 12, 34, 36 
see Note 35 for facings on both sides. 


38,41; 


80psi 


5 hrs. 








5,25 


5 


W-6-M-38 


1" 


Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 1 2, 33, 36 
see Note 35 for facings. 


38,41; 


80psi 


5 hrs. 








5,25 


5 


W-6-M-39 


7V 4 " 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 12, 16, 20 
Facings: both sides; see Note 18. 




N/A 


lhr. 
15 min. 








3, 5, 24 


17 4 


W-6-M-40 


iV 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 12, 17, 20 
Facings: both sides; see Note 18. 




N/A 


1 hr. 

30 min. 








3, 5, 24 


17 2 


W-6-M-41 


n: 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 12, 16, 19 
Facings: both sides; see Note 18. 




N/A 


lhr. 
15 min. 








3, 5, 24 


iv 4 


W-6-M-42 


Tl" 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 12, 17, 19 
Facings: both sides; see Note 18. 




N/A 


1 hr. 
30 min. 








3,5,24 


17, 


W-7-M-43 


l l l" 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 13, 16, 22 
Facings: both sides of wall; see Note 18. 




N/A 


lhr. 
30 min. 








3,5,24 


17 2 


W-7-M-44 


iV 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 13, 17, 22 
Facings: both sides of wall; see Note 18. 




N/A 


2 hrs. 








3, 5, 24 


17 2 


W-7-M-45 


IV 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 15, 16, 19 
Facings: both sides; see Note 1 8. 




N/A 


3 hrs. 
30 min. 








3, 5, 24 


37 2 


W-7-M-46 


iV 


Core: structural clay tile; see Notes 15, 17, 19 
Facings: both sides; see Note 1 8. 




N/A 


3 hrs. 
30 min. 








3, 5, 24 


37 2 


W-6-M-47 


6" 


Core: 5" thick solid gypsum blocks; see Note 45; 
Facings: both sides; see Note 45. 


N/A 


6 hrs. 










6 


W-6-M-48 


6" 


Core: hollow concrete units; see Notes 47, 50, 54; 
No facings. 


N/A 


lhr. 

15 min. 










17 4 


W-6-M-49 


6" 


Core: hollow concrete units; see Notes 46, 50, 54; 
No facings. 


N/A 


lhr. 

30 min. 










17 2 


W-6-M-50 


6" 


Core: hollow concrete units; see Notes 46, 41, 54; 
No facings. 


N/A 


2 hrs. 










2 


W-6^M-51 


6" 


Core: hollow concrete units; see Notes 46, 53, 54; 
No facings. 


N/A 


3 hrs. 










3 


W-6-M-52 


6" 


Core: hollow concrete units; see Notes 47, 53, 54; 
No facings. 


N/A 


2 hrs. 
30 min. 










27 2 


W-6-M-53 


6" 


Core: hollow concrete units; see Notes 47, 51, 54; 
No facings. 


N/A 


lhr. 
30 min. 










17 2 


W-6-M-54 


67 2 " 


Core: hollow concrete units; see Notes 46, 50, 54; 
Facings: one side only; see Note 35. 


N/A 


2 hrs. 










2 


W-6-M-55 


67 2 " 


Core: hollow concrete units; see Notes 4, 51, 54; 
Facings: one side; see Note 35. 


N/A 


2 hrs. 
30 min. 










27 2 


W-6-M-56 


67/ 


Core: hollow concrete units; see Notes 46, 53, 54; 
Facings: one side; see Note 35. 


N/A 


4 hrs. 










4 



(continued) 



178 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



RESOURCE A 



TABLE 1.1.3— continued 

MASONRY WALLS 

6" TO LESS THAN 8" THICK 



ITEM CODE 


THICKNESS 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE- 
BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST- 
BMS-92 


W-6-M-57 


6'/ 2 " 


Core: hollow concrete units; see Notes 47, 53, 54; 
Facings: one side; see Note 35. 


N/A 


3 hrs. 










3 


W-6-M-58 


67 2 " 


Core: hollow concrete units; see Notes 47, 51, 54; 
Facings: one side; see Note 35. 


N/A 


2 hrs. 










2 


W-6-M-59 


67," 


Core: hollow concrete units; see Notes 47, 50, 54; 
Facings: one side; see Note 35. 


N/A 


lhr. 
45 min. 










i-v 4 


W-7-M-60 


7" 


Core: hollow concrete units; see Notes 46, 53, 54; 
Facings: both sides; see Note 35. 


N/A 


5 hrs. 










5 


W-7-M-61 


7" 


Core: hollow concrete units; see Notes 46, 51 , 54; 
Facings: both sides; see Note 35. 


N/A 


3 hrs. 
30 min. 










37, 


W-7-M-62 


7" 


Core: hollow concrete units; see Notes 46, 50, 54; 
Facings: both sides; see Note 35. 


N/A 


2 hrs. 
30 min. 










2'A, 


W-7-M-63 


7" 


Core: hollow concrete units; see Notes 47, 53, 54; 
Facings: both sides; see Note 35. 


N/A 


4 hrs. 










4 


W-7-M-64 


7" 


Core: hollow concrete units; see Notes 47, 51, 54; 
Facings: both sides; see Note 35. 


N/A 


2 hrs. 
30 min. 










27 2 


W-7-M-65 


7" 


Core: hollow concrete units; see Notes 47, 50, 54; 
Facings: both sides; see Note 35. 


N/A 


2 hrs. 










2 


W-6-M-66 


6" 


Concrete wall with 4" x 4" No. 6 wire fabric (welded) 
near wall center for reinforcement. 


N/A 


2 hrs. 
30 min. 






43 


2 


27 2 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 0.00689 MPa. 
Notes: 

1 . Tested at NBS under ASA Spec. No. 43- 1934 (ASTM C 19-53) except that hose stream testing where carried out was run on test specimens exposed for full 
test duration, not for a reduced period as is contemporarily done. 

2. Failure by thermal criteria — maximum temperature rise. 

3. For clay tile walls, unless the source or density of the clay can be positively identified or determined, it is suggested that the lowest hourly rating for the fire 
endurance of a clay tile partition of that thickness be followed. Identified sources of clay showing longer fire endurance can lead to longer time 
recommendations. 

4. See Note 55 for construction and design details for clay tile walls. 

5. Tested at NBS under ASA Spec. No. A2-1934. 

6. Failure mode — collapse. 

7. Collapsed on removal from furnace at 1 hour 9 minutes. 

8. Hose stream — failed. 

9. Hose stream — passed. 

10. No end point met in test. 

11. Wall collapsed at 1 hour 28 minutes. 

12. One cell in wall thickness. 

13. Two cells in wall thickness. 

14. Double shells plus one cell in wall thickness. 

15. One cell in wall thickness, cells filled with broken tile, crushed stone, slag, cinders or sand mixed with mortar. 

1 6. Dense hard-burned clay or shale tile. 

17. Medium-burned clay tile. 

18. Not less than 5 / 8 inch thickness of 1 :3 sanded gypsum plaster. 

19. Units of not less than 30 percent solid material. 

20. Units of not less than 40 percent solid material. 

21 . Units of not less than 50 percent solid material. 

22. Units of not less than 45 percent solid material. 

23. Units of not less than 60 percent solid material. 

24. All tiles laid in portland cement-lime mortar. 

25. Load: 80 psi for gross cross sectional area of wall. 

26. Three cells in wall thickness. 

27. Minimum percent of solid material in concrete units = 52. 

28. Minimum percent of solid material in concrete units = 54. 

29. Minimum percent of solid material in concrete units = 55. 

30. Minimum percent of solid material in concrete units = 57. 

(continued) 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



179 



RESOURCE A 



TABLE 1.1.3— continued 

MASONRY WALLS 

6" TO LESS THAN 8" THICK 

31 . Minimum percent of solid material in concrete units = 62. 

32. Minimum percent of solid material in concrete units = 65. 

33. Minimum percent of solid material in concrete units = 70. 

34. Minimum percent of solid material in concrete units = 76. 

35. Not less than 7, inch of 1 :3 sanded gypsum plaster. 

36. Noncombustible or no members framed into wall. 

37. Combustible members framed into wall. 

38. One unit in wall thickness. 

39. Two units in wall thickness. 

40. Three units in wall thickness. 

41 . Concrete units made with expanded slag or pumice aggregates. 

42. Concrete units made with expanded burned clay or shale, crushed limestone, air cooled slag or cinders. 

43. Concrete units made with calcareous sand and gravel. Coarse aggregate, 60 percent or more calcite and dolomite. 

44. Concrete units made with siliceous sand and gravel. Ninety percent or more quartz, chert or flint. 

45. Laid in 1:3 sanded gypsum mortar. 

46. Units of expanded slag or pumice aggregate. 

47. Units of crushed limestone, blast furnace, slag, cinder and expanded clay or shale. 

48. Units of calcareous sand and gravel. Coarse aggregate, 60 percent or more calcite and dolomite. 

49. Units of siliceous sand and gravel. Ninety percent or more quartz, chert or flint. 

50. Unit minimum 49 percent solid. 

5 1 . Unit minimum 62 percent solid. 

52. Unit minimum 65 percent solid. 

53. Unit minimum 73 percent solid. 

54. Ratings based on one unit and one cell in wall section. 

55. See Clay Tile Partition Design Construction drawings, below. 




CHECKERBOARD-C 



>^L 6 " 


12"j^f>>Y 


■^'^fv^^^' 


I ffffrWl 


2" 


4|P 




ALTERNATE-G 




DESIGNS OF TILES USED IN FIRE-TEST PARTITIONS THE FOUR TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION USED 

IN FIRE-TEST PARTITIONS 



180 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



RESOURCE A 



FIGURE 1.1 .4 

MASONRY WALLS 
8" TO LESS THAN 1 0" THICK 



NUMBER OF 
ASSEMBLIES 



J 
15 — 


% 




109 

97 
95 
91 
79 
75 
45 
43 
39 




















110 

107^ 

94 

92 

85 

76 

73 

72 

70 

61 




104 

101 
65 
58 
56 
55 
54 
53 
52 
51 
32 
30 

_25_ 
22 
















The number in each box is 
keyed to the last number in the 
Item Code column in the Table. 

For example: 

W-9-lv(66) 






114 
113 
111 
106 
105 
_90_ 

86 

74 

64 

33 

J£_ 

18 




10- 


96 
80 
78 
69 
68 






93 
89 
84 
49 
41 




103 


112 

102 

_83_ 

57 




99 

81 
77 






/ 




98 


67 








5 


12 
10 
6 


47 


37 


38 


82 


62 


108 




66 
63 
59 
_28_ 

23 


V-""""" 




16 
14 


35 
9 


36 
34 


42 
20 


44 
40 


100 
71 


50 
48 










88 
87 


4 
2 


8 
1 


5 
3 


11 

7 


17 

13 


29 
15 


46 

24 


31 
21 




_6Q_ 

27 












26 











I 




I 




I 




I 




! 




I 




I 










! 


I ► 



3 4 5 6 

FIRE RESISTANCE RATING (HOURS) 

TABLE 1.1.4 

MASONRY WALLS 

8" TO LESS THAN 1 0" THICK 



10 



ITEM CODE 


THICKNESS 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE- 
BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST- 

BMS-92 


W-8-M-1 


8" 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; Units in wall thick- 
ness: 1; Cells in wall thickness: 2; Minimum % solids 
in units: 40. 


80psi 


1 hr. 
15 min. 




1 




1,20 


i'/ 4 


W-8-M-2 


8" 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; Units in wall thick- 
ness: 1; Cells in wall thickness: 2; Minimum % solids 
in units: 40; No facings; Result for wall with 
combustible members framed into interior. 


80psi 


45 min. 




1 




1,20 


X 


W-8-M-3 


8" 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; Units in wall thick- 
ness: 1; Cells in wall thickness: 2; Minimum % solids 
in units: 43. 


80psi 


lhr. 
30 min. 




1 




1,20 


\\ 


W-8-M-4 


8" 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; Units in wall thick- 
ness: 1 ; Cells in wall thickness: 2; Minimum % solids 
in units: 43; No facings; Combustible members 
framed into wall. 


80psi 


45 min. 




1 




1,20 


% 


W-8-M-5 


8" 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; No facings. 


See 

Notes 


lhr. 
30 min. 




1 




1,2,5, 
10,18, 
20,21 


I'A 


W-8-M-6 


8" 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; No facings. 


See 
Notes 


45 min. 




1 




1,2,5, 
10,19, 
20,21 


% 



(continued) 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



181 



RESOURCE A 



TABLE 1.1.4— continued 

MASONRY WALLS 

8" TO LESS THAN 10" THICK 



ITEM CODE 


THICKNESS 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE- 
BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST- 
BMS-92 


W-8-M-7 


8" 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; No facings 


See 
Notes 


2hrs. 








1,2,5,13, 
18,20,21 


2 


W-8-M-8 


8" 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; No facings. 


See 
Notes 


lhr. 
45 min. 








1,2,5,13, 
19, 20, 21 


1V 4 


W-8-M-9 


8" 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; No facings. 


See 
Notes 


1 hr. 
15 min. 








1,2,6,9, 
18,20,21 


l 3 / 4 


W-8-M-10 


8" 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; No facings. 


See 
Notes 


45 min. 








1,2,6,9, 
19,20,21 


% 


W-8-M-1 1 


8" 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; No facings. 


See 
Notes 


2 firs. 








1,2,6,10, 
18,20,21 


2 


W-8-M-12 


8" 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; No facings. 


See 
Notes 


45 min. 








1,2,6,10, 
19, 20, 21 


% 


W-8-M-13 


8" 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; No facings. 


See 
Notes 


2hrs. 
30 min. 








1,3,6,12, 
18, 20, 21 


27 2 


W-8-M-14 


8" 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; No facings. 


See 

Notes 


lhr. 








1,2,6,12, 
19, 20, 21 


1 


W-8-M-15 


8" 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; No facings. 


See 

Notes 


3 hrs. 








1,2,6,16, 
18,20,21 


3 


W-8-M-16 


8" 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; No facings. 


See 
Notes 


lhr. 
15 min. 








1,2,6,16, 
19, 20, 21 


l'/ 4 


W-8-M-17 


8" 


Cored clay or shale brick; Units in wall thick- 
ness: 1; Cells in wall thickness: 1; Minimum 
% solids: 70; No facings. 


See 
Notes 


2 hrs. 
30 min. 








1,44 


27 2 


W-8-M-18 


8" 


Cored clay or shale brick; Units in wall thick- 
ness: 2; Cells in wall thickness: 2; Minimum 
% solids: 87; No facings. 


See 
Notes 


5 hrs. 








1,45 


5 


W-8-M-I9 


8" 


Core: solid clay or shale brick; No facings. 


See 
Notes 


5 hrs. 








1,22,45 


5 


W-8-M-20 


8" 


Core: hollow rolok of clay or shale. 


See 
Notes 


2 hrs. 
30 min. 








1,22,45 


27 2 


W-8-M-21 


8" 


Core: hollow rolok bak of clay or shale; 
No facings. 


See 
Notes 


4 hrs. 








1,45 


4 


W-8-M-22 


8" 


Core: concrete brick; No facings. 


See 
Notes 


6 hrs. 








1,45 


6 


W-8-M-23 


8" 


Core: sand-lime brick; No facings. 


See 
Notes 


7 hrs. 








1,45 


7 


W-8-M-24 


8" 


Core: 4", 40% solid clay or shale structural 
tile; 1 side 4" brick facing. 


See Notes 


3 hrs. 
30 min. 








1,20 


37 2 


W-8-M-25 


8" 


Concrete wall (3220 psi); Reinforcing vertical 
rods 1" from each face and 1" diameter; 
horizontal rods 5 / s " diameter. 


22,200 
Ibs./ft. 


6 hrs. 






7 




6 


W-8-M-26 


8" 


Core: sand-line brick; 7 2 " of 1 :3 sanded 
gypsum plaster facings on one side. 


See Notes 


9 hrs. 








1,45 


9 


W-8-M-27 


8 1 //' 


Core: sand-line brick; '/," of 1:3 sanded 
gypsum plaster facings on one side. 


See Notes 


8 hrs. 








1,45 


8 


W-8-M-28 


87 2 " 


Core: concrete; 7 2 " of 1 :3 sanded gypsum 
plaster facings on one side. 


See Notes 


7 hrs. 








1,45 


7 



(continued) 



182 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



RESOURCE A 



TABLE 1.1.4— continued 

MASONRY WALLS 

8" TO LESS THAN 10" THICK 



ITEM CODE 


THICKNESS 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE- 
BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST- 

BMS-92 


W-8-M-29 


87 2 " 


Core: hollow rolok of clay or shale; 7 2 " of 1:3 sanded 
gypsum plaster facings on one side. 


See 
Notes 


3 hrs. 




1 




1,45 


3 


W-8-M-30 


87 2 " 


Core: solid clay or shale brick 7 2 " thick, 1:3 sanded 
gypsum plaster facings on one side. 


See 
Notes 


6 hrs. 




1 




1,22, 
45, 


6 


W-8-M-31 


8V 2 " 


Core: cored clay or shale brick; Units in wall thick- 
ness: 1; Cells in wall thickness: 1; Minimum % solids: 
70; 7 2 " of 1:3 sanded gypsum plaster facings on both 
sides. 


See 
Notes 


4 hrs. 




1 




1,44 


4 


W-8-M-32 


8V 2 " 


Core: cored clay or shale brick; Units in wall thick- 
ness: 2; Cells in wall thickness: 2; Minimum % solids: 
87; 7 2 " of 1:3 sanded gypsum plaster facings on one 
side. 


See 

Notes 


6 hrs. 




1 




1,45 


6 


W-8-M-33 


87 2 " 


Core: hollow rolok bak of clay or shale; 7 2 " of 1:3 
sanded gypsum plaster facings on one side. 


See 

Notes 


5 hrs. 




1 




1,45 


5 


W-8-M-34 


8%" 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; Units in wall thick- 
ness: 1; Cells in wall thickness: 2; Minimum % solids 
in units: 40; 5 / s " of 1:3 sanded gypsum plaster facings 
on one side. 


See 
Notes 


2 hrs. 




1 




1,20 
21 


2 


W-8-M-35 


8%" 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; Units in wall thick- 
ness: 1; Cells in wall thickness: 2; Minimum % solids 
in units: 40; Exposed face: 5 / 8 " of 1:3 sanded gypsum 
plaster. 


See 

Notes 


lhr. 
30min. 




1 




1,20, 
21 


17 2 


W-8-M-36 


8 5 / 8 " 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; Units in wall thick- 
ness: 1; Cells in wall thickness: 2; Minimum % solids 
in units: 43; V 8 " of 1:3 sanded gypsum plaster facings 
on one side. 


See 
Notes 


2 hrs. 








1, 
20,21 


2 


W-8-M-37 


87 8 " 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; Units in wall thick- 
ness: 1; Cells in wall thickness: 2; Minimum % solids 
in units: 43; 5 / g " of 1:3 sanded gypsum plaster of the 
exposed face only. 


See 

Notes 


lhr. 
30min. 




1 




1,20, 
21 


17 2 


W-8-M-38 


8%" 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; Facings: side 1 ; see 
Note 17. 


See 
Notes 


2 hrs. 




1 




1,2,5, 
10,18, 
20,21 


2 


W-8-M-39 


8V 8 " 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; Facings: 
exposed side only; see Note 17. 


See 
Notes 


1 hr. 
30min. 




1 




1,2,5, 
10,19, 
20,21 


17 2 


W-8-M-40 


8%" 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; Facings: 
exposed side only; see Note 17. 


See 
Notes 


3 hrs. 




1 




1,2,5, 
13,18, 
20,21 


3 


W-8-M-41 


8 5 / s " 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; Facings: 
exposed side only; see Note 17. 


See 

Notes 


2 hrs. 




1 




1,2,5, 
13,19, 

20,21 


2 


W-8-M-42 


87 8 " 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; Facings: side 1 ; see 
Note 17. 


See 
Notes 


2 hrs. 
30 min. 




1 




1,2,9, 

18,20, 

21 


27 2 


W-8-M-43 


8 5 / 8 " 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; Facings: 
exposed side only; see Note 17. 


See 

Notes 


lhr. 
30 min. 




1 




1,2,6, 
9, 19, 
20,21 


17 2 



(continued) 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



183 



RESOURCE A 



TABLE 1.1.4— continued 

MASONRY WALLS 

8" TO LESS THAN 10" THICK 



ITEM CODE 


THICKNESS 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE- 
BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST- 
BMS-92 


W-8-M-44 


8V 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; Facings: side 1, 
see Note 17; side 2, none. 


See 
Notes 


3 hrs. 




1 




1,2, 
10,18, 
20,21 


3 


W-8-M-45 


87/ 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; Facings: fire side 
only; see Note 17. 


See 
Notes 


1 hr. 
30 min. 




1 




1,2,6, 
10,19, 
20,21 


17 2 


W-8-M-46 


87/ 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; Facings: side 1, 
see Note 17; side 2, none. 


See 
Notes 


3 hrs. 
30 min. 




1 




1,2,6, 
12,18, 
20,21 


37, 


W-8-M-47 


87/ 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; Facings: exposed 
side only; see Note 17. 


See 
Notes 


lhr. 
45 min. 




1 




1,2,6, 
12,19, 
20,21 


1% 


W-8-M-48 


87/ 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; Facings: side 1, 
see Note 17; side 2, none. 


See 
Notes 


4 hrs. 




1 




1,2,6, 
16,18, 
20,21 


4 


W-8-M-49 


8%" 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; Facings: fire side 
only; see Note 17. 


See 
Notes 


2 hrs. 




1 




1,2,6, 
16,19, 
20,21 


2 


W-8-M-50 


87/ 


Core: 4", 40% solid clay or shale clay structural tile; 
4" brick plus 7/ of 1:3 sanded gypsum plaster fac- 
ings on one side. 


See 
Notes 


4 hrs. 




1 




1,20 


4 


W-8-M-51 


87/ 


87 4 " x 27/ and 4" x 27/ cellular fletton (1873 psi) 
single and triple cell hollow brick set in 7/ sand 
mortar in alternate courses. 


3.6 
tons/ft. 


6 hrs. 






7 


23,29 


6 


W-8-M-52 


8'/;' 


87/ thick cement brick (2527 psi) with P.C. and sand 
mortar. 


3.6 
tons/ft. 


6 hrs. 






7 


23,24 


6 


W-8-M-53 


87/ 


87/ x 27/ tletton brick (1831 psi) in 7/ sand 
mortar. 


3.6 
tons/ft. 


6 hrs. 






7 


23,24 


6 


W-8-M-54 


87/ 


8 7/ x 27/ London stock brick (683 psi) in 7/ P.C. - 
sand mortar. 


7.2 
tons/ft. 


6 hrs. 






7 


23,24 


6 


W-9-M-55 


9" 


9" x 27/ Leicester red wire-cut brick (4465 psi) in 
7/ P.C. - sand mortar. 


6.0 
tons/ft. 


6 hrs. 






7 


23,24 


6 


W-9-M-56 


9" 


9" x 3" sand-lime brick (2603 psi) in 7/ P.C. - sand 
mortar. 


3.6 
tons/ft. 


6 hrs. 






7 


23,24 


6 


W-9-M-57 


9" 


2 layers 27/ fletton brick (1910 psi) with 37/ air 
space; Cement and sand mortar. 


1.5 
tons/ft. 


32 min. 






7 


23,25 


% 


W-9-M-58 


9" 


9" x 3" stairfoot brick (7527 psi) in 7/ sand-cement 
mortar. 


7.2 
tons/ft. 


6 hrs. 






7 


23,24 


6 


W-9-M-59 


9" 


Core: solid clay or shale brick; 7/ thick; 1:3 sanded 
gypsum plaster facings on both sides. 


See 
Notes 


7 hrs. 




1 




1,22, 
45 


7 


W-9-M-60 


9" 


Core: concrete brick; 7/ of 1:3 sanded gypsum 
plaster facings on both sides. 


See 
Notes 


8 hrs. 




1 




1,45 


8 


W-9-M-6I 


9" 


Core: hollow rolok of clay or shale; 7/ of 1 :3 sanded 
gypsum plaster facings on both sides. 


See 
Notes 


4 hrs. 




1 




1,45 


4 


W-9-M-62 


9" 


Cored clay or shale brick; Units in wall thickness: 1; 
Cells in wall thickness: 1; Minimum % solids: 70; 7/ 
of 1:3 sanded gypsum plaster facings on one side. 


See 
Notes 


3 hrs. 




1 




1,44 


3 



(continued) 



184 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



RESOURCE A 



TABLE 1.1.4— continued 

MASONRY WALLS 

8" TO LESS THAN 10" THICK 



ITEM CODE 


THICKNESS 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE- 
BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST- 
BMS-92 


W-9-M-63 


9" 


Cored clay or shale brick; Units in wall thickness: 
2; Cells in wall thickness: 2; Minimum % solids: 
87; 7," of 1:3 sanded gypsum plaster facings on 
both sides. 


See 
Notes 


7 hrs. 




1 




1,45 


7 


W-9-M-64 


9-10" 


Core: cavity wall of clay or shale brick; 
No facings. 


See 
Notes 


5 hrs. 




1 




1,45 


5 


W-9-M-65 


9-10" 


Core: cavity construction of clay or shale brick; 
7 2 " of 1:3 sanded gypsum plaster facings on one 
side. 


See 
Notes 


6 hrs. 




1 




1,45 


6 


W-9-M-66 


9-10" 


Core: cavity construction of clay or shale brick; 
7 2 " of 1:3 sanded gypsum plaster facings on both 
sides. 


See 
Notes 


7 hrs. 




1 




1,45 


7 


W-9-M-67 


9V 4 " 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; Units in wall 
thickness: 1; Cells in wall thickness: 2; Minimum 
% solids in units: 40; V 8 " of 1 :3 sanded gypsum 
plaster facings on both sides. 


See 
Notes 


3 hrs. 




1 




1,20, 
21 


3 


W-9-M-68 


97 4 " 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; Units in wall 
thickness: 1; Cells in wall thickness: 2; Minimum 
% solids in units: 43; 5 / 8 " of 1:3 sanded gypsum 
plaster facings on both sides. 


See 
Notes 


3 hrs. 




1 




1, 20, 
21 


3 


W-9-M-69 


9V 4 " 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; Facings: sides 1 
and 2; see Note 17. 


See 
Notes 


3 hrs. 




1 




1,2,5, 
10,18, 
20,21 


3 


W-9-M-70 


97/ 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; Facings: sides 1 
and 2; see Note 17. 


See 
Notes 


4 hrs. 




1 




1,2,5, 
13,18, 
20,21 


4 


W-9-M-71 


97 4 " 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; Facings: sides 1 
and 2; see Note 17. 


See 
Notes 


3 hrs. 
30 min. 




1 




1,2,6, 
9,18, 
20,21 


37 2 


W-9-M-72 


97 4 " 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; Facings: sides 1 
and 2; see Note 17. 


See 
Notes 


4 hrs. 




1 




1,2,6, 
10,18, 
20,21 


4 


W-9-M-73 


97 4 " 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; Facings: sides 1 
and 2; see Note 17. 


See 
Notes 


4 hrs. 




1 




1,2,6, 
12,18, 
20, 21 


4 


W-9-M-74 


97 4 " 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; Facings: sides 1 
and 2; see Note 17. 


See 
Notes 


5 hrs. 




1 




1,2,6 
16,18, 
20,21 


5 


W-9-M-75 


8" 


Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 2, 19, 26, 34, 
40; No facings. 


80psi 


lhr. 
30 min. 




1 




1,20 


l7 2 


W-8-M-76 


8" 


Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 2, 18, 26, 34, 
40; No facings 


80psi 


4 hrs. 




1 




1,20 


4 


W-8-M-77 


8" 


Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 2, 19, 26, 31, 
40; No facings. 


80psi 


lhr. 
15 min. 




1 




1,20 


17 4 


W-8-M-78 


8" 


Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 2, 18, 26, 31, 
40; No facings. 


80psi 


3 hrs. 




1 




1,20 


3 


W-8-M-79 


8" 


Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 2, 19, 26, 36, 
42; No facings. 


80psi 


lhr. 
30 min. 




1 




1,20 


17 2 



(continued) 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



185 



RESOURCE A 



TABLE 1.1.4— continued 

MASONRY WALLS 

8" TO LESS THAN 10" THICK 



ITEM CODE 


THICKNESS 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE- 
BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST- 
BMS-92 


W-8-M-80 


8" 


Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 2, 18, 26, 36, 41; 
No facings. 


80psi 


3 hrs. 








1,20 


3 


W-8-M-81 


8" 


Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 2, 19, 26, 34, 41; 
No facings. 


80psi 


lhr. 








1,20 


1 


W-8-M-82 


8" 


Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 2, 18, 26, 34, 41 ; 
No facings. 


80psi 


2 hrs. 
30 min. 








1,20 


27 2 


W-8-M-83 


8" 


Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 2, 19, 26, 29, 41; 
No facings. 


80psi 


45 min. 








1,20 


% 


W-8-M-84 


8" 


Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 2, 18, 26, 29, 41; 
No facings. 


80psi 


2 hrs. 








1,20 


2 


W-8-M-85 


87," 


Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 3, 18, 26, 34, 41 ; 
Facings: 27 4 " brick. 


80psi 


4 hrs. 








1,20 


4 


W-8-M-86 


8" 


Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 3, 18, 26, 34, 41; 
Facings: 3 3 / 4 " brick face. 


80psi 


5 hrs. 








1,20 


5 


W-8-M-87 


8" 


Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 2, 19, 26, 30, 43; 
No facings. 


80 psi 


12 min. 








1,20 


% 


W-8-M-88 


8" 


Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 2, 18, 26, 30, 43; 
No facings. 


80psi 


12 min. 








1,20 


% 


W-8-M-89 


87," 


Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 2, 19, 26, 34, 40; 
Facings: fire side only; see Note 38. 


80 psi 


2 hrs. 








1,20 


2 


W-8-M-90 


87," 


Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 2, 18, 26, 34, 40; 
Facings: side 1; see Note 38. 


80 psi 


5 hrs. 








1,20 


5 


W-8-M-91 


87 2 " 


Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 2, 19, 26, 31, 40; 
Facings: fire side only; see Note 38. 


80 psi 


lhr. 
45 min. 








1, 20 


1% 


W-8-M-92 


87 2 " 


Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 2, 18, 26, 31, 40; 
Facings: one side; see Note 38. 


80 psi 


4 hrs. 








1,20 


4 


W-8-M-93 


87," 


Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 2, 19, 26, 36, 41; 
Facings: fire side only; see Note 38. 


80 psi 


2 hrs. 








1,20 


2 


W-8-M-94 


87," 


Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 2, 18, 26, 36, 41; 
Facings: fire side only; see Note 38. 


80 psi 


4 hrs. 








1,20 


4 


W-8-M-95 


87," 


Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 2, 19, 26, 34, 41; 
Facings: fire side only; see Note 38. 


80 psi 


lhr. 
30 min. 








1,20 


17 2 


W-8-M-96 


87," 


Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 2, 18, 26, 34, 41; 
Facings: one side; see Note 38. 


80 psi 


3 hrs. 








1,20 


3 


W-8-M-97 


87 2 " 


Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 2, 19, 26, 29, 41; 
Facings: tire side only; see Note 38. 


80 psi 


lhr. 
30 min. 








1,20 


17, 


W-8-M-98 


87," 


Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 2, 18, 26, 29, 41; 
Facings: one side; see Note 38. 


80 psi 


2 hrs. 
30 min. 








1,20 


27 2 


W-8-M-99 


87," 


Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 3, 19, 23, 27, 41; 
No facings. 


80 psi 


lhr. 
15 min. 








1,20 


iv 4 



(continued) 



186 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE 8 



RESOURCE A 



TABLE 1.1.4— continued 

MASONRY WALLS 

8" TO LESS THAN 10" THICK 



ITEM CODE 


THICKNESS 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE- 
BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST- 
BMS-92 


W-8-M-100 


87 2 " 


Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 3, 18, 23, 27, 41; 
No facings. 


80psi 


3 hrs. 
30 min. 








1,20 


37, 


W-8-M-101 


8'//' 


Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 3, 18, 26, 34, 41 ; 
Facings: 37 4 " brick face; one side only; see Note 38. 


80psi 


6 hrs. 








1,20 


6 


W-8-M-102 


87," 


Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 2, 19, 26, 30, 43; 
Facings; fire side only; see Note 38. 


80psi 


30 min. 








1,20 


% 


W-8-M-103 


8V 2 " 


Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 2, 18, 26, 30, 43; 
Facings: one side only; see Note 38. 


80psi 


12 min. 








1,20 


% 


W-8-M-104 


9" 


Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 2, 18, 26, 34, 40; 
Facings: both sides; see Note 38. 


80psi 


6 hrs. 








1,20 


6 


W-8-M-105 


9" 


Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 2, 18, 26, 31, 40; 
Facings: both sides; see Note 38. 


80psi 


5 hrs. 








1,20 


5 


W-8-M-106 


9" 


Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 2, 18, 26, 36, 41; 
Facings: both sides of wall; see Note 38. 


80psi 


5 hrs. 








1,20 


5 


W-8-M-107 


9" 


Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 2, 18, 26, 34, 41; 
Facings: both sides; see Note 38. 


80psi 


4 hrs. 








1,20 


4 


W-8-M-108 


9" 


Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 2, 18, 26, 29, 41; 
Facings: both sides; see Note 38. 


80psi 


3 hrs. 
30 min. 








1,20 


37 2 


W-8-M-109 


9" 


Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 3, 19, 23, 27, 40; 
Facings: fire side only; see Note 38. 


80psi 


lhr. 
45 min. 








1,20 


l 3 / 4 


W-8-M-U0 


9" 


Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 3, 18, 23, 27, 41; 
Facings: one side only; see Note 38. 


80psi 


4 hrs. 








1,20 


4 


W-8-M-111 


9" 


Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 3, 18, 26, 34, 41; 
2'/ 4 " brick face on one side only; see Note 38. 


80psi 


5 hrs. 








1,20 


5 


W-8-M-112 


9" 


Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 2, 18, 26, 30, 43; 
Facings: both sides; see Note 38. 


80psi 


30 min. 








1,20 


'/, 


W-9-M-113 


97 2 " 


Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 3, 18, 23, 27, 41; 
Facings: both sides; see Note 38. 


80psi 


5 hrs. 








1,20 


5 


W-8-M-114 


8" 




200 psi 


5 hrs. 






43 


22 


5 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 0.00689 MPa. 
Notes: 

1. Tested at NBS under ASA Spec. No. 43-1934 (ASTM C 19-53). 

2. One unit in wall thickness. 

3. Two units in wall thickness. 

4. Two or three units in wall thickness. 

5. Two cells in wall thickness. 

6. Three or four cells in wall thickness. 

7. Four or five cells in wall thickness. 

8. Five or six cells in wall thickness. 

9. Minimum percent of solid materials in units = 40%. 

10. Minimum percent of solid materials in units = 43%. 

1 1. Minimum percent of solid materials in units = 46%. 

12. Minimum percent of solid materials in units = 48%. 

13. Minimum percent of solid materials in units = 49%. 

14. inimum percent of solid materials in units = 45%. 

15. Minimum percent of solid materials in units = 51%. 

16. Minimum percent of solid materials in units = 53%. 

1 7. Not less than 5 / s inch thickness of 1 :3 sanded gypsum plaster. 

1 8. Noncombustible or no members framed into wall. 



(continued) 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



187 



RESOURCE A 



TABLE 1.1.4— continued 

MASONRY WALLS 

8" TO LESS THAN 10" THICK 

19. Combustible members framed into wall. 

20. Load: 80 psi for gross cross-sectional area of wall. 

21 . Portland cement-lime mortar. 

22. Failure mode thermal. 

23. British test. 

24. Passed all criteria. 

25. Failed by sudden collapse with no preceding signs of impending failure. 

26. One cell in wall thickness. 

27. Two cells in wall thickness. 

28. Three cells in wall thickness. 

29. Minimum percent of solid material in concrete units = 52. 

30. Minimum percent of solid material in concrete units = 54. 

31 . Minimum percent of solid material in concrete units = 55. 

32. Minimum percent of solid material in concrete units = 57. 

33. Minimum percent of solid material in concrete units = 60. 

34. Minimum percent of solid material in concrete traits = 62. 

35. Minimum percent of solid material in concrete units = 65. 

36. Minimum percent of solid material in concrete units = 70. 

37. Minimum percent of solid material in concrete units = 76. 

38. Not less than '/, inch of 1 :3 sanded gypsum plaster. 

39. Three units in wall thickness. 

40. Concrete units made with expanded slag or pumice aggregates. 

41 . Concrete units made with expanded burned clay or shale, crushed limestone, air cooled slag or cinders. 

42. Concrete units made with calcareous sand and gravel. Coarse aggregate, 60 percent or more calcite and dolomite. 

43. Concrete units made with siliceous sand and gravel. Ninety percent or more quartz, chert and dolomite. 

44. Load: 1 20 psi for gross cross-sectional area of wall. 

45. Load: 1 60 psi for gross cross-sectional area of wall. 



188 2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



RESOURCE A 



FIGURE 1.1.5 

MASONRY WALLS 

10" TO LESS THAN 12" THICK 



NUMBER OF 
ASSEMBLIES 



10" 



The number in each box is 
keyed to the last number in the 
Item Code column in the Table. 



For example: 



W-1 1-1^33) 



23 
10 

9 
8 
6 
2 



24 

20 
16 
12 



27 
13 



11 



25 
7 
3 

1 



32 




33 


V"" 




31 




30 






26 




28 






21 




19 






17 




15 






5 




14 




29 













3 4 5 

FIRE RESISTANCE RATING (HOURS) 



TABLE 1.1.5 

MASONRY WALLS 

10" TO LESS THAN 12" THICK 



ITEM CODE 



W-10-M-1 



W-10-M-2 



W-10-M-3 



W-10-M-4 



W-10-M-5 



W-10-M-6 



W-10-M-7 



W-10-M-8 



THICKNESS 



10" 



10" 



10" 



10" 



10" 



10" 



CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 



Core: two 3'/ 4 ", 40% solid clay or shale structural tiles 
with 2" air space between; Facings: V 4 " portland 
cement plaster on stucco on both sides. 



Core: cored concrete masonry, 2" air cavity; see Notes 
3, 19, 27,34, 40; No facings. 



Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 3, 1 8, 27, 34, 40; 
No facings. 



Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 2, 19, 26, 34, 40; 
No facings. 



Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 2, 18, 26, 33, 40; 
No facings. 



Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 2, 19, 26, 33, 41 
No facings. 



Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 2, 18, 26, 33, 41 
No facings. 



Cored concrete masonry (cavity type 2" air space); see 
Notes 3, 19, 27, 34, 42; No facings. 



PERFORMANCE 



LOAD 



80psi 



80psi 



(psi 



80psi 



80 psi 



80 psi 



80 psi 



80 psi 



TIME 



4hrs. 



lhr. 
30 min. 



4hrs. 



2 hrs. 



5 hrs. 



1 hr. 
30 min. 



4 hrs. 



lhr. 
15 min, 



REFERENCE NUMBER 



PRE- 
BMS-92 



BMS-92 



POST- 

BMS-92 



NOTES 



1,20 



1,20 



20 



1,20 



1,20 



1,20 



1,20 



1,20 



REC. 
HOURS 



IV, 



l 1 /, 



iv 4 



(continued) 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



189 



RESOURCE A 



TABLE 1.1.5 — continued 

MASONRY WALLS 

10" TO LESS THAN 12" THICK 



ITEM CODE 


THICKNESS 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE- 
BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST- 

BMS-92 


W-10-M-9 


10" 


Cored concrete masonry (cavity type 2" air space); see 
Notes 3, 18, 27, 34, 42; No facings. 


80 psi 


1 hr. 
15 min. 




1 




1,20 


l'/ 4 


W-10-M-10 


10" 


Cored concrete masonry (cavity type 2" air space); see 
Notes 3, 19, 27, 34, 41; No facings. 


80 psi 


1 hr. 
15 min. 




1 




1,20 


iv 4 


W-10-M-1J 


10" 


Cored concrete masonry (cavity type 2" air space); see 
Notes 3, 18, 27, 34, 41; No facings. 


80 psi 


3 hrs. 
30 min. 




1 




1,20 


37 2 


W-10-M-12 


10" 


9" thick concrete block (1 17/ x 9" x 47/) with two 2" 
thick voids included; 7/ P.C. plaster 7/ neat gypsum. 


N/A 


lhr. 
53 min. 






7 


23,44 


1% 


W-10-M-13 


10" 


Holly clay tile block wall - 87/ block with two 3" 
voids in each 87," section; 7/ gypsum plaster - each 

face. 


N/A 


2 hrs. 
42 min. 






7 


23, 25 


27 2 


W-10-M-14 


10" 


Two layers 47/ brick with 1 7/ air space; No ties sand 
cement mortar. (Fletton brick - 1910 psi). 


N/A 


6 hrs. 






7 


23,24 


6 


W-10-M-15 


10" 


Two layers 47/ thick Fletton brick (1910 psi); 

1 7/ air space; Ties: 18" o.c. vertical; 3' ox. horizontal. 


N/A 


6 hrs. 






7 


23,24 


6 


W-10-M-16 


107/ 


Cored concrete masonry; 2" air cavity; see Notes 3, 19, 
27, 34, 40; Facings: fire side only; see Note 38. 


80 psi 


2 hrs. 








1,20 


2 


W-10-M-17 


107 2 " 


Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 3, 18, 27, 34, 40; 
Facings: side 1 only; see Note 38. 


80 psi 


5 hrs. 








1,20 


5 


W-10-M-18 


107," 


Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 2, 19, 26, 33, 40; 
Facings: fire side only; see Note 38. 


80 psi 


2 hrs. 
30 min. 








1,20 


27 2 


W-10-M-19 


1 07 2 " 


Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 2, 18, 26, 33, 40; 
Facings: one side; see Note 38. 


80 psi 


6 hrs. 








1,20 


6 


W-10-M-20 


107," 


Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 2, 19, 26, 33, 41; 
Facings: fire side of wall only; see Note 38. 


80 psi 


2 hrs. 








1,20 


2 


W-10-M-21 


107/ 


Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 2, 18, 26, 33, 41; 
Facings: one side only; see Note 38. 


80 psi 


5 hrs. 








1,20 


5 


W-10-M-22 


107/ 


Cored concrete masonry (cavity type 2" air space); see 
Notes 3,19, 27, 34, 42; Facings: fire side only; see Note 
38. 


80 psi 


lhr. 
45 min. 








1,20 


17 4 


W-10-M-23 


107/ 


Cored concrete masonry (cavity type 2" air space); see 
Notes 3, 18, 27, 34, 42; Facings: one side only; see 
Note 38. 


80 psi 


lhr. 
15 min. 








1,20 


1V 4 


W-10-M-24 


107/ 


Cored concrete masonry (cavity type 2" air space); see 
Notes 3, 19, 27, 34, 41; Facings: fire side only; see Note 
38. 


80 psi 


2 hrs. 








1,20 


2 


W-10-M-25 


107/ 


Cored concrete masonry (cavity type 2" air space); see 
Notes 3, 18, 27, 34, 41; Facings: one side only; see 
Note 38. 


80 psi 


4 hrs. 








1,20 


4 


W-10-M-26 


10%" 


Core: 8", 40% solid tile plus 2" furring tile; 7/ sanded 
gypsum plaster between tile types; Facings: both sides 
7/ portland cement plaster or stucco. 


80 psi 


5 hrs. 








1,20 


5 



(continued) 



190 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



RESOURCE A 



TABLE 1.1.5— continued 

MASONRY WALLS 

10" TO LESS THAN 12 "THICK 



ITEM CODE 


THICKNESS 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE- 
BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST- 
BMS-92 


W-10-M-27 


10%" 


Core: 8", 40% solid tile plus 2" furring tile; %" sanded 
gypsum plaster between tile types; Facings: one side 
3 / 4 " portland cement plaster or stucco. 


80 psi 


3 hrs. 
30min. 




1 




1,20 


37 2 


W-ll-M-28 


11" 


Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 3, 18, 27, 34, 40; 
Facings: both sides; see Note 38. 


80 psi 


6 hrs. 




1 




1,20 


6 


W-ll-M-29 


11" 


Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 2, 18, 26, 33, 40; 
Facings: both sides; see Note 38. 


80 psi 


7 hrs. 




1 




1,20 


7 


W-ll-M-30 


11" 


Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 2, 18, 26, 33, 41; 
Facings: both sides of wall; see Note 38. 


80 psi 


6 hrs. 




1 




1,20 


6 


W-ll-M-31 


11" 


Cored concrete masonry (cavity type 2" air space); see 
Notes 3, 18, 27, 34, 42; Facings: both sides; see Note 
38. 


80 psi 


5 hrs. 




1 




1,20 


5 


W-ll-M-32 


11" 


Cored concrete masonry (cavity type 2" air space); see 
Notes 3, 18, 27, 34, 41; Facings: both sides; see Note 
38. 


80 psi 


5 hrs. 




1 




1,20 


5 


W-ll-M-33 


11" 


Two layers brick (4'/ 2 " Fletton, 2,428 psi) 2" air space; 
galvanized ties; 18" o.c. - horizontal; 3' o.c. - vertical. 


3 tons/ft. 


6 hrs. 






7 


23,24 


6 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 0.00689 MPa. 
Notes: 

1 . Tested at NBS - ASA Spec. No. A2-1934. 

2. One unit in wall thickness. 

3. Two units in wall thickness. 

4. Two or three units in wall thickness. 

5. Two cells in wall thickness. 

6. Three or four cells in wall thickness. 

7. Four or five cells in wall thickness. 

8. Five or six cells in wall thickness. 

9. Minimum percent of solid materials in units = 40%. 

10. Minimum percent of solid materials in units = 43%. 

1 1 . Minimum percent of solid materials in units = 46%. 

12. Minimum percent of solid materials in units = 48%. 

13. Minimum percent of solid materials in units = 49%. 

14. Minimum percent of solid materials in units = 45%. 

15. Minimum percent of solid materials in units = 51%. 

16. Minimum percent of solid materials in units = 53%. 

17. Not less than 7 8 inch thickness of 1 :3 sanded gypsum plaster. 



18. 
19. 
20. 



23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35. 



Noncombustible or no members framed into wall. 

Combustible members framed into wall. 

Load: 80 psi for gross cross sectional area of wall. 

21. Portland cement-lime mortar. 

22. Failure mode — thermal. 
British test. 
Passed all criteria. 

Failed by sudden collapse with no preceding signs of impending failure. 
One cell in wall thickness. 
Two cells in wall thickness. 
Three cells in wall thickness. 

Minimum percent of solid material in concrete units = 52%. 
Minimum percent of solid material in concrete units = 54%. 
Minimum percent of solid material in concrete units = 55%. 
Minimum percent of solid material in concrete units = 57%. 
Minimum percent of solid material in concrete units = 60%. 
Minimum percent of solid material in concrete units = 62%. 
Minimum percent of solid material in concrete units = 65%. 

(continued) 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



191 



RESOURCE A 



TABLE 1.1.5— continued 

MASONRY WALLS 

10" TO LESS THAN 12" THICK 

36. Minimum percent of solid material in concrete units = 70%. 

37. Minimum percent of solid material in concrete units = 76%. 

38. Not less than V, inch of 1:3 sanded gypsum plaster. 

39. Three units in wall thickness. 

40. Concrete units made with expanded slag or pumice aggregates. 

41 . Concrete units made with expanded burned clay or shale, crushed limestone, air cooled slag or cinders. 

42. Concrete units made with calcareous sand and gravel. Coarse aggregate, 60 percent or more calcite and dolomite. 



192 2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



RESOURCE A 



FIGURE 1.1.6 

MASONRY WALLS 1 

2" TO LESS THAN 14" THICK 



NUMBER OF 



btivi 

i 

10~ 


DLI 

i 


;& 












81 
80 








84 
83 
















76 




82 








64 




87 




78 








59 




61 




77 








50 




58 
57 
56 




47 
31 
27 




63 
49 
45 




85 

79 
75 




5 




46 
30 


48 

44 


60 
53 


62 

55 






51 




26 


20 


22 


52 


54 




21 




41 




72 






33 




18 


14 


16 


17 


29 




8 




36 




68 










32 




28 


12 


11 


13 


15 


19 




3 




25 




65 




86 




U 




! 




I 




T 




I 




I 








I 




I 





The number in each box is 
keyed to the last number in the 
Item Code column in the Table. 

For example: 

W-12-IVH2 




59 



71 



6 7 8 9 10 11 12 

FIRE RESISTANCE RATING (HOURS) 

TABLE 1.1.6 

MASONRY WALLS 

12" TO LESS THAN 14" THICK 



13 



14 



15 



16 



17 



ITEM CODE 


THICKNESS 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE-BMS- 
92 


BMS-92 


POST- 

BMS-92 


W-12-M-1 


12" 


Core: solid clay or shale brick; 
No facings. 


N/A 


12hrs. 




1 




1 


12 


W-12-M-2 


12" 


Core: solid clay or shale brick; 
No facings. 


160 psi 


lOhrs. 




1 




1,44 


10 


W-12-M-3 


12" 


Core: hollow rolok of clay or shale; 
No facings. 


160 psi 


5hrs. 




1 




1,44 


5 


W-12-M-4 


12" 


Core: hollow rolok bak of clay or shale; 
No facings. 


160 psi 


10 hrs. 




1 




1,44 


10 


W-12-M-5 


12" 


Core: concrete brick; No facings. 


160 psi 


13 hrs. 




1 




1,44 


13 


W-12-M-6 


12" 


Core: sand-lime brick; No facings. 


N/A 


14 hrs. 




1 




1 


14 


W-12-M-7 


12" 


Core: sand-lime brick; No facings. 


160 psi 


10 hrs. 




1 




1,44 


10 


W-12-M-8 


12" 


Cored clay or shale brick; Units in wall 
thickness: 1; Cells in wall thickness: 2; 
Minimum % solids: 70; No facings. 


120 psi 


5 hrs. 




1 




1,45 


5 


W-12-M-9 


12" 


Cored clay or shale brick; Units in wall 
thickness: 3; Cells in wall thickness: 3; 
Minimum % solids: 87; No facings. 


160 psi 


10 hrs. 




1 




1,44 


10 


W-12-M-10 


12" 


Cored clay or shale brick; Units in wall 
thickness: 3; Cells in wall thickness: 3; 
Minimum % solids: 87; No facings. 


N/A 


11 hrs. 




1 




1 


11 



(continued) 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



193 



RESOURCE A 



TABLE 1.1. 6— continued 

MASONRY WALLS 

12" TO LESS THAN 14" THICK 



ITEM CODE 


THICKNESS 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE-BMS- 
92 


BMS-92 


POST- 

BMS-92 


W-12-M-11 


12" 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; see 
Notes 2, 6, 9, 18; No facings. 


80psi 


2 hrs. 








1,20 


27 2 


W-12-M-12 


12" 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; see 
Notes 2, 4, 9, 19; No facings. 


80psi 


2 hrs. 








1,20 


2 


W-12-M-13 


12" 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; see 
Notes 2, 6, 14, 19; No facings. 


80psi 


3 hrs. 








1,20 


3 


W-12-M-14 


12" 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; see 
Notes 2, 6, 14, 18; No facings. 


80psi 


2 hrs. 
30 min. 








1,20 


2% 


W-12-M-15 


12" 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; see 
Notes 2, 4, 13, 18; No facings. 


80psi 


3 hrs. 
30 min. 








1,20 


3V 2 


W-12-M-16 


12" 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; see 
Notes 2, 4, 13, 19; No facings. 


80psi 


3 hrs. 








1,20 


3 


W-12-M-17 


12" 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; see 
Notes 3, 6, 9, 18; No facings. 


80psi 


3 hrs. 
30 min. 








1,20 


37 2 


W-12-M-18 


12" 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; see 
Notes 3, 6, 9, 19; No facings. 


80 psi 


2 hrs. 








1,20 


2 


W-12-M-19 


12" 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; see 
Notes 3, 6, 14, 18; No facings. 


80psi 


4 hrs. 








1,20 


4 


W-12-M-20 


12" 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; see 
Notes 3, 6, 14, 19; No facings. 


80 psi 


2 hrs. 
30 min. 








1,20 


27 2 


W-12-M-21 


12" 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; see 
Notes 3, 6, 16, 1 8; No facings. 


80 psi 


5 hrs. 








1,20 


5 


W-12-M-22 


12" 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; see 
Notes 3, 6, 16, 19; No facings. 


80 psi 


3 hrs. 








1,20 


3 


W-12-M-23 


12" 


Core: 8", 70% solid clay or shale struc- 
tural tile; 4" brick facings on one side. 


80 psi 


10 hrs. 








1,20 


10 


W-12-M-24 


12" 


Core: 8", 70% solid clay or shale struc- 
tural tile; 4" brick facings on one side. 


N/A 


1 1 hrs. 








1 


11 


W-12-M-25 


12" 


Core: 8", 40% solid clay or shale struc- 
tural tile; 4" brick facings on one side. 


80 psi 


6 hrs. 








1,20 


6 


W-12-M-26 


12" 


Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 1, 9, 
15, 16, 20; No facings. 


80 psi 


2 hrs. 








1,20 


2 


W-12-M-27 


12" 


Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 2, 
18, 26, 34, 41; No facings. 


80 psi 


5 hrs. 








1,20 


5 


W-12-M-28 


12" 


Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 2, 
19, 26, 31, 41; No facings. 


80 psi 


lhr. 
30 min. 








1,20 


1V 2 


W-12-M-29 


12" 


Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 2, 
18,26, 31, 41; No facings. 


80 psi 


4 hrs. 








1,20 


4 


W-12-M-30 


12" 


Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 3, 
19, 27, 31, 43; No facings. 


80 psi 


2 hrs. 








1,20 


2 


W-12-M-31 


12" 


Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 3, 
18,27, 31, 43; No facings. 


80 psi 


5 hrs. 








1,20 


5 


W-12-M-32 


12" 


Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 2, 
19, 26, 32, 43; No facings. 


80 psi 


25 min. 








1,20 


% 


W-12-M-33 


12" 


Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 2, 
18, 26, 32, 43; No facings. 


80 psi 


25 min. 








1,20 


% 



(continued) 



194 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



RESOURCE A 



TABLE 1.1.6— continued 

MASONRY WALLS 

12" TO LESS THAN 14" THICK 



ITEM CODE 


THICKNESS 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE-BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST-BMS-92 


W-12-M-34 


127/ 


Core: solid clay or shale brick; 7/ of 1:3 
sanded gypsum plaster facings on one side. 


160 
psi 


lOhrs. 




1 




1,44 


10 


W-12-M-35 


12'//' 


Core: solid clay or shale brick; 7/ of 1:3 
sanded gypsum plaster facings on one side. 


N/A 


13hrs. 




I 




1 


13 


W-12-M-36 


127 2 " 


Core: hollow rolok of clay or shale; 7/ of 
1:3 sanded gypsum plaster facings on one 
side. 


160 

psi 


6 hrs. 




1 




1,44 


6 


W-12-M-37 


12'/ 2 " 


Core: hollow rolok bak of clay or shale; 7/ 
of 1:3 sanded gypsum plaster facings on one 
side. 


160 

psi 


10 hrs. 




1 




1,44 


10 


W-12-M-38 


127/ 


Core: concrete; 7," of 1:3 sanded gypsum 
plaster facings on one side. 


160 
psi 


14 hrs. 




1 




1,44 


14 


W-12-M-39 


127," 


Core: sand-lime brick; 7/ of 1:3 sanded 
gypsum plaster facings on one side. 


160 
psi 


10 hrs. 




1 




1,44 


10 


W-12-M-40 


127 2 " 


Core: sand-lime brick; 7," of 1:3 sanded 
gypsum plaster facings on one side. 


N/A 


15 hrs. 




1 




1 


15 


W-12-M-41 


127 2 " 


Cored clay or shale brick; Units in wall 
thickness: 1; Cells in wall thickness: 2; 
Minimum % solids: 70; 7/ of 1:3 sanded 
gypsum plaster facings on one side. 


120 
psi 


6 hrs. 




1 




1,45 


6 


W-12-M-42 


127," 


Cored clay or shale brick; Units in wall 
thickness: 3; Cells in wall thickness: 3; 
Minimum % solids: 87; 7/ of 1:3 sanded 
gypsum plaster facings on one side. 


160 
psi 


10 hrs. 




1 




1,44 


10 


W-12-M-43 


127 2 " 


Cored clay or shale brick; Units in wall 
thickness: 3; Cells in wall thickness: 3; 
Minimum % solids: 87; 7/ of 1:3 sanded 
gypsum plaster facings on one side. 


N/A 


12 hrs. 




1 




1 


12 


W-12-M-44 


127 2 " 


Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 2, 19, 
26, 34, 41; Facings: fire side only; see Note 
38. 


80 psi 


2 hrs. 
30 min. 




1 




1,20 


27 2 


W-12-M-45 


127," 


Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 2, 18, 
26, 34, 39, 41; Facings: one side only; see 
Note 38. 


80 psi 


6 hrs. 




1 




1,20 


6 


W-12-M-46 


127/ 


Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 2, 19, 
26, 31, 41; Facings: fire side only; see Note 
38. 


80 psi 


2 hrs. 




1 




1,20 


2 


W-12-M-47 


127/ 


Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 2, 18, 
26, 31, 41; Facings: one side of wall only; 

see Note 38. 


80 psi 


5 hrs. 




1 




1,20 


5 


W-12-M-48 


127/ 


Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 3, 19, 
27, 31, 43; Facings: fire side only; see Note 
38. 


80 psi 


2 hrs. 
30 min. 




1 




1,20 


27 2 


W-12-M-49 


127/ 


Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 3, 18, 
27, 31, 43; Facings: one side only; see Note 
38. 


80 psi 


6 hrs. 




1 




1,20 


6 


W-12-M-50 


127," 


Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 2, 19, 
26, 32, 43; Facings: fire side only; see Note 
38. 


80 psi 


2 hrs. 
30 min. 




1 




1,20 


27 2 



(continued) 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



195 



RESOURCE A 



TABLE 1.1.6— continued 

MASONRY WALLS 

12" TO LESS THAN 14" THICK 



ITEM CODE 


THICKNESS 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE-BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST- 
BMS-92 


W-12-M-51 


127 2 " 


Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 2, 18, 
26, 32, 43; Facings: one side only; see Note 
38. 


80psi 


25 min. 








1,20 


% 


W-12-M-52 


12%" 


Clay or shale structural tile; see Notes 2, 6, 
9, 18; Facings: side 1, see Note 17; side 2, 
none. 


80psi 


3 hrs. 
30 min. 








1,20 


3% 


W-12-M-53 


12%" 


Clay or shale structural tile; see Notes 2, 6, 
9, 19; Facings: fire side only; see Note 17. 


80psi 


3 hrs. 








1,20 


3 


W-12-M-54 


12%" 


Clay or shale structural tile; see Notes 2, 6, 
14, 19; Facings: side 1, see Note 17; side 2, 
none. 


80psi 


4 hrs. 








1,20 


4 


W-12-M-55 


12%" 


Clay or shale structural tile; see Notes 2, 6, 
14, 18; Facings: exposed side only; see Note 
17. 


80psi 


3 hrs. 
30 min. 








1,20 


3% 


W-12-M-56 


12%" 


Clay or shale structural tile; see Notes 2, 4, 
13, 18; Facings: side 1, see Note 17; side 2, 
none. 


80psi 


4 hrs. 








1,20 


4 


W-12-M-57 


12%" 


Clay or shale structural tile; see Notes 1 , 4, 
13, 19; Facings: fire side only; see Note 17. 


80psi 


4 hrs. 








1,20 


4 


W-12-M-58 


12%" 


Clay or shale structural tile; see Notes 3, 6, 
9, 18; Facings: side 1, see Note 17; side 2, 
none. 


80psi 


4 hrs. 








1,20 


4 


W-12-M-59 


12%" 


Clay or shale structural tile; see Notes 3, 6, 
9, 19; Facings: fire side only; see Note 17. 


80psi 


3 hrs. 








1,20 


3 


W-12-M-60 


12%" 


Clay or shale structural tile; see Notes 3, 6, 
14, 18; Facings: side 1, see Note 17; side 2, 
none. 


80psi 


5 hrs. 








1,20 


5 


W-12-M-61 


12%" 


Clay or shale structural tile; see Notes 3, 6, 
14, 19; Facings: fire side only; see Note 17. 


80psi 


3 hrs. 
30 min. 








1,20 


3% 


W-12-M-62 


12%" 


Clay or shale structural tile; see Notes 3, 6, 
16, 18; Facings: side 1, see Note 17; side 2, 
none. 


80psi 


6 hrs. 








1,20 


6 


W-12-M-63 


12%" 


Clay or shale structural tile; see Notes 3, 6, 
16, 19; Facings: fire side only; see Note 17. 


80psi 


4 hrs. 








1,20 


4 


W-12-M-64 


12%" 


Core: 8", 40% solid clay or shale structural 
tile; Facings: 4" brick plus %" of 1 :3 sanded 
gypsum plaster on one side. 


80psi 


7 hrs. 








1,20 


7 


W-13-M-65 


13" 


Core: solid clay or shale brick; V 2 " of 1:3 
sanded gypsum plaster facings on both sides. 


160 psi 


12 hrs. 








1,44 


12 


W-13-M-66 


13" 


Core: solid clay or shale brick; V 2 " of 1:3 
sanded gypsum plaster facings on both sides. 


N/A 


15 hrs. 








1,20 


15 


W-13-M-67 


13" 


Core: solid clay or shale brick; '/," of 1:3 
sanded gypsum plaster facings on both sides. 


N/A 


15 hrs. 








1 


15 


W-13-M-68 


13" 


Core: hollow rolok of clay or shale; V," of 
1:3 sanded gypsum plaster facings on both 
sides. 


80 psi 


7 hrs. 








1,20 


7 


W-13-M-69 


13" 


Core: concrete brick; '/," of 1:3 sanded gyp- 
sum plaster facings on both sides. 


160 psi 


16 hrs. 








1,44 


16 



(continued) 



196 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



RESOURCE A 



TABLE 1.1.6— continued 

MASONRY WALLS 
12" TO LESS THAN 14" THICK 



ITEM CODE 


THICKNESS 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 

HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE-BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST-BMS-92 


W-13-M-70 


13" 


Core: sand-lime brick; 7 2 " of 1:3 sanded 
gypsum plaster facings on both sides. 


160 
psi 


12 firs. 




1 




1,44 


12 


W-13-M-71 


13" 


Core: sand-lime brick; 7/ of 1:3 sanded 
gypsum plaster facings on both sides. 


N/A 


17 hrs. 




1 




1 


17 


W-13-M-72 


13" 


Cored clay or shale brick; Units in wall 
thickness: 1; Cells in wall thickness: 2; 
Minimum % solids: 70; 7," of 1:3 sanded 
gypsum plaster facings on both sides. 


120 
psi 


7 hrs. 




1 




1,45 


7 


W-13-M-73 


13" 


Cored clay or shale brick; Units in wall 
thickness: 3; Cells in wall thickness: 3; 
Minimum % solids: 87; 7 2 " of 1:3 sanded 
gypsum plaster facings on both sides. 


160 
psi 


12 hrs. 




1 




1,44 


12 


W-13-M-74 


13" 


Cored clay or shale brick; Units in wall 
thickness: 3; Cells in wall thickness: 2; 
Minimum % solids: 87; 7," of 1:3 sanded 
gypsum plaster facings on both sides. 


N/A 


14 hrs. 




1 




1 


14 


W-13-M-75 


13" 


Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 18, 23, 
28, 39, 41; No facings. 


80 psi 


7 hrs. 




1 




1,20 


7 


W-13-M-76 


13" 


Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 19, 23, 
28, 39, 41 ; No facings. 


80 psi 


4 hrs. 




1 




1,20 


4 


W-13-M-77 


13" 


Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 3, 18, 
27, 31, 43; Facings: both sides; see Note 38. 


80 psi 


6 hrs. 




1 




1,20 


6 


W-13-M-78 


13" 


Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 2, 18, 
26, 31,41; Facings: both sides; see Note 38. 


80 psi 


6 hrs. 




1 




1,20 


6 


W-13-M-79 


13" 


Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 2, 18, 
26, 34, 41; Facings: both sides of wall; see 
Note 38. 


80 psi 


7 hrs. 




1 




1,20 


7 


W-13-M-80 


137/ 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; see Notes 
2, 6, 9, 18; Facings: both sides; see Note 17. 


80 psi 


4 hrs. 




1 




1,20 


4 


W-13-M-82 


137 4 " 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; see Notes 
2, 4, 13, 18; Facings: both sides; see Note 17. 


80 psi 


6 hrs. 




1 




1,20 


6 


W-13-M-83 


B'V 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; see Notes 
3, 6, 9, 18; Facings: both sides; see Note 17. 


80 psi 


6 hrs. 




1 




1,20 


6 


W-13-M-84 


13 7 4 " 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; see Notes 
3,6, 14, 18; Facings: both sides; see Note 17. 


80 psi 


6 hrs. 




1 




1,20 


6 


W-13-M-85 


137/ 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; see Notes 
3, 6, 16, 18; Facings: both sides; see Note 17. 


80 psi 


7 hrs. 




1 




1,20 


7 



(continued) 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



197 



RESOURCE A 



TABLE 1.1.6— continued 

MASONRY WALLS 

12" TO LESS THAN 14" THICK 



ITEM CODE 


THICKNESS 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE-BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST-BMS-92 


W-13-M-86 


137/ 


Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 18, 23, 
28, 39, 41; Facings: one side only; see Note 
38. 


80psi 


8hrs. 




1 




1,20 


8 


W-13-M-87 


137/ 


Cored concrete masonry; see Notes 19, 23, 
28, 39, 41; Facings: fire side only; see Note 
38. 


80psi 


5 hrs. 




1 




1,20 


5 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 0.00689 MPa. 
Notes: 

1. Tested at NBS - ASA Spec. No. A2-1934. 

2. One unit in wall thickness. 

3. Two units in wall thickness. 

4. Two or three units in wall thickness. 

5. Two cells in wall thickness. 

6. Three or four cells in wall thickness. 

7. Four or five cells in wall thickness. 



8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 

12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 



Five or six cells in wall thickness. 
Minimum percent of solid materials in units = 40%. 
Minimum percent of solid materials in units = 43%. 
Minimum percent of solid materials in units = 46%. 
Minimum percent of solid materials in units = 48%. 
Minimum percent of solid materials in units = 49%. 



Minimum percent of solid materials in units = 45%. 
Minimum percent of solid materials in units = 51%. 

16. Minimum percent of solid materials in units = 53%. 

17. Not less than % inch thickness of 1 :3 sanded gypsum plaster. 

18. Noncombustible or no members framed into wall. 

19. Combustible members framed into wall. 

20. Load: 80 psi for gross area. 

21. Portland cement-lime mortar. 

22. Failure mode-thermal. 

23. British test. 

24. Passed all criteria. 

25. Failed by sudden collapse with no preceding signs of impending failure. 

26. One ceil in wall thickness. 

27. Two cells in wall thickness. 

28. Three cells in wall thickness. 

29. Minimum percent of solid material in concrete units = 52%. 

30. Minimum percent of solid material in concrete units = 54%. 

3 1 . Minimum percent of solid material in concrete units = 55%. 

32. Minimum percent of solid material in concrete units = 57%. 

33. Minimum percent of solid material in concrete units = 60%. 

34. Minimum percent of solid material in concrete units = 62%. 

35. Minimum percent of solid material in concrete units = 65%. 

36. Minimum percent of solid material in concrete units = 70%. 

37. Minimum percent of solid material in concrete units = 76%. 

38. Not less than '/, inch of 1 :3 sanded gypsum plaster. 

39. Three units in wall thickness. 

40. Concrete units made with expanded slag or pumice aggregates. 

41 . Concrete units made with expanded burned clay or shale, crushed limestone, air cooled slag or cinders. 

42. Concrete units made with calcareous sand and gravel. Coarse aggregate, 60 percent or more calcite and dolomite. 

43. Concrete units made with siliceous sand and gravel. Ninety percent or more quartz, chert or flint. 

44. Load: 160 psi of gross wall cross sectional area. 

45. Load: 120 psi of gross wall cross sectional area. 



198 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



FIGURE 1.1.7 

MASONRY WALLS 

14" OR MORE THICK 



RESOURCE A 



NUMBER OF 
ASSEMBLIES 



10- 



The number in each box is 
keyed to the last number in the 
Item Code column in the Table. 

For example: 

W-17-M^28) 



1 1 I \ 

5 6 7 8 

FIRE RESISTANCE RATING (HOURS) 




TABLE 1.1.7 

MASONRY WALLS 

14" OR MORE THICK 



ITEM CODE 


THICKNESS 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE- 
BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST-BMS-92 


W-14-M-1 


14" 


Core: cored masonry; see Notes 18, 28, 33, 
39, 41 ; Facings: both sides; see Note 38. 


80psi 


9hrs. 








1,20 


9 


W-I6-M-2 


16" 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; see Notes 
4, 7, 9, 19; No facings. 


80psi 


5hrs. 








1,20 


5 


W-16-M-3 


16" 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; see Notes 
4,7,9, 19; No facings. 


80psi 


4 hrs. 








1,20 


4 


W-16-M-4 


16" 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; see Notes 
4,7, 10, 18; No facings. 


80 psi 


6hrs. 








1,20 


6 


W-16-M-5 


16" 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; see Notes 
4,7, 10, 19; No facings. 


80psi 


4 hrs. 








1,20 


4 


W-16-M-6 


16" 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; see Notes 
4,7, 11, 1 8; No facings. 


80 psi 


7 hrs. 








1,20 


7 


W-16-M-7 


16" 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; see Notes 
4, 7, 11, 19; No facings. 


80 psi 


5 hrs. 








1,20 


5 


W-16-M-8 


16" 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; see Notes 
4,8, 13, 18; No facings. 


80 psi 


8 hrs. 








1,20 


8 


W-16-M-9 


16" 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; see Notes 
4, 8, 13, 19; No facings. 


80 psi 


5 hrs. 








1,20 


5 



(continued) 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



199 



RESOURCE A 



TABLE 1.1.7— continued 

MASONRY WALLS 

14" OR MORE THICK 



ITEM CODE 


THICKNESS 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE- 
BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST-BMS-92 


W-16-M-10 


16" 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; see Notes 
4, 8, 15, 18; No facings. 


80psi 


9hrs. 








1,20 


9 


W-16-M-11 


16" 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; see Notes 
3,7, 14, 18; No facings. 


80psi 


6hrs. 








1,20 


6 


W-16-M-12 


16" 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; see Notes 
4, 8, 16, 18; No facings. 


80psi 


10 hrs. 








1,20 


10 


W-16-M-13 


16" 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; see Notes 
4,6, 16, 19; No facings. 


80psi 


7 hrs. 








1,20 


7 


W-16-M-14 


16%" 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; see Notes 
4, 7, 9, 18; Facings: side 1, see Note 17; side 
2, none. 


80psi 


6 hrs. 








1,20 


6 


W-16-M-15 


16%" 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; see Notes 
4, 7, 9, 19; Facings: fire side only; see Note 
17. 


80psi 


5 hrs. 








1,20 


5 


W-16-M-16 


16%" 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; see Notes 
4, 7, 10, 18; Facings: side 1, see Note 17; 
side 2, none. 


80psi 


7 hrs. 








1,20 


7 


W-16-M-17 


16%" 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; see Notes 
4, 7, 10, 19; Facings: fire side only; see Note 
17. 


80psi 


5 hrs. 








1,20 


5 


W-16-M-I8 


16%" 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; see Notes 
4, 7, 11, 18; Facings: side 1, see Note 17; 
side 2, none. 


80psi 


5 hrs. 








1,20 


5 


W-16-M-19 


16%" 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; see Notes 
4, 7, 11, 19; Facings: fire side only; see Note 
17. 


80psi 


6 hrs. 








1,20 


6 


W-16-M-20 


16%" 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; see Notes 
4, 8, 13, 18; Facings: sides 1 and 2; see Note 
17. 


80 psi 


11 hrs. 








1,20 


11 


W-16-M-21 


16%" 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; see Notes 
4, 8, 13 18; Facings: side 1, see Note 17; side 
2, none. 


80psi 


9 hrs. 








1,20 


9 


W-16-M-22 


16%" 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; see Notes 
4, 8, 13, 19; Facings: fire side only; see Note 
17. 


80 psi 


6 hrs. 








1, 20 


6 


W-16-M-23 


16%" 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; see Notes 
4, 8, 15, 18; Facings: side 1, see Note 17; 
side 2, none. 


80 psi 


10 hrs. 








1,20 


10 


W-16-M-24 


16%" 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; see Notes 
4, 8, 15, 19; Facings: fire side only; see Note 
17. 


80 psi 


7 hrs. 








1,20 


7 


W-16-M-25 


16%" 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; see Notes 
4, 6, 16, 18; Facings: side 1, see Note 17: 
side 2, none. 


80 psi 


11 hrs. 








1,20 


11 


W-16-M-26 


16 5 / s " 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; see Notes 
4, 6, 16, 19; Facings: fire side only; see Note 
17. 


80 psi 


8 hrs. 








1,20 


8 



(continued) 



200 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



RESOURCE A 



TABLE 1.1.7— continued 

MASONRY WALLS 

14" OR MORE THICK 



ITEM CODE 


THICKNESS 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE-BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST-BMS-92 


W-17-M-27 


177 4 " 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; see 
Notes 4, 7, 9, 18; Facings: sides 1 and 2; 
see Note 17. 


80psi 


8hrs. 




1 




1,20 


8 


W-17-M-28 


177 4 " 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; see 
Notes 4, 7. 10, 18; Facings: sides 1 and 
2; see Note 17. 


80psi 


9hrs. 




1 




1,20 


9 


W-17-M-29 


177 4 " 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; see 
Notes 4, 7, 11, 18; Facings: sides 1 and 
2; see Note 17. 


80psi 


lOhrs. 




1 




1,20 


10 


W-17-M-30 


177 4 " 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; see 
Notes 4, 8, 15, 18; Facings: sides 1 and 
2; see Note 17. 


80psi 


12hrs. 




1 




1,20 


12 


W-17-M-31 


177/' 


Core: clay or shale structural tile; see 
Notes 4, 6, 16, 18; Facings: sides 1 and 
2; see Note 17. 


80psi 


13 hrs. 




1 




1,20 


13 



- 25 A mm, 1 pound per square inch = 0.00689 MPa. 



For SI: 1 inch 
Notes: 

1 Tested at NBS - ASA Spec. No. A2-1934. 

2. One unit in wall thickness. 

3. Two units in wall thickness. 

4. Two or three units in wall thickness. 

5. Two cells in wall thickness. 

6. Three or four cells in wall thickness. 

7. Four or five cells in wall thickness. 

8. Five or six cells in wall thickness. 

9. Minimum percent of solid materials in units = 

10. Minimum percent of solid materials in units = 

11. Minimum percent of solid materials in units = 

12. Minimum percent of solid materials in units = 

13. Minimum percent of solid materials in units = 

14. Minimum percent of solid materials in units = 

15. Minimum percent of solid materials in units : 
Minimum percent of solid materials in units = 



40%. 
43%. 
46%. 
48%. 
49%. 
45%. 
51%. 
53%. 



16. 

17. Not less than 7 g inch thickness of 1 :3 sanded gypsum plaster. 

18. Noncombustible or no members framed into wall. 

19. Combustible members framed into wall. 

20. Load: 80 psi for gross area. 

21. Portland cement-lime mortar. 

22. Failure mode — thermal. 

23. British test. 

24. Passed all criteria. 

25. Failed by sudden collapse with no preceding signs of impending failure. 

26. One cell in wall thickness. 

27. Two cells in wall thickness. 

28. Three cells in wall thickness. 

29. Minimum percent of solid material in concrete units = 52%. 

30. Minimum percent of solid material in concrete units = 54%. 

31. Minimum percent of solid material in concrete units = 55%. 

32. Minimum percent of solid material in concrete units = 57%. 

33. Minimum percent of solid material in concrete units = 60%. 

34. Minimum percent of solid material in concrete units = 62%. 

35. Minimum percent of solid material in concrete units = 65%. 

36. Minimum percent of solid material in concrete units = 70%. 

37. Minimum percent of solid material in concrete units = 76%. 

38. Not less than 7 2 inch of 1 :3 sanded gypsum plaster. 

39. Three units in wall thickness. 

40. Concrete units made with expanded slag or pumice aggregates. 

4 1 . Concrete units made with expanded burned clay or shale, crushed limestone, air cooled slag or cinders. 

42. Concrete units made with calcareous sand and gravel. Coarse aggregate, 60 percent or more calcite and dolomite. 

43. Concrete units made with siliceous sand and gravel. Ninety percent or more quartz, chert or flint. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



201 



RESOURCE A 



NUMBER OF 
ASSEMBLIES 



FIGURE 1.2.1 

METAL FRAME WALLS 

0" TO LESS THAN 4" THICK 



The number in each box is 
keyed to the last number in the 
Item Code column in the Table. 




2 3 

FIRE RESISTANCE RATING (HOURS) 



TABLE 1.2.1 
METAL FRAME WALLS 

0" TO LESS THAN 4" THICK 



ITEM CODE 


THICKNESS 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE-BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST-BMS- 
92 


W-3-Me-l 


3" 


Core: steel channels having three rows of 
4" x 7 S " staggered slots in web; core filled 
with heat expanded vermiculite weighing 
1.5 lbs./ft. 2 of wall area; Facings: sides 1 and 
2, 18 gage steel, spot welded to core. 


N/A 


25 min. 




1 






% 


W-3-Me-2 


3" 


Core: steel channels having three rows of 
4" x V s " staggered slots in web; core filled 
with heat expanded vermiculite weighing 2 
lbs./ft. 2 of wall area; Facings: sides 1 and 2, 
1 8 gage steel, spot welded to core. 


N/A 


30 min. 




1 






% 


W-3-Me-3 


27," 


Solid partition: 3 / s " tension rods (vertical) 
3' o.c. with metal lath; Scratch coat: cement/ 
sand/lime plaster; Float coats: cement/sand/ 
lime plaster; Finish coats: neat gypsum 
plaster. 


N/A 


1 hr. 






7 


1 


1 


W-2-Me-4 


2" 


Solid wall: steel channel per Note 1; 

2" thickness of 1:2; 1:3 portland cement on 

metal lath. 


N/A 


30 min. 




1 






% 



(continued) 



202 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



RESOURCE A 



TABLE 1.2.1— continued 

METAL FRAME WALLS 

0" TO LESS THAN 4" THICK 



ITEM CODE 


THICKNESS 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE-BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST-BMS- 
92 


W-2-Me-5 


2" 


Solid wall: steel channel per Note 1; 2" 
thickness of neat gypsum plaster on metal 
lath. 


N/A 


Ihr. 

45 min. 




1 






i-v 4 


W-2-Me-6 


2" 


Solid wall: steel channel per Note 1; 2" 
thickness of 1:17,; 1:17, gypsum plaster on 
metal lath. 


N/A 


Ihr. 
30 min. 




1 






l'/ 2 


W-2-Me-7 


2" 


Solid wall: steel channel per Note 2; 2" 
thickness of 1:1; 1:1 gypsum plaster on 
metal lath. 


N/A 


Ihr. 




1 






1 


W-2-Me-8 


2" 


Solid wall: steel channel per Note 1; 2" 
thickness of 1:2; 1:2 gypsum plaster on 
metal lath. 


N/A 


45 min. 




1 






3 / 4 


W-2-Me-9 


27/' 


Solid wall: steel channel per Note 2; 27 4 " 
thickness of 1:2; 1:3 portland cement on 
metal lath. 


N/A 


30 min. 




1 






''l 


W-2-Me-10 


27 4 " 


Solid wall: steel channel per Note 2; 27 4 " 
thickness of neat gypsum plaster on metal 
lath. 


N/A 


2 hrs. 




1 






2 


W-2-Me-ll 


27 4 " 


Solid wall: steel channel per Note 2; 

2 7 4 "thickness of 1:7 2 ; 1:7 2 gypsum plaster 

on metal lath. 


N/A 


Ihr. 
45 min. 




1 






l 3 /4 


W-2-Me-12 


27 4 " 


Solid wall: steel channel per Note 2; 27 4 " 
thickness of 1:1; 1:1 gypsum plaster on 
metal lath. 


N/A 


Ihr. 
15 min. 




1 






i'/ 4 


W-2-Me-13 


27 4 " 


Solid wall: steel channel per Note 2; 27 4 " 
thickness of 1:2; 1:2 gypsum plaster on 
metal lath. 


N/A 


Ihr. 




1 






1 


W-2-Me-14 


27 2 " 


Solid wall: steel channel per Note 1; 27," 
thickness of 4.5:1:7; 4.5:1:7 portland 
cement, sawdust and sand sprayed on wire 
mesh; see Note 3. 


N/A 


Ihr. 




1 






1 


W-2-Me-15 


27 2 " 


Solid wall: steel channel per Note 2; 27," 
thickness of 1:4; 1:4 portland cement 
sprayed on wire mesh; see Note 3. 


N/A 


20 min. 




1 






% 


W-2-Me-16 


27 2 " 


Solid wall: steel channel per Note 2; 27," 
thickness of 1:2; 1:3 portland cement on 
metal lath. 


N/A 


30 min. 




1 






% 


W-2-Me-17 


27 2 " 


Solid wall: steel channel per Note 2; 27 2 " 
thickness of neat gypsum plaster on metal 
lath. 


N/A 


2 hrs. 
30 min. 




1 






27 2 


W-2-Me-18 


27 2 " 


Solid wall: steel channel per Note 2; 27," 
thickness of 1:7,; 1:7, gypsum plaster on 
metal lath. 


N/A 


2 hrs. 




1 






2 


W-2-Me-19 


27," 


Solid wall: steel channel per Note 2; 27 2 " 
thickness of 1:1; 1:1 gypsum plaster on 
metal lath. 


N/A 


Ihr. 
30 min. 




1 






17 2 



(continued) 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



203 



RESOURCE A 



TABLE 1.2.1— continued 

METAL FRAME WALLS 

0" TO LESS THAN 4" THICK 



ITEM CODE 


THICKNESS 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE-BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST-BMS-92 


W-2-Me-20 


27," 


Solid wall: steel channel per Note 2; 27/ 
thickness of 1:2; 1:2 gypsum plaster on 
metal lath. 


N/A 


lhr. 




1 






1 


W-2-Me-21 


2V 2 " 


Solid wall: steel channel per Note 2; 2 7/ 
thickness of 1:2; 1:3 gypsum plaster on 
metal lath. 


N/A 


Ihr. 




1 






1 


W-3-Me-22 


3" 


Core: steel channel per Note 2; 1:2; 1:2 
gypsum plaster on 3 / 4 " soft asbestos lath; 
plaster thickness 2". 


N/A 


45 min. 




1 






% 


W-3-Me-23 


37/ 


Solid wall: steel channel per Note 2; 27/ 
thickness of 1:2; 1:2 gypsum plaster on V," 
asbestos lath. 


N/A 


Ihr. 




1 






1 


W-3-Me-24 


37/ 


Solid wall: steel channel per Note 2; lath 
over and 1:27 2 ; 1:27, gypsum plaster on 1" 
magnesium oxysulfate wood fiberboard; 
plaster thickness 27/. 


N/A 


lhr. 




1 






1 


W-3-Me-25 


37 2 " 


Core: steel studs; see Note 4; Facings: 3 / 4 " 
thickness of 1:7 30 :2; 1:7 30 : 3 portland cement 
and asbestos fiber plaster. 


N/A 


45 min. 




1 






X 


W-3-Me-26 


37 2 " 


Core: steel studs; see Note 4; Facings: both 
sides 3 / 4 " thickness of 1:2; 1:3 portland 
cement. 


N/A 


30 min. 




1 






7 2 


W-3-Me-27 


37," 


Core: steel studs; see Note 4; Facings: both 
sides 3 / 4 " thickness of neat gypsum plaster. 


N/A 


1 hr. 30 
min. 




1 






l'/ 2 


W-3-Me-28 


37 2 " 


Core: steel studs; see Note 4; Facings: both 
sides 3 / 4 " thickness of 1:7 2 ; 1:7 2 gypsum 
plaster. 


N/A 


lhr. 15 
min. 




1 






l'/ 4 


W-3-Me-29 


37 2 " 


Core: steel studs; see Note 4; Facings: both 
sides 7/ thickness of 1:2; 1:2 gypsum plas- 
ter. 


N/A 


lhr. 




1 






1 


W-3-Me-30 


37/ 


Core: steel studs; see Note 4; Facings: both 
sides 3 / 4 " thickness of 1:2; 1:3 gypsum 
plaster. 


N/A 


45 min. 




1 






% 


W-3-Me-31 


3 3 // 


Core: steel studs; see Note 4; Facings: both 
sides 7 / g " thickness of 1:7 30 : 2; 1:7 30 : 3 
portland cement and asbestos fiber plaster. 


N/A 


lhr. 




1 






1 


W-3-Me-32 


3V 4 " 


Core: steel studs; see Note 4; Facings: both 
sides 7 / g " thickness of 1:2; 1:3 portland 
cement. 


N/A 


45 min. 




1 






% 


W-3-Me-33 


3 3 // 


Core: steel studs; see Note 4; Facings: both 
sides 7 / 8 " thickness of neat gypsum plaster. 


N/A 


2hrs. 




1 






2 


W-3-Me-34 


3 3 / 4 " 


Core: steel studs; see Note 4; Facings: both 
sides 7 / 8 " thickness of 1:7 2 ; 1:7 2 gypsum 
plaster. 


N/A 


1 hr. 30 
min. 




1 






17 2 



(continued) 



204 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



RESOURCE A 



TABLE 1.2.1— continued 

METAL FRAME WALLS 

0" TO LESS THAN 4" THICK 



ITEM CODE 


THICKNESS 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE-BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST-BMS-92 


W-3-Me-35 


37/' 


Core: steel studs; see Note 4; Facings: both 
sides 7 / 8 " thickness of 1 :2; 1:2 gypsum plas- 
ter. 


N/A 


1 hr. 
15 min. 




1 






iv 4 


W-3-Me-36 


3 3 // 


Core: steel; see Note 4; Facings: '//'thick- 
ness of 1:2; 1:3 gypsum plaster on both 
sides. 


N/A 


lhr. 




1 






1 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 
Notes: 

1. Failure mode — local temperature rise — back face. 

2. Three-fourths inch or 1 inch channel framing— hot-rolled or strip-steel channels. 

3. Reinforcement is 4-inch square mesh of No. 6 wire welded at intersections (no channels). 

4. Ratings are for any usual type of nonload-bearing metal framing providing 2 inches (or more) air space. 
General Note: 

The construction details of die wall assemblies are as complete as the source documentation will permit. Data on the method of attachment of facings and the 
gauge of steel studs was provided when known. The cross-sectional area of the steel stud can be computed, thereby permitting a reasoned estimate of actual 
loading conditions. For load-bearing assemblies, the maximum allowable stress for the steel studs has been provided in the table "Notes." More often, it is the 
thermal properties of the facing materials, rather than the specific gauge of the steel, that will determine the degree of fire resistance. This is particularly true for 
nonbearing wall assemblies. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



205 



RESOURCE A 



FIGURE 1.2.2 

METAL FRAME WALLS 

4" TO LESS THAN 6" THICK 



NUMBER OF 
ASSEMBLIES 

A 



10- 



5- 



The number in each box is 
keyed to the last number in the 
Item Code column in the Table. 

For example: 



6 



10 

3 



11 

2 




2 3 

FIRE RESISTANCE RATING (HOURS) 

TABLE 1.2.2 
METAL FRAME WALLS 

4" TO LESS THAN 6" THICK 



ITEM CODE 



W-5-Me-l 



W-4-Me-2 



W-4-Me-3 



W-4-Me-4 



W-4-Me-5 



THICKNESS 



57," 



4" 



4V' 



CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 



3" cavity with 16 ga. channel studs (3'/ 2 " o.c.) 
of 7 2 " x 7 2 " channel and 3" spacer; Metal lath 
on ribs with plaster (three coats) 3 / 4 " over face 
of lath; Plaster (each side): scratch coat, 
cement/lime/sand with hair; float coat, cement/ 
lime/sand; finish coat, neat gypsum. 



Core: steel studs; see Note 2; Facings: both 
sides 1" thickness of neat gypsum plaster. 



Core: steel studs; see Note 2; Facings: both 
sides 1 "thickness of 1:7,,; 1:7 2 gypsum plaster. 



Core: steel; see Note 2; Facings: both sides 1' 
thickness of 1:2; 1:3 gypsum plaster. 



Core: lightweight steel studs 3" in depth; Fac- 
ings: both sides 3 / 4 " thick sanded gypsum plas- 
ter, 1 :2 scratch coat, 1 :3 brown coat applied on 
metal lath. 



PERFORMANC 

E 



LOAD TIME PRE-BMS-92 BMS-92 POST-BMS-92 



N/A 



N/A 



N/A 



N/A 



See 
Note 



REFERENCE NUMBER 



lhr. 
1 1 min 



2 hrs. 
30 min. 



2 his. 



lhr. 
15 min. 



45 min. 



NOTES 



REC. 
HOURS 



27, 



2 

17, 



(continued) 



206 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



RESOURCE A 



TABLE 1.2.2 — continued 

METAL FRAME WALLS 

4" TO LESS THAN 6" THICK 



ITEM CODE 


THICKNESS 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE-BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST-BMS-92 




HOURS 


W-4-Me-6 


47 2 " 


Core: lightweight steel studs 3" in depth; 
Facings: both sides 3 / 4 " thick neat gypsum 
plaster on metal lath. 


See 
Note 4 


lhr. 

30 min. 




1 




5 


IV, 


W-4-Me-7 


4V 2 " 


Core: lightweight steel studs 3" in depth; 
Facings: both sides 3 / 4 " thick sanded 
gypsum plaster, 1:2 scratch and brown coats 
applied on metal lath. 


See 

Note 4 


1 hr. 




1 




5 


1 


W-4-Me-8 


4-V 4 " 


Core: lightweight steel studs 3" in depth; 
Facings: both sides 7 / s " thick sanded 
gypsum plaster, 1 :2 scratch coat, 1:3 brown 
coat, applied on metal lath. 


See 
Note 4 


lhr. 




1 




5 


1 


W-4-Me-9 


4%" 


Core: lightweight steel studs 3" in depth; 
Facings: both sides 7 / 8 " thick sanded 
gypsum plaster, 1:2 scratch and 1:3 brown 
coats applied on metal lath. 


See 
Note 4 


1 hr. 
1 5 min. 




1 




5 


iv 4 


W-5-Me-10 


5" 


Core: lightweight steel studs 3" in depth; 
Facings: both sides 1" thick neat gypsum 
plaster on metal lath. 


See 
Note 4 


2hrs. 




1 




5 


2 


W-5-Me-ll 


5" 


Core: lightweight steel studs 3" in depth; 
Facings: both sides 1" thick neat gypsum 
plaster on metal lath. 


See 
Note 4 


2hrs. 
30 min. 




1 




5,6 


27 2 



For SI 
Notes: 
1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 



1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 0.00689 MPa. 



Failure mode — local back face temperature rise. 

Ratings are for any usual type of nonbearing metal framing providing a minimum 2 inches air space. 

Facing materials secured to lightweight steel studs not less than 3 inches deep. 

Rating based on loading to develop a maximum stress of 7270 psi for net area of each stud. 

Spacing of steel studs must be sufficient to develop adequate rigidity in the metal-lath or gypsum-plaster base. 

As per Note 4 but load/stud not to exceed 5 120 psi. 
General Note: 

The construction details of the wall assemblies are as complete as the source documentation will permit. Data on the method of attachment of facings and the 
gauge of steel studs was provided when known. The cross sectional area of the steel stud can be computed, thereby permitting a reasoned estimate of actual 
loading conditions. For load-bearing assemblies, the maximum allowable stress for the steel studs has been provided in the table "Notes." More often, it is the 
thermal properties of the facing materials, rather than the specific gauge of the steel, that will determine the degree of fire resistance. This is particularly true for 
nonbearing wall assemblies. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



207 



RESOURCE A 



TABLE 1.2.3 

METAL FRAME WALLS 
6" TO LESS THAN 8" THICK 



ITEM CODE 


THICKNESS 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE-BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST-BMS-92 


W-6-Me-l 


6%" 


On one side of I" magnesium oxysulfate 
wood fiberboard sheathing attached to steel 
studs (see Notes 1 and 2), 1" air space, 3 3 / 4 " 
brick secured with metal ties to steel frame 
every fifth course; Inside facing of 7 / 8 " 1:2 
sanded gypsum plaster on metal lath secured 
directly to studs; Plaster side exposed to fire. 


See 

Note 2 


lhr. 
45 min. 




1 




1 


1% 


W-6-Me-2 


6%" 


On one side of 1" magnesium oxysulfate 
wood fiberboard sheathing attached to steel 
studs (see Notes 1 and 2), 1" air space, 3 3 / 4 " 
brick secured with metal ties to steel frame 
every fifth course; Inside facing of 7 / 8 " 1:2 
sanded gypsum plaster on metal lath secured 
directly to studs; Brick face exposed to fire. 


See 
Note 2 


4hrs. 




1 




1 


4 


W-6-Me-3 


6%" 


On one side of 1" magnesium oxysulfate 
wood fiberboard sheathing attached to steel 
studs (see Notes 1 and 2), 1" air space, 3 3 / 4 " 
brick secured with metal ties to steel frame 
every fifth course; Inside facing of 7 / 8 " ver- 
miculite plaster on metal lath secured 
directly to studs; Plaster side exposed to fire. 


See 
Note 2 


2 hrs. 




1 




1 


2 



, spacing is to be such that adequate rigidity is 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 0.00689 MPa. 
Notes: 

1. Lightweight steel studs (minimum 3 inches deep) used. Stud spacing dependent on loading, but in each case, 
provided to the metal lath plaster base. 

2. Load is such that stress developed in studs is not greater than 5 1 20 psi calculated from net stud area. 
General Note: 

The construction details of the wall assemblies are as complete as the source documentation will permit. Data on the method of attachment of facings and the 
gauge of steel studs was provided when known. The cross sectional area of the steel stud can be computed, thereby permitting a reasoned estimate of actual 
loading conditions. For load-bearing assemblies, the maximum allowable stress for the steel studs has been provided in the table "Notes." More often, it is the 
thermal properties of the facing materials, rather than the specific gauge of the steel, that will determine the degree of fire resistance. This is particularly true for 
nonbearing wall assemblies. 



208 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



RESOURCE A 



TABLE 1.2.4 

METAL FRAME WALLS 

8" TO LESS THAN 10" THICK 



ITEM CODE 


THICKNESS 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE-BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST-BMS-92 


W-9-Mc-l 


97 " 

y '16 


On one side of 7," wood fiberboard sheathing 
next to studs, 3 / 4 " air space formed with : 7 4 " x 
l 5 / g " wood strips placed over the fiberboard 
and secured to the studs, paper backed wire 
lath nailed to strips 3 3 / 4 " brick veneer held in 
place by filling a 3 / 4 " space between the brick 
and paper backed lath with mortar; Inside fac- 
ing of -V/' neat gypsum plaster on metal lath 
attached to 5 / l6 " plywood strips secured to 
edges of steel studs; Rated as combustible 
because of the sheathing; See Notes 1 and 2; 
Plaster exposed. 


See 
Note 2 


1 hr. 
45 min. 




1 




1 


l 3 / 4 


W-9-Me-2 


9'/ " 

' '16 


Same as above with brick exposed. 


See 
Note 2 


4hrs. 




1 




1 


4 


W-8-Me-3 


87," 


On one side of paper backed wire lath attached 
to studs and 3 3 / 4 " brick veneer held in place by 
filling a 1" space between the brick and lath 
with mortar; Inside facing of 1" paper- 
enclosed mineral wool blanket weighing 0.6 
lb./ft. 2 attached to studs, metal lath or paper 
backed wire lath laid over the blanket and 
attached to the studs, V 4 " sanded gypsum plas- 
ter 1:2 for the scratch coat and 1:3 for the 
brown coat; See Notes 1 and 2; Plaster face 
exposed. 


See 
Note 2 


4 hrs. 




1 




1 


4 


W-8-Me-4 


87," 


Same as above with brick exposed. 


See 
Note 2 


5 hrs. 




1 




1 


5 



For SI: I inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 0.00689 MPa. 
Notes: 

1 . Lightweight steel studs > 3 inches in depth. Stud spacing dependent on loading, but in any case, the spacing is to be such that adequate rigidity is provided to 
the metal-lath plaster base. 

2. Load is such that stress developed in studs is < 5 1 20 psi calculated from the net area of the stud. 
General Note: 

The construction details of the wall assemblies are as complete as the source documentation will permit. Data on the method of attachment of facings and the 
gauge of steel studs was provided when known. The cross sectional area of the steel stud can be computed, thereby permitting a reasoned estimate of actual 
loading conditions. For load-bearing assemblies, the maximum allowable stress for the steel studs has been provided in the table "Notes." More often, it is the 
thermal properties of the facing materials, rather than the specific gauge of the steel, that will determine the degree of fire resistance. This is particularly true for 
nonbearing wall assemblies. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



209 



RESOURCE A 



TABLE 1.3.1 

WOOD FRAME WALLS 

0" TO LESS THAN 4" THICK 



ITEM CODE 


THICKNESS 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE-BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST-BMS-92 


W-3-W-1 


3V 


Solid wall: 2'/ 4 " wood-wool slab core; 3 / 4 " 
gypsum plaster each side. 


N/A 


2hrs. 






7 


1,6 


2 


W-3-W-2 


3%" 


2x4 stud wall; 3 / ]6 " thick cement asbestos 
board on both sides of wall. 


360 psi 
net area 


10 
min. 




1 




2-5 


% 


W-3-W-3 


3 7 //' 


Same as W-3-W-2 but stud cavities filled 
with I lb./ft. 2 mineral wool batts. 


360 psi 
net area 


40 
min. 




1 




2-5 


% 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 0.00689 MPa. 
Notes: 

1 . Achieved "Grade C" Fire resistance (British). 

2. Nominal 2x4 wood studs of No. 1 common or better lumber set edgewise, 2x4 plates at top and bottom and blocking at mid height of wall. 

3. All horizontal joints in facing material backed by 2 x 4 blocking in wall. 

4. Load: 360 psi of net stud cross sectional area. 

5. Facings secured with 6d casing nails. Nail holes predrilled and 0.02 inch to 0.03 inch smaller than nail diameter. 

6. The wood-wool core is a pressed excelsior slab which possesses insulating properties similar to cellulosic insulation. 



210 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



RESOURCE A 



FIGURE 1.3.2 

WOOD FRAME WALLS 

4" TO LESS THAN 6" THICK 



NUMBER OF 
ASSEMBLIES 



30- 



20" 



10- 



„37_ 
.2- 



33 
_J36_ 



_95- 
-83- 

-80- 
_78. 
_fil. 
_59. 

_54 
_51" 
_5Q" 
_42" 
_4Q 
_38 
32" 
"29" 
T6" 
JH" 
J 4 
_T3. 
JO 
__9_ 



94 . 
-32. 

_ai. 
_as. 

B7_ 



85 
84" 

76" 

73" 

"W 

"57" 
56" 

55 



8j6 

_ao_| 
as. 

-.86 J, 

81 
79 
"75 



_49 

-43 . 

-34 

-33" 

_28. 

-26. 

_22. 

-21 

J5. 

-8-. 

JL. 

-6 

I 5 



"52 I IB 



72 

7i ; 

_44j 
-41 
-39_| 
J-35. 

3J 

27 

23 
JL7_ 



The number in each box is 
keyed to the last number in the 
Item Code column in the Table. 

For example: 



_6aj 

_3_ 




-46- .63 



25 

12. 

_tl_ 

4 



.62. 
JR. 



£2__LZZ_ 



1 



FIRE RESISTANCE RATING (HOURS) 

TABLE 1.3.2 

WOOD FRAME WALLS 

4" TO LESS THAN 6" THICK 



I 




CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


ITEM CODE 


THICKNESS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE-BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST-BMS-92 


W-4-W-1 


4" 


2" x 4" stud wall; V l6 " CAB; no 
insulation; Design A. 


35 min. 


10 min. 






4 


1-10 


% 


W-4-W-2 


47 8 " 


2" x 4" stud wall; 3 / 16 " CAB; no 
insulation; Design A. 


38 min. 


9 min. 






4 


1-10 


% 


W-4-W-3 


4V 4 " 


2" x 4" stud wall; 3 / l6 " CAB and 7 8 " 
gypsum board face (both sides); 
Design B. 


62 min. 


64 min. 






4 


1-10 


1 


W-5-W-4 


5" 


2" x 4" stud wall; 7 I6 " CAB and 7 2 " 
gypsum board (both sides); Design B. 


79 min. 


Greater 

than 
90 min. 






4 


1-10 


1 


W-4-W-5 


4V 4 " 


2" x 4" stud wall; V l6 " CAB and V 8 " 
gypsum board (both sides); Design B. 


45 min. 


45 min. 






4 


1-12 


— 


W-5-W-6 


5" 


2" x 4" stud wall; 7 16 " CAB and V 2 " 
gypsum board face (both sides); 
Design B. 


45 min. 


45 min. 






4 


1-10, 12, 
13 


— 


W-4-W-7 


4" 


2" x 4" stud wall; 7 l(j " CAB face; 37," 
mineral wool insulation; Design C. 


40 min. 


42 min. 






4 


1-10 


% 


W-4-W-8 


4" 


2" x 4" stud wall; 7, 6 " CAB face; 37/' 
mineral wool insulation; Design C. 


46 min. 


46 min. 






4 


1-10,43 


% 


W-4-W-9 


4" 


2" x 4" stud wall; 7 I6 " CAB face; 3'/ 2 " 
mineral wool insulation; Design C. 


30 min. 


30 min. 






4 


1-10, 12, 

14 


— 



(continued) 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



211 



RESOURCE A 



TABLE 1.3.2— continued 

WOOD FRAME WALLS 

4" TO LESS THAN 6" THICK 



ITEM CODE 


THICKNESS 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


- NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 






LOAD 


TIME 


PRE-BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST-BMS-92 


W-4-W-10 


47 8 " 


2" x 4" stud wall; V l6 " CAB face; 37 2 " 
mineral wool insulation; Design C. 


— 


30 min. 






4 


1-8, 12, 

14 


— 


W-4-W-H 


4%" 


2" x 4" stud wall; V, 6 " CAB face; 3 / 8 " gyp- 
sum strips over studs; 57," mineral wool 
insulation; Design D. 


79 min. 


79 min. 






4 


1-10 


1 


W-4-W-12 


4%" 


2" x 4" stud wall; 7 I6 " CAB face; %" gyp- 
sum strips at stud edges; 77," mineral wool 
insulation; Design D. 


82 min. 


82 min. 






4 


1-10 


1 


W-4-W-13 


4V 4 " 


2" x 4" stud wall; 7, 6 " CAB face; 7 g " gyp- 
sum board strips over studs; 57," mineral 
wool insulation; Design D. 


30 min. 


30 min. 






4 


1-12 


— 


W-4-W-14 


4%" 


2" x 4" stud wall; 3 / l6 " CAB face; 7 8 " gyp- 
sum board strips over studs; 7" mineral 
wool insulation; Design D. 


30 min. 


30 min. 






4 


1-12 


— 


W-5-W-15 


57/' 


2" x 4" stud wall; Exposed face: CAB shin- 
gles over 1" x 6"; Unexposed face: 7 8 " 
CAB sheet; 1 l u " fiberboard (wood); Design 
E. 


34 min. 


— 






4 


1-10 


% 


W-5-W-16 


57/ 


2" x 4" stud wall; Exposed face: 7 8 " CAB 
sheet; 7 / 16 " fiberboard; Unexposed face: 
CAB shingles over 1" x 6"; Design E. 


32 min. 


33 min. 






4 


1-10 


7, 


W-5-W-17 


57," 


2" x 4" stud wall; Exposed face: CAB shin- 
gles over 1" x 6"; Unexposed face: 7 8 " 
CAB sheet; gypsum at stud edges; 37," 
mineral wood insulation; Design F. 


51 min. 


— 






4 


1-10 


% 


W-5-W-18 


57," 


2" x 4" stud wall; Exposed face: 7 8 " CAB 
sheet; gypsum board at stud edges; Unex- 
posed face: CAB shingles over 1" x 6"; 
37 2 " mineral wool insulation; Design F. 


42 min. 


— 






4 


1-10 


% 


W-5-W-19 


5-V s " 


2" x 4" stud wall; Exposed face: CAB shin- 
gles over 1" x 6"; Unexposed face: 7 8 " 
CAB sheet; gypsum board at stud edges; 
57," mineral wool insulation; Design G. 


74 min. 


85 min. 






4 


1-10 


1 


W-5-W-20 


5 5 / 8 " 


2" x 4" stud wall; Exposed face: 7 8 " CAB 
sheet; gypsum board at V l6 " stud edges; 7 / l( " 
fiberboard; Unexposed face: CAB shingles 
over 1" x 6"; 57 2 " mineral wool insulation; 
Design G. 


79 min. 


85 min. 






4 


1-10 


iv 4 


W-5-W-21 


5-V 


2" x 4" stud wall; Exposed face: CAB shin- 
gles 1" x 6" sheathing; Unexposed face: 
CAB sheet; gypsum board at stud edges; 
57," mineral wool insulation; Design G. 


38 min. 


38 min. 






4 


1-10,12, 

14 


— 


W-5-W-22 


5 5 / 8 " 


2" x 4" stud wall; Exposed face: CAB 
sheet; gypsum board at stud edges; Unex- 
posed face: CAB shingles 1" x 6" sheath- 
ing; 57 2 " mineral wool insulation; Design 
G. 


38 min. 


38 min. 






4 


1-12 


— 


W-6-W-23 


6" 


2" x 4" stud wall; 16" o.c; 7 2 " gypsum 
board each side; 7," gypsum plaster each 
side. 


N/A 


60 min. 






7 


15 


1 



(continued) 



212 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



RESOURCE A 



TABLE 1.3.2— continued 

WOOD FRAME WALLS 

4" TO LESS THAN 6" THICK. 



ITEM CODE 


THICKNESS 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE-BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST-BMS-92 


W-6-W-24 


6" 


2" x 4" stud wall; 16" o.c.; 7," gypsum 
board each side; V 2 " gypsum plaster each 
side. 


N/A 


68 min. 






7 


16 


1 


W-6-W-25 


6 7 /," 


2" x 4" stud wall; 18" o.c; 3 / 4 " gypsum 
plank each side; 3 / 16 " gypsum plaster each 
side. 


N/A 


80 min. 






7 


15 


IV, 


W-5-W-26 


5'/ 8 " 


2" x 4" stud wall; 16" o.c; 7 8 " gypsum 
board each side; 3 / ]6 " gypsum plaster each 
side. 


N/A 


37 min. 






7 


15 


% 


W-5-W-27 


5 3 / 4 " 


2" x 4" stud wall; 1 6" o.c; 3 / 8 " gypsum lath 
each side; 7," gypsum plaster each side. 


N/A 


52 min. 






7 


15 


X 


W-5-W-28 


5" 


2" x 4" stud wall; 16" o.c; 7," gypsum 
board each side. 


N/A 


37 min. 






7 


16 


% 


W-5-W-29 


5" 


2" x 4" stud wall; '//' fiberboard both sides 
14% M.C. with F.R. paint at 35 gm./ft. 2 . 


N/A 


28 min. 






7 


15 


% 


W-4-W-30 


4V 4 " 


2" x 4" stud wall; Fire side: '/," (wood) 
fiberboard; Back side: 7 4 " CAB; 16" o.c. 


N/A 


17 min. 






7 


15, 16 


X 


W-5-W-31 


5V g " 


2" x 4" stud wall; 16" o.c; 7 2 " fiberboard 
insulation with 7,," asbestos (both sides of 
each board). 


N/A 


50 min. 






7 


16 


X 


W-4-W-32 


47 4 " 


2" x 4" stud wall; V 8 " thick gypsum 
wallboard on both faces; insulated cavities. 


See 

Note 23 


25 min. 




1 




17, 18, 
23 


% 


W-4-W-33 


4V 2 " 


2" x 4" stud wall; 7 2 " thick gypsum 
wallboard on both faces. 


See 
Note 17 


40 min. 




1 




17, 23 


X 


W-4-W-34 


47," 


2" x 4" stud wall; 7 2 " thick gypsum 
wallboard on both faces; insulated cavities. 


See 
Note 17 


45 min. 




1 




17, 18, 

23 


X 


W-4-W-35 


47 2 " 


2" x 4" stud wall; 7," thick gypsum 
wallboard on both faces; insulated cavities. 


N/A 


lhr. 




1 




17, 18, 

24 


l 


W-4-W-36 


47," 


2" x 4" stud wall; 7 2 " thick, 1.1 lbs./ft. 2 
wood fiberboard sheathing on both faces. 


See 
Note 23 


15 min. 




1 




17,23 


X 


W-4-W-37 


4V 2 " 


2" x 4" stud wall; 7 2 " thick, 0.7 lb./ft. 2 
wood fiberboard sheathing on both faces. 


See 
Note 23 


10 min. 




1 




17,23 


X 


W-4-W-38 


4V 2 " 


2" x 4" stud wall; 7 2 " thick, flameproofed 
1.6 lbs./ft. 2 wood fiberboard sheathing on 
both faces. 


See 
Note 23 


30 min. 




1 




17,23 


% 


W-4-W-39 


47 2 " 


2" x 4" stud wall; 7 2 " thick gypsum 
wallboard on both faces; insulated cavities. 


See 
Note 23 


lhr. 




1 




17, 18, 

23 


1 


W-4-W-40 


4V 2 " 


2" x 4" stud wall; 7 2 " thick, 1:2; 1:3 
gypsum plaster on wood lath on both faces. 


See 
Note 23 


30 min. 




1 




17,21, 
23 


% 


W-4-W-41 


47 2 " 


2" x 4" stud wall; 7 2 ", 1:2; 1:3 gypsum 
plaster on wood lath on both faces; insu- 
lated cavities. 




See 
Note 23 


lhr. 





1 




17, 18, 
21,24 


1 



(continued) 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



213 



RESOURCE A 



TABLE 1.3.2— continued 

WOOD FRAME WALLS 

4" TO LESS THAN 6" THICK 



ITEM CODE 


THICKNESS 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 

HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE-BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST-BMS-92 


W-4-W-42 


4V 2 " 


2" x 4" stud wall; 7 2 ", 1:5; 1 :7.5 lime 
plaster on wood lath on both wall faces. 


See 
Note 23 


30 min. 




1 




17,21, 
23 


% 


W-4-W-43 


4V 2 " 


2" x 4" stud wall; 7 2 " thick 1:5; 1:7.5 lime 
plaster on wood lath on both faces; 
insulated cavities. 


See 
Note 23 


45 min. 




1 




17, 18, 

21,23 


% 


W-4-W-44 


4%" 


2" x 4" stud wall; 3 / l6 " thick cement-asbes- 
tos over 3 / s " thick gypsum board on both 
faces. 


See 
Note 23 


lhr. 




1 




23, 25, 
26,27 


1 


W-4-W-45 


4\" 


2" x 4" stud wall; studs faced with 4" wide 
strips of 3 / 8 " thick gypsum board; 3 / l6 " thick 
gypsum cement-asbestos board on both 
faces; insulated cavities. 


See 
Note 23 


lhr. 




1 




23, 25, 
27,28 


1 


W-4-W-46 


4%" 


Same as W-4-W-45 but nonload bearing. 


N/A 


lhr. 
15 min. 




1 




24,28 


l'/ 4 


W-4-W-47 


4\" 


2" x 4" stud wall; 3 / ]6 " thick cement-asbes- 
tos board over '/" thick gypsum sheathing 
on both faces. 


See 
Note 23 


lhr. 
15 min. 




1 




23, 25, 
26,27 


l'/ 4 


W-4-W-48 


H 's 


Same as W-4-W-47 but nonload bearing. 


N/A 


lhr. 
30 min. 




1 




24,27 


17 2 


W-5-W-49 


5" 


2" x 4" stud wall; Exterior face: 3 / 4 " wood 
sheathing; asbestos felt 14 lbs./lOO ft. 2 and 
V 32 " cement-asbestos shingles; Interior 
face: 4" wide strips of 3 / s " gypsum board 
over studs; wall faced with 3 / ]6 " thick 
cement-asbestos board. 


See 
Note 23 


40 min. 




1 




18,23, 

25, 26, 

29 


% 


W-5-W-50 


5" 


2" x 4" stud wall; Exterior face: as per W- 
5-W-49; Interior face: 7 I6 " composite 
board consisting of 7 / l6 " thick wood fiber- 
board faced with V 8 " thick cement-asbestos 
board; Exterior side exposed to fire. 


See 
Note 23 


30 min. 




1 




23, 25, 
26,30 


% 


W-5-W-51 


5" 


Same as W-5-W-50 but interior side 
exposed to fire. 


See 
Note 23 


30 min. 




1 




23, 25, 
26 


% 


W-5-W-52 


5" 


Same as W-5-W-49 but exterior side 
exposed to fire. 


See 
Note 23 


45 min. 




1 




18, 23, 

25,26 


% 


W-5-W-53 


5" 


2" x 4" stud wall; 3 / 4 " thick T&G wood 
boards on both sides. 


See 
Note 23 


20 min. 




1 




17,23 


% 


W-5-W-54 


5" 


Same as W-5-W-53 but with insulated 
cavities. 


See 
Note 23 


35 min. 




1 




17, 18, 
23 


% 


W-5-W-55 


5" 


2" x 4" stud wall; 7 4 " thick T&G wood 
boards on both sides with 30 lbs./lOO ft.- 
asbestos; paper, between studs and boards. 


See 
Note 23 


45 min. 




1 




17,23 


% 


W-5-W-56 


5" 


2" x 4" stud wall; 7 2 " thick, 1:2; 1:3 gyp- 
sum plaster on metal lath on both sides of 
wall. 


See 
Note 23 


45 min. 




1 




17,21, 
34 


% 



(continued) 



214 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



RESOURCE A 



TABLE 1.3.2— continued 

WOOD FRAME WALLS 

4" TO LESS THAN 6" THICK 



ITEM CODE 


THICKNESS 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE-BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST-BMS-92 


W-5-W-57 


5" 


2" x 4" stud wall; 7 4 " thick 2:1:8; 2:1:12 
lime and Keene's cement plaster over 
metal lath on both sides of wall. 


See 

Note 23 


45 min. 




1 




17,21, 

23 


% 


W-5-W-58 


5" 


2" x 4" stud wall; 3 / 4 " thick 2:1:8; 2:1:10 
lime portland cement plaster over metal 
lath on both sides of wall. 


See 

Note 23 


30 min. 




1 




17,21, 

23 


% 


W-5-W-59 


5" 


2" x 4" stud wall; 7 4 " thick 1:5; 1:7.5 lime 
plaster on metal lath on both sides of wall. 


See 
Note 23 


30 min. 




1 




17,21, 

23 


% 


W-5-W-60 


5" 


2" x 4" stud wall; 3 / 4 " thick 1:7 30 :2; 1:7 30 : 
3 portland cement, asbestos fiber plaster 
on metal lath on both sides of wall. 


See 

Note 23 


45 min. 




1 




17,21, 

23 


\ 


W-5-W-61 


5" 


2" x 4" stud wall; V 4 " thick 1:2; 1:3 
portland cement plaster on metal lath on 
both sides of wall. 


See 
Note 23 


30 min. 




1 




17,21, 
23 


'A 


W-5-W-62 


5" 


2" x 4" stud wall; 3 / 4 " thick neat gypsum 
plaster on metal lath on both sides of wall. 


N/A 


1 hr. 
30 min. 




1 




17,22, 
24 


l'/ 2 


W-5-W-63 


5" 


2" x 4" stud wall; 3 / 4 " thick neat gypsum 
plaster on metal lath on both sides of wall. 


See 
Note 23 


lhr. 
30 rain. 




1 




17,21, 
23 


17, 


W-5-W-64 


5" 


2" x 4" stud wall; 7 4 " thick 1:2; 1:2 gyp- 
sum plaster on metal lath on both sides of 
wall; insulated cavities. 


See 
Note 23 


lhr. 
30 min. 




1 




17, 18, 
21,23 


17, 


W-5-W-65 


5" 


2" x 4" stud wall; same as W-5-W-64 but 
cavities not insulated. 


See 
Note 23 


lhr. 




1 




17,21, 

23 


1 


W-5-W-66 


5" 


2" x 4" stud wall; 3 / 4 " thick 1 :2; 1:3 
gypsum plaster on metal lath on both sides 
of wall; insulated cavities. 


See 
Note 23 


lhr. 
15 min. 




1 




17, 18, 
21,23 


1V 4 


W-5-W-67 


5V I6 " 


Same as W-5-W-49 except cavity insula- 
tion of 1.75 lbs./ft. 2 mineral wool bats; 
rating applies when either wall side 
exposed to fire. 


See 
Note 23 


lhr. 
1 5 min. 




1 




23, 26, 

25 


l'/ 4 


W-5-W-68 


57/' 


2" x 4" stud wall, 7 8 " thick 1 :2; 1 :3 
gypsum plaster on metal lath on both sides 
of wall; insulated cavities. 


See 
Note 23 


lhr. 
30 min. 




1 




17, 18, 
21,23 


17, 


W-5-W-69 


5V 4 " 


2" x 4" stud wall; 7 / 8 " thick neat gypsum 
plaster applied on metal lath on both sides 
of wall. 


N/A 


1 hr. 
45 min. 




1 




17,22, 
24 


1% 


W-5-W-70 


5%" 


2" x 4" stud wall; 7 2 " thick neat gypsum 
plaster on 3 / 8 " plain gypsum lath on both 
sides of wall. 


See 

Note 23 


lhr. 




1 




17, 22, 

23 


1 


W-5-W-71 


5V 4 " 


2" x 4" stud wall; 7 2 " thick of 1:2; 1:2 
gypsum plaster on 3 / s " thick plain gypsum 
lath with l 3 / 4 " x l 3 / 4 " metal lath pads 
nailed 8" o.c. vertically and 16" o.c. 
horizontally on both sides of wall. 


See 

Note 23 


lhr. 




1 




17,21, 
23 


1 


W-5-W-72 


57 4 " 


2" x 4" stud wall; 7 2 " thick of 1:2; 1:2 
gypsum plaster on 3 / s " perforated gypsum 
lath, one 3 / 4 " diameter hole or larger per 
16" square of lath surface, on both sides of 
wall. 


See 
Note 23 


lhr. 




1 




17,21, 

23 


1 



{continued) 



1Q\1 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



215 



RESOURCE A 



TABLE 1.3.2 — continued 

WOOD FRAME WALLS 

4" TO LESS THAN 6" THICK 



ITEM CODE 


THICKNESS 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE-BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST-BMS-92 


W-5-W-73 


57/' 


2" x 4" stud wall; 7 2 " thick of 1:2; 1:2 
gypsum plaster on V 8 " gypsum lath (plain, 
indented or perforated) on both sides of 
wall. 


See 
Note 23 


45 min. 




1 




17,21, 

23 


X 


W-5-W-74 


57/' 


2" x 4" stud wall; 7 8 " thick of 1 :2; 1:3 gyp- 
sum plaster over metal lath on both sides 
of wall. 


See 
Note 23 


lhr. 




1 




17,21, 

23 


1 


W-5-W-75 


5'//' 


2" x 4" stud wall; 7 8 " thick of 1:7 30 :2; 1: 
V ln :3 portland cement, asbestos plaster 
applied over metal lath on both sides of 
wall. 


See 
Note 23 


1 hr. 




1 




17,21, 

23 


1 


W-5-W-76 


57/' 


2" x 4" stud wall; 7 8 " thick of 1:2; 1:3 
Portland cement plaster over metal lath on 
both sides of wall. 


See 

Note 23 


45 min. 




1 




17,21, 

23 


% 


W-5-W-77 


57 2 " 


2" x 4" stud wall; 1" thick neat gypsum 
plaster over metal lath on both sides of 
wall; nonload bearing. 


N/A 


2hrs. 




1 




17,22, 
24 


2 


W-5-W-78 


57 2 " 


2" x 4" stud wall; 7," thick of 1 :2; 1 :2 
gypsum plaster on 7 2 " thick, 0.7 lb./ft. 2 
wood fiberboard on both sides of wall. 


See 
Note 23 


35 min. 




1 




17,21, 

23 


% 


W-4-W-79 


4%" 


2" x 4" wood stud wall; 7," thick of 1:2; 
1 :2 gypsum plaster over wood lath on both 
sides of wall; mineral wool insulation. 


N/A 


lhr. 






43 


21,31, 
35,38 


1 


W-4-W-80 


4%" 


Same as W-4-W-79 but uninsulated. 


N/A 


35 min. 






43 


21,31, 
35 


% 


W-4-W-81 


4 3 / 4 " 


2" x 4" wood stud wall; 7 2 " thick of 3:1:8; 
3:1:12 lime, Keene's cement, sand plaster 
over wood lath on both sides of wall; 
mineral wool insulation. 


N/A 


lhr. 






43 


21,31, 
35,40 


1 


W-4-W-82 


4%" 


2" x 4" wood stud wall; 7," thick of 1 :67 4 ; 
l:67 4 lime Keene's cement plaster over 
wood lath on both sides of wall; 
mineral wool insulation. 


N/A 


30 min. 






43 


21,31, 
35,40 


7 2 


W-4-W-83 


4'/ 4 " 


2" x 4" wood stud wall; 7 2 " thick of 1:5; 
1 :7.5 lime plaster over wood lath on both 
sides of wall. 


N/A 


30 min. 






43 


21,31, 
35 


% 


W-5-W-84 


57 s " 


2" x 4" wood stud wall; u / 16 " thick of 1:5; 
1:7.5 lime plaster over wood lath on both 
sides of wall; mineral wool insulation. 


N/A 


45 min. 






43 


21, 31, 
35, 39 


X 


W-5-W-85 


57 4 " 


2" x 4" wood stud wall; 3 / 4 "thick of 1:5; 
1:7 lime plaster over wood lath on both 
sides of wall; mineral wool insulation. 


N/A 


40 min. 






43 


21,31, 

35,40 


% 


W-5-W-86 


57 4 " 


2" x 4" wood stud wall; 7," thick of 2:1 :12 
lime, Keene's cement and sand scratch 
coat; 7 2 " thick 2:1:18 lime, Keene's 
cement and sand brown coat over wood 
lath on both sides of wall; mineral wool 
insulation. 


N/A 


lhr. 






43 


21,31, 
35,40 


1 


W-5-W-87 


57 4 " 


2" x 4" wood stud wall; 7 2 " thick of 1:2; 
1 :2 gypsum plaster over 3 / g " plaster board 
on both sides of wall. 


N/A 


45 min. 






43 


21,31 


% 



(continued) 



216 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE 



RESOURCE A 



TABLE 1.3.2— continued 

WOOD FRAME WALLS 

4" TO LESS THAN 6" THICK 



ITEM CODE 


THICKNESS 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE-BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST-BMS-92 


W-5-W-88 


57/' 


2" x 4" wood stud wall; 7," thick of 1 :2; 1:2 
gypsum plaster over 3 / 8 " gypsum lath on 
both sides of wall. 


N/A 


45 min. 






43 


21,31 


% 


W-5-W-89 


57 4 " 


2" x 4" wood stud wall; 7/ thick of 1 :2; 1 :2 
gypsum plaster over V 8 " gypsum lath on 
both sides of wall. 


N/A 


lhr. 






43 


21,31,33 


1 


W-5-W-90 


57 4 " 


2" x 4 " wood stud wall; 7 2 " thick neat plas- 
ter over V g " thick gypsum lath on both sides 
of wall. 


N/A 


lhr. 






43 


21,22,31 


1 


W-5-W-91 


57 4 " 


2" x 4" wood stud wall; 7 2 " thick of 1:2; 1:2 
gypsum plaster over V s " thick indented gyp- 
sum lath on both sides of wall. 


N/A 


45 min. 






43 


21,31 


% 


W-5-W-92 


57 4 " 


2" x 4" wood stud wall; V 2 " thick of 1 :2; 1 :2 
gypsum plaster over %" thick perforated 
gypsum lath on both sides of wall. 


N/A 


45 min. 






43 


21,31,34 


% 


W-5-W-93 


57 4 " 


2" x 4" wood stud wall; 7," thick of 1:2; 1:2 
gypsum plaster over 3 / 8 " perforated gypsum 
lath on both sides of wall. 


N/A 


1 hr. 






43 


21,31 


1 


W-5-W-94 


57 4 " 


2" x 4" wood stud wall; 7 2 " thick of 1:2; 1:2 
gypsum plaster over V 8 " thick perforated 
gypsum lath on both sides of wall. 


N/A 


45 min. 






43 


21,31,34 


% 


W-5-W-95 


57," 


2" x 4" wood stud wall; 7 2 " thick of 1 :2; 1 :2 
gypsum plaster over 7," thick wood fiber- 
board plaster base on both sides of wall. 


N/A 


35 min. 






43 


21,31,36 


\ 


W-5-W-96 


5%" 


2" x 4" wood stud wall; 7," thick of 1:2; 1 :2 
gypsum plaster over 7 / 8 " thick flameproofed 
wood fiberboard on both sides of wall. 


N/A 


lhr. 






43 


21,31,37 


1 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, I foot 
Notes: 
I. 

2. 
3. 
4. 
5. 
6. 
7. 



: 305 mm, 1 pound = 0.004448 kN, 1 pound per square inch = 0.00689 MPa, 1 pound per square foot = 47.9 N/m . 



All specimens 8 feet or 8 feet 8 inches by 10 feet 4 inches, i.e. one-half of furnace size. See Note 42 for design cross section. 

Specimens tested in tandem (two per exposure). 

Test per ASA No. A2-1934 except where unloaded. Also, panels were of "half size of furnace opening. Time value signifies a thermal failure time. 

Two-inch by 4-inch studs: 16 inches on center.; where 10 feet 4 inches, blocking at 2-foot 4-inch height. 

Facing 4 feet by 8 feet, cement-asbestos board sheets, 3 / l(i inch thick. 

Sheathing (diagonal): 25/22 inch by 57, inch, 1 inch by 6 inches pine. 

Facing shingles: 24 inches by 12 inches by V,, inch where used. 

8. Asbestos felt: asphalt sat between sheathing and shingles. 

9. Load: 30,500 pounds or 360 psi/stud where load was tested. 

10. Walls were tested beyond achievement of first test end point. A load-bearing time in excess of performance time indicates that although thermal criteria 
were exceeded, load-bearing ability continued. 

11. Wall was rated for one hour combustible use in original source. 

12. Hose steam test specimen. See table entry of similar design above for recommended rating. 

13. Rated one and one-fourth hour load bearing. Rated one and one-half hour nonload bearing. 

14. Failed hose stream. 

15. Test terminated due to flame penetration. 

16. Test terminated — local back face temperature rise. 

17. Nominal 2-inch by 4-inch wood studs of No. I common or better lumber set edgewise. Two-inch by four-inch plates at top and bottom and blocking at mid 
height of wall. 

18. Cavity insulation consists of rock wool bats 1.0 )b./ft.2 of filled cavity area. 

19. Cavity insulation consists of glass wool bats 0.6 lb./ft.2 of filled cavity area. 

20. Cavity insulation consists of blown in forck wool 2.0 lbs./ft.2 of filled cavity area 

21 . Mix proportions for plastered walls as follows: first ratio indicates scratch coat mix, weight of dry plaster: dry sand; second ratio indicates brown coat mix. 

22. "Neat" plaster is taken to mean unsanded wood-fiber gypsum plaster. 

23. Load: 360 psi of net stud cross sectional area. 

24. Rated as nonload bearing. 

(continued) 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



217 



RESOURCE A 



TABLE 1.3.2— continued 

WOOD FRAME WALLS 

4" TO LESS THAN 6" THICK 

25. Nominal 2-inch by 4-inch studs per Note 17, spaced at 16 inches on center. 

26. Horizontal joints in facing material supported by 2-inch by 4-inch blocking within wall. 

27. Facings secured with 6d casing nails. Nail holes predrilled and were 0.02 to 0.03 inch smaller than nail diameter. 

28. Cavity insulation consists of mineral wool bats weighing 2 lbs./ft. 2 of filled cavity area. 

29. Interior wall face exposed to fire. 

30. Exterior wall faced exposed to fire. 

31. Nominal 2-inch by 4-inch studs of yellow pine or Douglas-fir spaced 16 inches on center in a single row. 

32. Studs as in Note 31 except double row, with studs in rows staggered. 

33. Six roofing nails with metal-lath pads around heats to each 16-inch by 48-inch lath. 

34. Areas of holes less than 2'7 4 percent of area of lath. 

35. Wood laths were nailed with either 3d or 4d nails, one nail to each bearing, and the end joining broken every seventh course. 

36. One-half-inch thick fiberboard plaster base nailed with 3d or 4d common wire nails spaced 4 to 6 inches on center. 

37. Seven-eighths-inch thick fiberboard plaster base nailed with 5d common wire nails spaced 4 to 6 inches on center. 

38. Mineral wood bats 1.05 to 1.25 lbs./ft. 2 with waterproofed-paper backing. 

39. Blown-in mineral wool insulation, 2.2 lbs./ft. 2 . 

40. Mineral wool bats, 1.4 lbs./ft. 2 with waterproofed-paper backing. 

41. Mineral wood bats, 0.9 lb./ft. 2 . 

42. See wall design diagram, below. 



j i" a zo; 






e3 tx_i. _jq i jrj;ijLr::tr:i 



G 



B D 

43. Duplicate specimen of W-4-W-7, tested simultaneously with W-4-W-7 in 18-foot test furnace. 



218 2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



RESOURCE A 



TABLE 1.3.3 

WOOD FRAME WALLS 

6" TO LESS THAN 8" THICK 



ITEM CODE 


THICKNESS 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 1 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE-BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST-BMS-92 


W-6-W-1 


6V 4 " 


2x4 stud wall; V 2 " thick, 1:2; 1:2 gypsum 
plaster on 7 / s " flameproofed wood fiber- 
board weighing 2.8 lbs./ft. 2 on both sides 
of wall. 


See Note 3 


lhr. 




1 




1-3 


1 


W-6-W-2 


6'/ 2 " 


2x4 stud wall; '/," thick, 1 :3; 1 :3 gypsum 
plaster on 1" thick magnesium oxy sulfate 
wood fiberboard on both sides of wall. 


See Note 3 


45 min. 




1 




1-3 


X 


W-7-W-3 


7'/ 4 " 


Double row of 2 x 4 studs, 7 2 " thick of 1 :2; 
1:2 gypsum plaster applied over %" thick 
perforated gypsum lath on both sides of 
wall; mineral wool insulation. 


N/A 


lhr. 






43 


2,4,5 


1 


W-7-W-4 


77 2 " 


Double row of 2 x 4 studs, V 8 " thick of 1 :2; 
1 :2 gypsum plaster applied over V s " thick 
perforated gypsum lath over laid with 2" x 
2", 16 gage wire fabric, on both sides of 
wall. 


N/A 


1 hr. 

15 min. 






43 


2,4 


l'/ 4 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, I pound = 0.004448 kN, 1 pound per square inch = 0.00689 MPa, 1 pound per square foot = 47.9 N/nr. 
Notes: 

1. Nominal 2-inch by 4-inch wood studs of No. 1 common or better lumber set edgewise. Two-inch by 4-inch plates at top and bottom and blocking at mid 
height of wall. 

2. Mix proportions for plastered walls as follows: first ratio indicates scratch coat mix, weight of dry plaster: dry sand; second ratio indicates brown coat mix. 

3. Load: 360 psi of net stud cross sectional area. 

4. Nominal 2-inch by 4-inch studs of yellow pine of Douglas-fir spaced 16 inches in a double row, with studs in rows staggered. 

5. Mineral wool bats, 0.19 lb./ft. 2 

TABLE 1.4.1 

MISCELLANEOUS MATERIALS WALLS 

0" TO LESS THAN 4" THICK 



ITEM CODE 


THICKNESS 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE-BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST-BMS-92 


W-3-Mi-l 


3V 


Glass brick wall: (bricks 5 3 / 4 " x 5 3 / 4 " x 3 7 / 8 ") 
V 4 " mortar bed, cement/lime/sand; mounted in 
brick (9") wall with mastic and 7 2 " asbestos 
rope. 


N/A 


I hr. 






7 


1,2 


1 


W-3-Mi-2 


3" 


Core: 2" magnesium oxysulfate wood-fiber 
blocks; laid in portland cement-lime mortar; 
Facings: on both sides; see Note 3. 


N/A 


1 hr. 




1 




3 


1 


W-3-Mi-3 


37 s " 


Core: 8" x 4 7 / s " glass blocks 3 7 / s " thick weigh- 
ing 4 lbs. each; laid in portland cement-lime 
mortar; horizontal mortar joints reinforced with 
metal lath. 


N/A 


15 min. 




1 






% 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound = 0.004448 kN. 
Notes: 

1 . No failure reached at 1 hour. 

2. These glass blocks are assumed to be solid based on other test data available for similar but hollow units which show significantly reduced fire endurance. 

3. Minimum of 7, inch of 1:3 sanded gypsum plaster required to develop this rating. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



219 



RESOURCE A 



TABLE 1.4.2 

MISCELLANEOUS MATERIALS WALLS 

4" TO LESS THAN 6" THICK 



ITEM CODE 


THICKNESS 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE-BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST-BMS-92 


W-4-Mi-l 


4" 


Core: 3" magnesium oxysulfate wood-fiber 
blocks; laid in portland cement mortar; 
Facings: both sides; see Note 1 . 


N/A 


2hrs. 




1 






2 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

Notes: 

1. One-half inch sanded gypsum plaster. Voids in hollow blocks to be not more than 30 percent. 



220 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



RESOURCE A 



NUMBER OF 
ASSEMBLIES 



10- 



15 

7 



FIGURE 1.5.1 
FINISH RATINGS— INORGANIC MATERIALS 



The number in each box is 
keyed to the last number in the 
Item Code column in the Table. 

For example: 



16 
12 

11 
10 




13 



8 



12 



24 36 48 

FIRE RESISTANCE RATING (HOURS) 



60 



TABLE 1.5.1 
FINISH RATINGS— INORGANIC MATERIALS 



ITEM CODE 


THICKNESS 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. F.R. 
(MIN.) 


FINISH RATING 


PRE-BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST-BMS-92 


F.R.-I-l 


'16 


3 / 8 " gypsum wallboard faced with 3 / l6 " 
cement-asbestos board. 


20 minutes 








1,2 


15 


F.R.-I-2 


'V 


V gypsum sheathing faced with V l6 " 
cement-asbestos board. 


20 minutes 








1,2 


20 


F.R.-I-3 


V 


'/,/' cement-asbestos board over uninsulated 
cavity. 


1 minutes 








1,2 


5 


F.R.-I-4 


3 /,„" 


V lf) " cement-asbestos board over insulated 
cavities. 


5 minutes 








1,2 


5 


F.R.-I-5 


r V 


V 4 " thick 1:2; 1:3 gypsum plaster over paper 
backed metal lath. 


20 minutes 








1,2,3 


20 


F.R.I-6 


%" 


3 / 4 " thick portland cement plaster on metal 
lath. 


10 minutes 








1,2 


10 


F.R.-I-7 


7" 


V 4 " thick 1:5; 1:7.5 lime plaster on metal 
lath. 


10 minutes 








1,2 


10 


F.R.-I-8 


1" 


1 " thick neat gypsum plaster on metal lath. 


35 minutes 








1,2,4 


35 


F.R.-I-9 


%" 


V 4 " thick neat gypsum plaster on metal lath. 


30 minutes 








1,2,4 


30 



(continued) 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



221 



RESOURCE A 



TABLE 1.5.1— continued 
FINISH RATINGS— INORGANIC MATERIALS 



ITEM CODE 


THICKNESS 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. F.R. 
(MIN.) 


FINISH RATING 


PRE-BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST-BMS-92 


F.R.-M0 


%" 


7 4 " thick 1:2; 1:2 gypsum plaster on metal 
lath. 


15 minutes 




1 




1,2,3 


15 


F.R.-I-ll 


V 


Same as F.R.-1-7, except '/," thick on wood 
lath. 


1 5 minutes 




1 




1,2,3 


15 


F.R.-1-12 


V 


V," thick 1:2; 1:3 gypsum plaster on wood 
lath. 


15 minutes 




1 




1,2,3 


15 


F.R -1-13 


X" 


7," thick 1:2; 1 :2 gypsum plaster on \" 
perforated gypsum lath. 


30 minutes 




1 




1,2,3 


30 


F.R.-I-14 


X" 


7 2 " thick 1:2; 1:2 gypsum plaster on V 8 " 
thick plain or indented gypsum plaster. 


20 minutes 




1 




1,2,3 


20 


F.R.-I-15 


-7" 

'8 


3 / 8 " gypsum wallboard. 


10 minutes 




1 




1,2 


10 


F.R.-1-16 


V," 


V," gypsum wallboard. 


5 minutes 




1 




1,2 


15 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, °C = [(°F) - 32]/ 1 .8. 
Notes: 

1 . The finish rating is the time required to obtain an average temperature rise of 250°F, or a single point rise of 325°F, at the interface between the material being 
rated and the substrate being protected. 

2. Tested in accordance with the Standard Specifications for Fire Tests of Building Construction and Materials, ASA No. A2-I932. 

3. Mix proportions for plasters as follows: first ratio, dry weight of plaster: dry weight of sand for scratch coat; second ratio, plaster: sand for brown coat. 

4. Neat plaster means unsanded wood-fiber gypsum plaster. 
General Note: 

The finish rating of modern building materials can be found in the current literature. 



TABLE 1.5.2 
FINISH RATINGS— ORGANIC MATERIALS 



ITEM CODE 


THICKNESS 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
F.R. 

(MIN.) 


FINISH RATING 


PRE-BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST-BMS-92 


F.R.-O-l 


9/ » 
'16 


7 / 16 " wood fiberboard faced with '/" 
cement-asbestos board. 


1 5 minutes 








1,2 


15 


F.R.-0-2 


2 V 


7 4 " wood sheathing, asbestos felt weighing 14 
lbs./lOO ft. 2 and 5 / 32 " cement-asbestos shingles. 


20 minutes 








1,2 


20 


F.R.-0-3 


17 2 " 


1" thick magnesium oxysulfate wood fiber- 
board faced with 1:3; 1:3 gypsum plaster, 7," 
thick. 


20 minutes 








1,2,3 


20 


F.R.-0-4 


'A" 


7," thick wood fiberboard. 


5 minutes 








1,2 


5 


F.R.-0-5 


7" 


V 2 " thick flameproofed wood fiberboard. 


10 minutes 








1,2 


10 


F.R.-0-6 


1" 


7," thick wood fiberboard faced with V 2 " thick 
1:2; 1:2 gypsum plaster. 


15 minutes 








1,2,3 


30 


F.R.-0-7 


17" 

1 's 


7 / s " thick flameproofed wood fiberboard faced 
with 7," thick 1:2; 1:2 gypsum plaster. 


30 minutes 








1,2,3 


30 


F.R.-0-8 


1 7 " 

1 '4 


1 '/" thick plywood. 


30 minutes 






35 




30 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound = 0.004448 kN, 1 pound per square foot = 47.9 N/m 2 , °C = [(°F) - 32]/1.8. 
Notes: 

1 . The finish rating is the time required to obtain an average temperature rise of 250°F, or a single point rise of 325°F, at the interface between the material being 
rated and he substrate being protected. 

2. Tested in accordance with the Standard Specifications for Fire Tests of Building Construction and Materials, ASA No. A2- 1932. 

3. Plaster ratios as follows: first ratio is for scratch coat, weight of dry plaster: weight of dry sand; second ratio is for the brown coat. 
General Note: 

The finish rating of thinner materials, particularly thinner woods, have not been listed because the possible effects of shrinkage, warpage and aging cannot be 
predicted. 



222 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



RESOURCE A 



SECTION 1! 
COLUMNS 

TABLE 2.1.1 

REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMNS 

MINIMUM DIMENSION 0"TO LESS THAN 6" 



ITEM 
CODE 


MINIMUM 
DIMENSION 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOT 
ES 


REC. HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE- 
BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST- 

BMS-92 


C-6-RC-1 


6" 


6" x 6" square columns; gravel aggre- 
gate concrete (4030 psi); Reinforce- 
ment: vertical, four 7 / 8 " rebars; 
horizontal, V l6 " ties at 6" pitch; Cover: 
I". 


34.7 tons 


62 min. 






7 


1,2 


1 


C-6-RC-2 


6" 


6" x 6" square columns; gravel aggre- 
gate concrete (4200 psi); Reinforce- 
ment: vertical, four 7," rebars; 
horizontal, 5 / l6 " ties at 6" pitch; Cover: 
1". 


21 tons 


69 min. 






7 


1,2 


1 



Notes: 

1. Collapse. 

2. British Test 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



223 



RESOURCE A 



NUMBER OF 
ASSEMBLIES 



15- 



10- 



_26_ 

20 



FIGURE 2.1.2 

REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMNS 

MINIMUM DIMENSION 10" TO LESS THAN 12" 



24 

12 



13 



J5 
_23 
22 

31 

_19 

J 8 

J5_ 

A. 

_5__ 
_4_ 

A. 

2 



11 



The number in each box is 
keyed to the last number in the 
Item Code column in the Table. 

For example: 

C-11-ROCiT: 




FIRE RESISTANCE RATING (HOURS) 

TABLE 2.1.2 

REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMNS 

MINIMUM DIMENSION 10" TO LESS THAN 12" 



ITEM CODE 


MINIMUM 
DIMENSION 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE-BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST- BMS-92 


C-10-RC-1 


10" 


10" square columns; aggregate concrete 
(4260 psi); Reinforcement: 
vertical, four 1 '//'rebars; horizontal, 
V g " ties at 6" pitch; Cover: 1 '/,". 


92.2 
tons 


Ihr. 
2 min. 






7 


1 


1 


C-10-RC-2 


10" 


10" square columns; aggregate 

concrete (2325 psi); Reinforcement: vertical, 

four '/," rebars; horizontal, 

V ]6 " ties at 6" pitch; Cover: 1". 


46.7 
tons 


Ihr. 
52 min. 






7 


1 


1% 


C-10-RC-3 


10" 


10" square columns; aggregate concrete 
(5370 psi); Reinforcement: vertical, four 7," 
rebars; horizontal, 5 / l6 " ties at 6" pitch; 
Cover: 1" 


46.5 
tons 


2hrs. 






7 


2,3,11 


2 


C-10-RC-4 


10" 


10" square columns; aggregate concrete 
(5206 psi); Reinforcement: vertical, four '//' 
rebars; horizontal, 5 /, 6 " ties at 6" pitch; 
Cover: 1". 


46.5 
tons 


2hrs. 






7 


2,7 


2 


C-10-RC-5 


10" 


10" square columns; aggregate concrete 
(5674 psi); Reinforcement: vertical, four V," 
rebars; horizontal, V l6 " ties at 6" pitch; 
Cover: 1". 


46.7 
tons 


2hrs. 






7 


1 


2 



(continued) 



224 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



RESOURCE A 



TABLE 2.1.2— continued 

REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMNS 

MINIMUM DIMENSION 10" TO LESS THAN 12" 



ITEM CODE 


MINIMUM 
DIMENSION 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE-BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST- BMS-92 


C-10-RC-6 


10" 


10" square columns; aggregate concrete 
(5150 psi); Reinforcement: vertical, four 
1 7," rebars; horizontal, V 1(i " ties at 6" pitch; 
Cover: 1". 


66 
tons 


1 hr. 

43 min. 






7 


1 


iv 4 


C-10-RC-7 


10" 


10" square columns; aggregate concrete 
(5580 psi); Reinforcement: vertical, four 
'/," rebars; horizontal, 5 / ]6 " ties at 6" pitch; 
Cover: 1 '//'. 


62.5 
tons 


lhr. 
38 min. 






7 


1 


17, 


C-10-RC-8 


10" 


10" square columns; aggregate concrete 
(4080 psi); Reinforcement: vertical, four 
1 7 g " rebars; horizontal, V l6 " ties at 6" pitch; 
Cover: l'/ 8 ". 


72.8 
tons 


1 hr. 
48 min. 






7 


1 


1% 


C-10-RC-9 


10" 


10" square columns; aggregate concrete 
(25 10 psi); Reinforcement: vertical, four 
7 2 " rebars; horizontal, 5 / 16 " ties at 6" pitch; 
Cover: 1". 


51 
tons 


2 hrs. 
1 6 min. 






7 


1 


2V 4 


C-10-RC-10 


10" 


10" square columns; aggregate concrete 
(2170 psi); Reinforcement: vertical, four 
'/," rebars; horizontal, V ]6 " ties at 6" pitch; 
Cover: 1". 


45 
tons 


2 hrs. 
14 min. 






7 


12 


2V 4 


C-10-RC-11 


10" 


10" square columns; gravel aggregate 
concrete (4015 psi); Reinforcement: 
vertical, four 7 2 " rebars; horizontal, V l6 " ties 
at 6" pitch; Cover: l'/ 8 ". 


46.5 
tons 


2 hrs. 
6 min. 






7 


1 


2 


C-ll-RC-12 


11" 


1 1 " square columns; gravel aggregate 
concrete (4150 psi); Reinforcement: 
vertical, four 1 7 4 " rebars; horizontal, 
7 S " ties at 77 2 " pitch; Cover: 1 '/". 


61 
tons 


lhr. 
23 min. 






7 


1 


l'/ 4 


C-ll-RC-13 


11" 


1 1" square columns; gravel aggregate 
concrete (4380 psi); Reinforcement: 
vertical, four l'/ 4 " rebars; horizontal, 
3 / s " ties at 7'/ 2 " pitch; Cover: 1 '//'. 


61 
tons 


lhr. 
26 min. 






7 


1 


l'/ 4 


C-ll-RC-14 


11" 


1 1" square columns; gravel aggregate 
concrete (4140 psi); Reinforcement: 
vertical, four l'/ 4 " rebars; horizontal, 
3 / 8 " ties at 7'/ 2 " pitch; steel mesh around 
reinforcement; Cover: 1 V 2 ". 


61 
tons 


3 hrs. 
9 min. 






7 


1 


3 


C-ll-RC-15 


11" 


1 1 " square columns; slag aggregate 
concrete (3690 psi); Reinforcement: 
vertical, four l'/ 4 " rebars; horizontal, 
V s " ties at 7'/ 2 " pitch; Cover: l7 2 ". 


91 
tons 


2 hrs. 






7 


2,3,4,5 


2 


C-ll-RC-16 


11" 


11" square columns; limestone aggregate 
concrete (5230 psi); Reinforcement: 
vertical, four l'/ 4 " rebars; horizontal, 
7 S " ties at 7'/," pitch; Cover: 1 7 2 ". 


91.5 

tons 


3 hrs. 
41 min. 






7 


1 


37 2 


C-ll-RC-17 


11" 


11" square columns; limestone aggregate 
concrete (5530 psi); Reinforcement: 
vertical, four 1 7 4 " rebars; horizontal, 
%" ties at 77 2 " pitch; Cover: 1 7 2 ". 


91.5 
tons 


3 hrs. 
47 min. 






7 


1 


37 2 



(continued) 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



225 



RESOURCE A 



TABLE 2.1.2— continued 

REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMNS 

MINIMUM DIMENSION 10" TO LESS THAN 12" 



ITEM CODE 


MINIMUM 
DIMENSION 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE-BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST- BMS-92 


C-11-RC-I8 


11" 


11" square columns; limestone aggregate 
concrete (5280 psi); Reinforcement: 
vertical, four l'/ 4 " rebars; horizontal, 3 / 8 " 
ties at 77," pitch; Cover: 1 7 2 ". 


91.5 
tons 


2hrs. 






7 


2,3,4,6 


2 


C-ll-RC-19 


11" 


11" square columns; limestone aggregate 
concrete (41 80 psi); Reinforcement: 
vertical, four %" rebars; horizontal, %" ties 
at 7" pitch; Cover: 17 2 ". 


71.4 
tons 


2hrs. 






7 


2,7 


2 


C-ll-RC-20 


11" 


11" square columns; gravel concrete (4530 
psi); Reinforcement: vertical, four V 8 " 
rebars; horizontal, 3 / g " ties at 7" pitch; 
Cover: l7 2 "with 7 2 " plaster. 


58.8 
tons 


2hrs. 






7 


2,3,9 


iv 4 


C-ll-RC-21 


11" 


11" square columns; gravel concrete (3520 
psi); Reinforcement: vertical, four 5 / 8 " 
rebars; horizontal, 3 / 8 " ties at 7" pitch; 
Cover: 17," 


Vari- 
able 


Ihr. 
24 min. 






7 


1,8 


2 


C-ll-RC-22 


11" 


11" square columns; aggregate concrete 
(3710 psi); Reinforcement: vertical, four 7 8 " 
rebars; horizontal, 3 / 8 " ties at 7" pitch; 
Cover: l7 2 ". 


58.8 
tons 


2hrs. 






7 


2,3, 10 


2 


C-ll-RC-23 


11" 


11" square columns; aggregate concrete 
(3 190 psi); Reinforcement: vertical, four V 8 " 
rebars; horizontal, 3 / g " ties at 7" pitch; 
Cover: 1 7 2 ". 


58.8 
tons 


2hrs. 






7 


2, 3, 10 


2 


C-ll-RC-24 


11" 


11" square columns; aggregate concrete 
(4860 psi); Reinforcement: vertical, four 
%" rebars; horizontal, V s " ties at 7" pitch; 
Cover: l7 2 ". 


86.1 
tons 


Ihr. 
20 rain. 






7 


1 


l'/ 3 


C-ll-RC-25 


11" 


11" square columns; aggregate concrete 
(4850 psi); Reinforcement: vertical, four s / 8 " 
rebars; horizontal, 3 / 8 " ties at 1" pitch; 
Cover: l7 2 ". 


58.8 
tons 


1 hr. 
59 min. 






7 


1 


1% 


C-ll-RC-26 


11" 


11" square columns; aggregate concrete 
(3834 psi); Reinforcement: vertical, four 5 //' 
rebars; horizontal, 5 / l6 " ties at 47," pitch; 
Cover: 1 7," 


71.4 
tons 


53 min. 






7 


1 


% 



For SI: I inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 0.00689 MPa, 1 ton = 8.896 kN. 
Notes: 

1. Failure mode — collapse. 

2. Passed 2 hour fire exposure. 

3. Passed hose stream test. 

4. Reloaded effectively after 48 hours but collapsed at load in excess of original test load. 

5. Failing load was 150 tons. 

6. Failing load was 1 1 2 tons. 

7. Failed during hose stream test. 

8. Range of load 58.8 tons (initial) to 92 tons (92 minutes) to 60 tons (80 minutes). 

9. Collapsed at 44 tons in reload after 96 hours. 

1 0. Withstood reload after 72 hours. 

1 1. Collapsed on reload after 48 hours. 



226 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



RESOURCE A 



TABLE 2.1.3 

REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMNS 

MINIMUM DIMENSION 12" TO LESS THAN 14" 



ITEM 
CODE 


MINIMUM 
DIMENSION 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER | ^ 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE-BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST-BMS-92 




C-12-RC-1 


12" 


12" square columns; gravel aggregate concrete 
(2647 psi); Reinforcement: vertical, four '%" 
rebars; horizontal, V 16 " ties at 4'/ 2 " pitch; 
Cover: 2". 


78.2 
tons 


38 min. 




1 


7 


1 


% 


C-12-RC-2 


12" 


Reinforced columns with 1 '/," concrete outside 
of reinforced steel; Gross diameter or side of 
column: 12" ; Group 1, Column A. 


— 


6 hrs. 




1 




2,3 


6 


C-12-RC-3 


12" 


Description as per C-12-RC-2: 
Group I, Column B. 


— 


4 hrs. 




1 




2,3 


4 


C-12-RC-4 


12" 


Description as per C-12-RC-2; 
Group II, Column A. 


— 


4 hrs. 




1 




2,3 


4 


C-12-RC-5 


12" 


Description as per C-12-RC-2; 
Group II, Column B. 


— 


2 hrs. 
30 min. 




1 




2,3 


2'A 


C-12-RC-6 


12" 


Description as per C-12-RC-2; 
Group III, Column A. 


— 


3 hrs. 




1 




2,3 


3 


C-12-RC-7 


12" 


Description as per C-12-RC-2; 
Group III, Column B. 


— 


2 hrs. 




1 




2,3 


2 


C-I2-RC-8 


12" 


Description as per C-12-RC-2; 
Group IV, Column A. 


— 


2 hrs. 




1 




2,3 


2 


C-12-RC-9 


12" 


Description as per C-12-RC-2; 
Group IV, Column B. 


— 


Ihr. 
30 min. 




1 




2,3 


l'/ 2 



For SI: I inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 0.00689 MPa, 1 pound per square yard = 5.3 N/m 2 . 
Notes: 

1. Failure mode — unspecified structural. 

2. Group I: includes concrete having calcareous aggregate containing a combined total of not more than 10 percent of quartz, chert and flint for the coarse 
aggregate. 

Group II: includes concrete having trap-rock aggregate applied without metal ties and also concrete having cinder, sandstone or granite aggregate if held in 
place with wire mesh or expanded metal having not larger than 4-inch mesh, weighing not less than 1.7 lbs./yd. 2 . placed not more than 1 inch from the surface 
of the concrete. 

Group III: includes concrete having cinder, sandstone or granite aggregate tied with No. 5 gage steel wire, wound spirally over the column section on a pitch 
of 8 inches, or equivalent ties, and concrete having siliceous aggregates containing a combined total of 60 percent or more of quartz, chert and flint if held in 
place with wire mesh or expanded metal having not larger than 4-inch mesh, weighing not less than 1 .7 lbs./yd. 2 , placed not more than 1 inch from the surface 
of the concrete. 

Group IV: includes concrete having siliceous aggregates containing a combined total of 60 percent or more of quartz, chert and flint, and tied with No. 5 <*a°e 
steel wire wound spirally over the column section on a pitch of 8 inches, or equivalent ties. 

3. Groupings of aggregates and ties are the same as for structural steel columns protected solidly with concrete, the ties to be placed over the vertical reinforcing 
bars and the mesh where required, to be placed within I inch from the surface of the column. 

Column A: working loads are assumed as carried by the area of the column inside of the lines circumscribing the reinforcing steel. 
Column B: working loads are assumed as carried by the gross area of the column. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE 6 



227 



RESOURCE A 



TABLE 2.1.4 

REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMNS 

MINIMUM DIMENSION 14" TO LESS THAN 16" 



ITEM 
CODE 


MINIMUM 
DIMENSION 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE- BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST- BMS-92 


C-14-RC-1 


14" 


14" square columns; gravel aggregate 
concrete (4295 psi); Reinforcement: 
vertical four 3 / 4 " rebars; horizontal: 
7 4 " ties at 9" pitch; Cover: l7 2 " 


86 
tons 


lhr. 
22 min. 






7 


1 


l'/ 4 


C-14-RC-2 


14" 


Reinforced concrete columns with l7 2 " 
concrete outside reinforcing steel; 
Gross diameter or side of column: 12" ; 
Group I, Column A. 


— 


7hrs. 








2,3 


7 


C-14-RC-3 


14" 


Description as per C-14-RC-2; 
Group II, Column B. 


— 


5 hrs. 








2,3 


5 


C-14-RC-4 


14" 


Description as per C-14-RC-2; 
Group III, Column A. 


— 


5 hrs. 








2,3 


5 


C-14-RC-5 


14" 


Description as perC-14-RC-2; 
Group IV, Column B. 


— - 


3 hrs. 
30 min. 








2,3 


37, 


C-14-RC-6 


14" 


Description as per C-14-RC-2; 
Group III, Column A. 


— 


4 hrs. 








2,3 


4 


C-14-RC-7 


14" 


Description as per C-14-RC-2; 
Group III, Column B. 


— 


2 hrs. 
30 min. 








2,3 


27 2 


C-14-RC-8 


14" 


Description as per C-14-RC-2; 
Group IV, Column A. 


— 


2 hrs. 
30 min. 








2,3 


27 2 


C-14-RC-9 


14" 


Description as per C-14-RC-2; 
Group IV, Column B. 


— 


lhr. 
30 min. 








2,3 


17 2 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 0.00689 MPa, 1 pound per square yard = 5.3 N/m . 
Notes: 

1. Failure mode — main rebars buckled between links at various points. 

2. Group I: includes concrete having calcareous aggregate containing a combined total of not more than 10 percent of quartz, chert and flint for the coarse 
aggregate. 

Group II- includes concrete having trap-rock aggregate applied without metal ties and also concrete having cinder, sandstone or granite aggregate, if held in 

place with wire mesh or expanded metal having not larger than 4-inch mesh, weighing not less than 1.7 lbs./yd. 2 , placed not more than 1 inch from the surface 

of the concrete. 

Group III- includes concrete having cinder, sandstone or granite aggregate tied with No. 5 gage steel wire, wound spirally over the column section on a pitch 

of 8 inches or equivalent ties, and concrete having siliceous aggregates containing a combined total of 60 percent or more of quartz, chert and flint, if held in 

place with wire mesh or expanded metal having not larger than 4-inch mesh, weighing not less than 1.7 lbs./yd, 2 , placed not more than 1 inch from the surface 

of the concrete. 

Group IV: includes concrete having siliceous aggregates containing a combined total of 60 percent or more of quartz, chert and flint, and tied with No. 5 gage 

steel wire wound spirally over the column section on a pitch of 8 inches, or equivalent ties. 

3. Groupings of aggregates and ties are the same as for structural steel columns protected solidly with concrete, the ties to be placed over the vertical reinforcing 
bars and the mesh where required, to be placed within 1 inch from the surface of the column. 

Column A: working loads are assumed as carried by the area of the column inside of the lines circumscribing the reinforcing steel. 
Column B: working loads are assumed as carried by the gross area of the column. 



228 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



RESOURCE A 



NUMBER OF 
ASSEMBLIES 



10- 



FIGURE 2.1.5 

REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMNS 

MINIMUM DIMENSION 16" TO LESS THAN 18" 



The number in each box is 
keyed to the last number in the 
Item Code column in the Table. 



For example: 

C-16-' 



11 



10 




10 



FIRE RESISTANCE RATING (HOURS) 

TABLE 2.1.5 

REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMNS 

MINIMUM DIMENSION 16" TO LESS THAN 18" 



ITEM 
CODE 


MINIMUM 

DIMENSION 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE-BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST-BMS-92 


C-16-RC-1 


16" 


16" square columns; gravel aggregate concrete 
(4550 psi); Reinforcement: vertical, eight l 3 / 8 " 
rebars; horizontal, 5 / l6 " ties at 6" pitch l 3 / 8 " 
below column surface and V 16 " ties at 6" pitch 
linking center rebars of each face forming a 
smaller square in column cross section. 


237 
tons 


lhr 






7 


1, 2, 3 


1 


C-16-RC-2 


16" 


16" square columns; gravel aggregate concrete 
(3360 psi); Reinforcement: vertical, eight l 3 / 8 " 
rebars; horizontal, 5 / l6 " ties at 6" pitch; Cover: 

13/ " 


210 
tons 


2hrs. 






7 


2, 4, 5, 
6 


2 


C-16-RC-3 


16" 


16" square columns; gravel aggregate concrete 
(3980 psi); Reinforcement: vertical, four 7 / 8 " 
rebars; horizontal, 
3 / s " ties at 6" pitch; Cover: 1". 


123.5 
tons 


2 hrs. 






7 


2,4,7 


2 


C-16-RC-4 


16" 


Reinforced concrete columns with l'/ 2 " con- 
crete outside reinforcing steel; Gross diameter 
or side of 
column: 16" ; Group I, Column A. 


— 


9hrs. 




1 




8,9 


9 


C-16-RC-5 


16" 


Description as per C-16-RC-4; 
Group I, Column B. 


— 


6 hrs. 




1 




8,9 


6 


C-16-RC-6 


16" 


Description as per C-16-RC-4; 
Group II, Column A. 


— 


6 hrs. 




1 




8,9 


6 



(continued) 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



229 



RESOURCE A 



TABLE 2.1.5— continued 

REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMNS 

MINIMUM DIMENSION 16" TO LESS THAN 18 



ITEM 
CODE 


MINIMUM 
DIMENSION 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE-BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST-BMS-92 


C-16-RC-7 


16" 


Description as per C-16-RC-4; 
Group II, Column B. 


— 


4 hrs. 








8,9 


4 


C-16-RC-8 


16" 


Description as per C-16-RC-4; 
Group III, Column A. 


— 


5 hrs. 








8,9 


5 


C-16-RC-9 


16" 


Description as per C-16-RC-4; 
Group III, Column B. 


— 


3 hrs. 
30 min. 








8,9 


37, 


C-16-RC-10 


16" 


Description as per C-16-RC-4; 
Group IV, Column A. 


— 


3 hrs. 








8,9 


3 


C-16-RC-U 


16" 


Description as per C-16-RC-4; 
Group IV, Column B. 


— 


2 hrs. 








8,9 


2 



For SI: I inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 0.00689 MPa, 1 pound per square yard = 5.3 N/nr. 
Notes: 

1. Column passed 1-hour fire test. 

2. Column passed hose stream test. 

3. No reload specified. 

4. Column passed 2-hour fire test. 

5. Column reloaded successfully after 24 hours. 

6. Reinforcing details same as C-16-RC-1 . 

7. Column passed reload after 72 hours. 

8. Group 1: includes concrete having calcareous aggregate containing a combined total of not more than 10 percent of quartz, chert and flint for the coarse 
aggregate. 

Group II: includes concrete having trap-rock aggregate applied without metal ties and also concrete having cinder, sandstone or granite aggregate, if held in 

place with wire mesh or expanded metal having not larger than 4-inch mesh, weighing not less than 1 .7 lbs./yd. 2 , placed not more than 1 inch from the surface 

of the concrete. 

Group 111: includes concrete having cinder, sandstone or granite aggregate tied with No. 5 gage steel wire, wound spirally over the column section on a pitch 

of 8 inches, or equivalent ties, and concrete having siliceous aggregates containing a combined total of 60 percent or more of quartz, chert and flint, if held in 

place with wire mesh or expanded metal having not larger than 4-inch mesh, weighing not less than 1 .7 lbs./yd. 2 , placed not more than 1 inch from the surface 

of the concrete. 

Group IV: includes concrete having siliceous aggregates containing a combined total of 60 percent or more of quartz, chert and flint, and tied with No. 5 gage 

steel wire wound spirally over the column section on a pitch of 8 inches, or equivalent ties. 

9. Groupings of aggregates and ties are the same as for structural steel columns protected solidly with concrete, the ties to be placed over the vertical reinforcing 
bars and the mesh where required, to be placed within 1 inch from the surface of the column. 

Column A: working loads are assumed as carried by the area of the column inside of the lines circumscribing the reinforcing steel. 
Column B: working loads are assumed as carried by the gross area of the column. 



230 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



RESOURCE A 



TABLE 2.1.6 

REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMNS 

MINIMUM DIMENSION 18" TO LESS THAN 20" 



ITEM 
CODE 


MINIMUM 
DIMENSION 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE- BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST- BMS-92 


C-18-RC-1 


18" 


Reinforced concrete columns with l'/ 2 " 
concrete outside reinforced steel; Gross 
diameter or side of column: 18" ; Group I, 
Column A. 


— 


11 hrs. 




1 




1,2 


11 


C-18-RC-2 


18" 


Description as per C- 1 8-RC- 1 ; 
Group I, Column B. 


— 


8 hrs. 




1 




1,2 


8 


C-18-RC-3 


18" 


Description as per C-18-RC-1; 
Group II, Column A. 


— 


7 hrs. 




1 




1,2 


7 


C-18-RC-4 


18" 


Description as per C-18-RC-1 ; 
Group II, Column B. 


— 


5 hrs. 




1 




1,2 


5 


C-18-RC-5 


18" 


Description as per C-18-RC-1; 
Group III, Column A. 


— 


6 hrs. 




1 




1,2 


6 


C-18-RC-6 


18" 


Description as per C- 1 8-RC- 1 ; 
Group III, Column B. 


— 


4 hrs. 




1 




1,2 


4 


C-18-RC7 


18" 


Description as per C-18-RC-1; 
Group IV, Column A. 


— 


3 hrs. 
30 min. 




1 




1,2 


3 'A 


C-18-RC-8 


18" 


Description as per C-l 8-RC- 1 ; 
Group IV, Column B. 


— 


2 hrs. 
30 min. 




1 




1,2 


27 2 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, I pound per square yard = 5.3 N/m 2 . 
Notes: 

1. Group I: includes concrete having calcareous aggregate containing a combined total of not more than 10 percent of quartz, chert and flint for the coarse 
aggregate. 

Group II: includes concrete having trap-rock aggregate applied without metal ties and also concrete having cinder, sandstone or granite aggregate, if held in 

place with wire mesh or expanded metal having not larger than 4-inch mesh, weighing not less than 1.7 lbs./yd. 2 , placed not more than 1 inch from the surface 

of the concrete. 

Group III: includes concrete having cinder, sandstone or granite aggregate tied with No. 5 gage steel wire, wound spirally over the column section on a pitch 

of 8 inches, or equivalent ties, and concrete having siliceous aggregates containing a combined total of 60 percent or more of quartz, chert and flint, if held in 

place with wire mesh or expanded metal having not larger than 4-inch mesh, weighing not less than 1 .7 lbs./yd. 2 , placed not more than 1 inch from the surface 

of the concrete. 

Group IV: includes concrete having siliceous aggregates containing a combined total of 60 percent or more of quartz, chert and flint and, tied with No. 5 gage 

steel wire wound spirally over the column section on a pitch of 8 inches, or equivalent ties. 

2. Groupings of aggregates and ties are the same as for structural steel columns protected solidly with concrete, the ties to be placed over the vertical reinforcing 
bars and the mesh where required, to be placed within 1 inch from the surface of the column. 

Column A: working loads are assumed as carried by the area of the column inside of the lines circumscribing the reinforcing steel. 
Column B: working loads are assumed as carried by the gross area of the column. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



231 



RESOURCE A 



NUMBER OF 
ASSEMBLIES 



A 



10 — 



FIGURE 2.1 .7 

REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMNS 

MINIMUM DIMENSION 20" TO LESS THAN 22" 



2 
1 




11 
3 




















10 




9 




7 




8 

























The number in each box is 
keyed to the last number in the 
item Code column in the Table. 

For example: 




11 



4 5 6 7 8 

FIRE RESISTANCE RATING (HOURS) 



10 



12 



TABLE 2.1.7 

REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMNS 
MINIMUM DIMENSION 20" TO LESS THAN 22" 



ITEM 
CODE 


MINIMUM 
DIMENSION 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE-BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST-BMS-92 


C-20-RC-1 


20" 


20" square columns; gravel aggregate con- 
crete (6690 psi); Reinforcement: vertical, four 
l 3 / 4 " rebars; horizontal, 
3 / 8 " wire at 6" pitch; Cover l'/ 4 ". 


367 
tons 


2hrs. 






7 


1,2,3 


2 


C-20-RC-2 


20" 


20" square columns; gravel aggregate con- 
crete (4330 psi); Reinforcement: vertical, four 
l 3 / 4 " rebars; horizontal, 
3 / 8 " ties at 6" pitch; Cover l 3 / 4 ". 


327 
tons 


2 hrs. 






7 


1,2,4 


2 


C-20-RC-3 


207/ 


20" square columns; gravel aggregate con- 
crete (4230 psi); Reinforcement: vertical, four 
lV s " rebars; horizontal, 
3 / g " wire at 5" pitch; Cover 1 7 S ". 


199 
tons 


2hrs. 
56 min. 






7 


5 


27 4 


C-20-RC-4 


20" 


Reinforced concrete columns with 1 7 2 " con- 
crete outside of reinforcing steel; Gross 
diameter or side of column: 20" ; Group I, 
Column A. 


— 


12 hrs. 




1 




6,7 


12 


C-20-RC-5 


20" 


Description as per C-20-RC-4; 
Group I, Column B. 


— 


9 hrs. 




1 




6,7 


9 



(continued) 



232 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



RESOURCE A 



TABLE 2.1.7— continued 

REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMNS 

MINIMUM DIMENSION 20" TO LESS THAN 22" 



ITEM 
CODE 


MINIMUM 
DIMENSION 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE-BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST-BMS-92 


C-20-RC-6 


20" 


Description as per C-20-RC-4; 
Group II, Column A. 


— 


9hrs. 








6,7 


9 


C-20-RC-7 


20" 


Description as per C-20-RC-4; 
Group II, Column B. 


— 


6 hrs 








6,7 


6 


C-20-RC-8 


20" 


Description as per C-20-RC-4; 
Group III, Column A. 


— 


7hrs. 








6,7 


7 


C-20-RC-9 


20" 


Description as per C-20-RC-4; 
Group III, Column B. 


— 


5 hrs. 








6,7 


5 


C-20-RC-10 


20" 


Description as per C-20-RC-4; 
Group IV, Column A. 


— 


4 hrs. 








6,7 


4 


C-20-RC-11 


20" 


Description as per C-20-RC-4; 
Group IV, Column B. 


— 


3 hrs. 








6,7 


3 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square yard = 5.3 N/m 2 , 1 ton = 8.896 kN. 
Notes: 

1 . Passed 2-hour tire test. 

2. Passed hose stream test. 

. Failed during reload at 300 tons. 
. Passed reload after 72 hours. 
. Failure mode — collapse. 

. Group I: includes concrete having calcareous aggregate containing a combined total of not more than 10 percent of quartz, chert and flint for the coarse 
aggregate. 

Group II: includes concrete having trap-rock aggregate applied without metal ties and also concrete having cinder, sandstone or granite aggregate, if held in 
place with wire mesh or expanded metal having not larger than 4-inch mesh, weighing not less than t.7 lbs./yd. 2 , placed not more than 1 inch from the surface 
of the concrete. 

Group III: includes concrete having cinder, sandstone or granite aggregate tied with No. 5 gage steel wire, wound spirally over the column section on a pitch 
of 8 inches, or equivalent ties, and concrete having siliceous aggregates containing a combined total of 60 percent or more of quartz, chert and flint, if held in 
place with wire mesh or expanded metal having not larger than 4-inch mesh, weighing not less than 1.7 lbs./yd. 2 , placed not more than 1 inch from the surface 
of the concrete. 

Group IV: includes concrete having siliceous aggregates containing a combined total of 60 percent or more of quartz, chert and flint, and tied with No. 5 gage 

steel wire wound spirally over the column section on a pitch of 8 inches, or equivalent ties. 

Groupings of aggregates and ties are the same as for structural steel columns protected solidly with concrete, the ties to be placed over the vertical reinforcing 

bars and the mesh where required, to be placed within 1 inch from the surface of the column. 

Column A: working loads are assumed as carried by the area of the column inside of the lines circumscribing the reinforcing steel. 

Column B: working loads are assumed as carried by the gross area of the column. 



TABLE 2.1 .8 

HEXAGONAL REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMNS 

MINIMUM DIMENSION 12" TO LESS THAN 14" 



ITEM 
CODE 


MINIMUM 
DIMENSION 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE-BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST-BMS-92 


C-12-HRC-1 


12" 


12" hexagonal columns; gravel 
aggregate concrete (4420 psi); Reinforce- 
ment: vertical, eight '//' rebars; horizontal, 
5 /, 6 " helical winding at 1 V 2 " pitch; Cover; 

%". 


88 tons 


58 min. 






7 


1 


% 


C-12-HRC-2 


12" 


12" hexagonal columns; gravel aggregate 
concrete (3460 psi); Reinforcement: 
vertical, eight 7 2 " rebars; horizontal, 5 / l6 " 
helical winding at 1 '//' pitch; Cover: V 2 ". 


78.7 
tons 


lhr. 






7 


2 


1 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 0.00689 MPa, 1 ton = 8.896 kN. 
Notes: 

1. Failure mode — collapse. 

2. Test stopped at 1 hour. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



233 



RESOURCE A 



TABLE 2.1.9 

HEXAGONAL REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMNS 

MINIMUM DIMENSION 14" TO LESS THAN 16" 



ITEM 
CODE 


MINIMUM 
DIMENSION 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE-BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST-BMS-92 


C-14-HRC-1 


14" 


14" hexagonal columns; gravel aggregate 
concrete (4970 psi); Reinforcement: vertical, 
eight '/" rebars; horizontal, 5 / 16 " helical 
winding on 2" pitch; Cover: 7," 


90 tons 


2hrs. 






7 


1,2,3 


2 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 0.00689 MPa, 1 ton = 8.896 kN. 
Notes: 

1. Withstood 2-hour fire test. 

2. Withstood hose stream test. 

3. Withstood reload after 48 hours. 



TABLE 2.1.10 

HEXAGONAL REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMNS 

DIAMETER— 16" TO LESS THAN 18" 



ITEM 
CODE 


MINIMUM 
DIMENSION 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE- BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST-BMS-92 


C-16-HRC-1 


1 6" 


16" hexagonal columns; gravel concrete 
(6320 psi); Reinforcement: vertical, eight 
5 / s " rebars; horizontal, 5 / l6 " helical winding 
on V 4 " pitch; Cover: '//'. 


140 
tons 


lhr. 

55 min. 






7 


1 


1% 


C-16-HRC-2 


16" 


16" hexagonal columns; gravel aggregate 
concrete (5580 psi); Reinforcement: 
vertical, eight 5 / 8 " rebars; horizontal, V l6 " 
helical winding on l 3 / 4 " pitch; Cover: '//' 


124 
tons 


2hrs. 






7 


2 


2 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 0.00689 MPa, 1 ton = 8.896 kN. 
Notes: 

1. Failure mode — collapse. 

2. Failed on furnace removal. 



TABLE 2.1.11 

HEXAGONAL REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMNS 

DIAMETER— 20" TO LESS THAN 22" 



ITEM 
CODE 


MINIMUM 
DIMENSION 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE- BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST-BMS-92 


C-20-HRC-1 


20" 


20" hexagonal columns; gravel concrete 
(6080 psi); Reinforcement: vertical, 3 / 4 " 
rebars; horizontal, 5 / 6 " helical winding on 
l 3 / 4 " pitch; Cover: 7 2 ". 


211 
tons 


2hrs. 






7 


1 


2 


C-20-HRC-2 


20" 


20" hexagonal columns; gravel concrete 
(5080 psi); Reinforcement: vertical, V 4 " 
rebars; horizontal, 5 / ]6 " wire on l 3 / 4 " pitch; 
Cover: 7," 


184 
tons 


2hrs. 

15 

min. 






7 


2,3,4 


2'/ 4 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 0.00689 MPa, 1 ton = 8.896 kN. 
Notes: 

1. Column collapsed on furnace removal. 

2. Passed 27 4 -hour fire test. 

3. Passed hose stream test. 

4. Withstood reload after 48 hours. 



234 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



RESOURCE A 



TABLE 2.2 
ROUND CAST IRON COLUMNS 



ITEM 
CODE 


MINIMUM 
DIMENSION 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE-BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST-BMS-92 


C-7-CI-1 


7" O.D. 


Column: 0.6" minimum metal thickness; 
unprotected. 


— 


30min. 




1 






% 


C-7-CI-2 


7" O.D. 


Column: 0.6" minimum metal thickness 
concrete filled, outside unprotected. 


— 


45 min. 




1 






% 


C-ll-CI-3 


1 1" O.D. 


Column: 0.6" minimum metal thickness; 
Protection: 1 '/," portland cement plaster on 
high ribbed metal lath, '/," broken air space. 


— 


3 hrs. 




1 






3 


C-ll-CI-4 


1 1" O.D. 


Column: 0.6" minimum metal thickness; 
Protection: 2" concrete other than siliceous 
aggregate. 


— 


2hrs. 
30 min. 




1 






2% 


C-12-CI-5 


12.5" O.D. 


Column: 7" O.D. 0.6" minimum metal thick- 
ness; Protection: 2" porous hollow tile, 3 / 4 " 
mortar between tile and column, outside 
wire ties. 


— 


3 hrs. 




1 






3 


C-7-CI-6 


7.6" O.D. 


Column: 7" I.D., V l0 " minimum metal thick- 
ness, concrete filled unprotected. 


— 


30 min. 




1 






% 


C-8-CI-7 


8.6" O.D. 


Column: 8" I.D., 3 / l() " minimum metal thick- 
ness; concrete filled reinforced with four 
3'/ 2 " x V s " angles, in fill; unprotected 
outside. 


— 


lhr. 




1 






1 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



235 



RESOURCE A 



FIGURE 2.3 
STEEL COLUMNS-GYPSUM ENCASEMENTS 



NUMBER OF 
ASSEMBLIES 



10- 



10 

7 



12 



The number in each box is 
keyed to the last number in the 
Item Code column in the Table. 

For example: 



13 




3 4 5 6 7 

FIRE RESISTANCE RATING (HOURS) 

TABLE 2.3 
STEEL COLUMNS— GYPSUM ENCASEMENTS 



10 



ITEM 
CODE 


MINIMUM 
AREA OF 

SOLID 
MATERIAL 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE-BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST-BMS-92 


C-SG-1 


— 


Steel protected with 3 / 4 " 1:3 sanded 
gypsum or 1" 1:2'/, portland cement plas- 
ter on wire or lath; one layer. 


— 


lhr. 




1 






1 


C-SG-2 


— 


Same as C-SG-1 ; two layers. 


— 


2 hrs. 
30 min. 




1 






2 1 /, 


C-SG-3 


130 in. 2 


2" solid blocks with wire mesh in 
horizontal joints; 1" mortar on flange; 
reentrant space filled with block and 
mortar. 


— 


2 hrs. 




1 






2 


C-SG-4 


150 in. 2 


Same as C-130-SG-3 with 7," sanded 
gypsum plaster. 


— 


5 hrs. 




1 






5 


C-SG-5 


130 in. 2 


2" solid blocks with wire mesh in 
horizontal joints; 1" mortar on flange; 
reentrant space filled with gypsum 
concrete. 


— 


2 hrs. 
30 min. 




1 






27 2 


C-SG-6 


150 in. 2 


Same as C-130-SG-5 with '//' sanded 
gypsum plaster. 


— 


5 hrs. 




1 






5 


C-SG-7 


300 in. 2 


4" solid blocks with wire mesh in 
horizontal joints; 1" mortar on flange; 
reentrant space filled with block and 
mortar. 


— 


4 hrs. 




1 






4 



(continued) 



236 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



RESOURCE A 



TABLE 2.3— continued 
STEEL COLUMNS— GYPSUM ENCASEMENTS 



ITEM 
CODE 


MINIMUM 

AREA OF 

SOLID 

MATERIAL 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE-BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST-BMS-92 


C-SG-8 


300 in. 2 


Same as C-300-SG-7 with reentrant 
space filled with gypsum concrete. 


— 


5 hrs. 




1 






5 


C-SG-9 


85 in. 2 


2" solid blocks with cramps at horizontal 
joints; mortar on flange only at horizontal 
joints; reentrant space not filled. 


— 


2 hrs. 
30 min. 




1 






2V 2 


C-SG-10 


105 in. 2 


Same as C-85-SG-9 with '//' sanded 
gypsum plaster. 


— 


4 hrs. 




1 






4 


C-SG-11 


95 in. 2 


3" hollow blocks with cramps at horizontal 
joints; mortar on flange only at horizontal 
joints; reentrant space not filled. 


— 


2 hrs. 
30 min. 




1 






2V 2 


C-SG-12 


120 in. 2 


Same as C-95-SG-1 1 with 7 2 " sanded 
gypsum plaster. 


— 


5 hrs. 




1 






5 


C-SG-13 


130 in. 2 


2" neat fibered gypsum reentrant space 
filled poured solid and reinforced with 4" x 
4" wire mesh '//' sanded gypsum plaster. 


— 


7 hrs. 




1 






7 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 square inch = 645 mm 2 . 



TABLE 2.4 
TIMBER COLUMNS MINIMUM DIMENSION 



ITEM 
CODE 


MINIMUM 
DIMENSION 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE-BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST-BMS-92 


C-ll-TC-1 


11" 


With unprotected steel plate cap. 


— 


30 min. 




1 




1,2 


% 


C-ll-TC-2 


11" 


With unprotected cast iron cap and pintle. 


— 


45 min. 




1 




1,2 


X 


C-ll-TC-3 


11" 


With concrete or protected steel or cast 
iron cap. 


— 


1 hr. 

15 min. 




1 




1,2 


iv 4 


C-ll-TC-4 


11" 


With \" gypsum wallboard over column 
and over cast iron or steel cap. 


— 


Ihr. 

15 min. 




1 




1,2 


iv 4 


C-ll-TC-5 


11" 


With 1" portland cement plaster on wire lath 
over column and over cast iron or steel cap; 
3 / 4 " air space. 


— 


2 hrs. 




1 




1,2 


2 



For SI: I inch = 25.4 mm, 1 square inch = 645 mm 2 . 
Notes: 

1. Minimum area: 120 square inches. 

2. Type of wood: long leaf pine or Douglas fir. 



TABLE 2.5.1.1 

STEEL COLUMNS— CONCRETE ENCASEMENTS 

MINIMUM DIMENSION LESS THAN 6" 



ITEM 
CODE 


MINIMUM 
DIMENSION 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE-BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST-BMS-92 


C-5-SC-1 


5" 


5" x 6" outer dimensions; 4" x 3" x 10 lbs. "H" 
beam; Protection: gravel concrete 
(4900 psi) 6" x 4" - 13 SWG mesh. 


12 tons 


Ihr. 
29 min. 






7 


1 


l'/ 4 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 0.00689 MPa, 1 ton = 8.896 kN. 

Notes: 

1 . Failure mode — collapse. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



237 



RESOURCE A 



TABLE 2.5.1 .2 

STEEL COLUMNS— CONCRETE ENCASEMENTS 

6" TO LESS THAN 8" THICK 



ITEM 
CODE 


MINIMUM 
DIMENSION 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE-BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST-BMS-92 


C-7-SC-1 


7" 


7" x 8" column; 4" x 3" x 10 lbs. "H" beam; 
Protection: brick filled concrete (6220 psi); 
6" x 4" mesh - 13 SWG; 1" below 
column surface. 


12 tons 


2 hrs. 
46 min. 






7 


1 


2% 


C-7-SC-2 


7" 


7" x 8" column; 4" x 3" x 10 lbs. "H" beam; 
Protection: gravel concrete (5140 psi); 
6" x 4" 13 SWG mesh 1" below surface. 


12 tons 


3 hrs. 
1 min. 






7 


1 


3 


C-7-SC-3 


7" 


7" x 8" column; 4" x 3" x 10 lbs. "H" beam; 
Protection: concrete (4540 psi); 6" x 4" 
- 13 SWG mesh; 1" below column surface. 


12 tons 


3 hrs. 
9 min. 






7 


1 


3 


C-7-SC-4 


7" 


7" x 8" column; 4" x 3" x 10 lbs. "H" beam; 
Protection: gravel concrete (5520 psi); 
4" x 4" mesh; 16 SWG. 


12 tons 


2 hrs. 
50 min. 






7 


1 


2 3 / 4 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 ram, 1 pound per square inch = 0.00689 MPa, 1 ton = 8.896 kN. 

Notes: 

1 . Failure mode — collapse. 



238 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE 



RESOURCE A 



FIGURE 2.5.1.3 

STEEL COLUMNS— CONCRETE ENCASEMENTS 

MINIMUM DIMENSION 8" TO LESS THAN 1 0" 



NUMBER OF 
ASSEMBLIES 



10- 



5— 



The number in each box is 
keyed to the last number in the 
Item Code column in the Table. 

For example: 

C-9-SCl5" 





11 




10 


7 


6 




5 


3 


2 




1 












3 4 5 6 7 

FIRE RESISTANCE RATING (HOURS) 

TABLE 2.5.1.3 

STEEL COLUMNS— CONCRETE ENCASEMENTS 
MINIMUM DIMENSION 8" TO LESS THAN 1 0" 



10 



ITEM 
CODE 


MINIMUM 
DIMENSION 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE-BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST-BMS-92 


C-8-SC-1 


8V 2 " 


8'/ 2 " x 10" column; 6" x 4'/ 2 " x 20 lbs. 
"H" beam; Protection: gravel concrete 
(5140 psi); 6" x 4" - 13 SWG mesh. 


39 tons 


3 hrs. 
8 min. 






7 


1 


3 


C-8-SC-2 


8" 


8" x 10" column; 8" x 6" x 35 lbs. 
"I" beam; Protection: gravel concrete 
(4240 psi); 6" x 4" - 13 SWG mesh; 
7 2 " cover. 


90 tons 


2 hrs. 
1 min. 






7 


1 


2 


C-8-SC-3 


8" 


8" x 10" concrete encased column; 
8" x 6" x 35 lbs. "H" beam; protection: 
aggregate concrete (3750 psi); 4" mesh - 1 6 
SWG reinforcing 7," below column surface. 


90 tons 


lhr. 
58 min. 






7 


1 


IX 


C-8-SC-4 


8" 


6" x 6" steel column; 2" outside protection; 
Group I. 


— 


5 hrs. 




1 




2 


5 


C-8-SC-5 


8" 


6" x 6" steel column; 2" outside protection: 
Group II. 


— 


3 hrs. 
30 min. 




1 




2 


37, 


C-8-SC-6 


8" 


6" x 6" steel column; 2" outside protection; 
Group III. 


— 


2 hrs. 
30 min. 




1 




2 


27, 



(continued) 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE 8 



239 



RESOURCE A 



TABLE 2.5.1.3— continued 

STEEL COLUMNS— CONCRETE ENCASEMENTS 

MINIMUM DIMENSION 8" TO LESS THAN 10" 



ITEM 
CODE 


MINIMUM 
DIMENSION 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE-BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST-BMS-92 


C-8-SC-7 


8" 


6" x 6" steel column; 2" outside protection; 
Group IV. 


— 


lhr. 
45 min. 




1 




2 


1% 


C-9-SC-8 


9" 


6" x 6" steel column; 3" outside protection; 
Group 1. 


— 


7 hrs. 




1 




2 


7 


C-9-SC-9 


9" 


6" x 6" steel column; 3" outside protection; 
Group II. 


— 


5 hrs. 




1 




2 


5 


C-9-SC-10 


9" 


6" x 6" steel column; 3" outside protection; 
Group III. 


— 


3 hrs. 
30 min. 




1 




2 


3V 2 


C-9-SC-11 


9" 


6" x 6" steel column; 3" outside protection; 
Group IV. 




2 hrs. 
30 min. 




1 




2 


2V 2 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound = 0.004448 kN, 1 pound per square inch = 0.00689 MPa, 1 pound per square yard = 5.3 N/nr, I ton = 8.896 kN. 
Notes: 

1. Failure mode — collapse. 

2. Group I: includes concrete having calcareous aggregate containing a combined total of not more than 10 percent of quartz, chert and flint for the coarse 

aggregate. 

Group IF includes concrete having trap-rock aggregate applied without metal ties and also concrete having cinder, sandstone or gramte aggregate, it held in 

place with wire mesh or expanded metal having not larger than 4-inch mesh, weighing not less than 1.7 lbs./yd. 2 , placed not more than 1 inch from the surface 

of the concrete. , 

Group IIP includes concrete having cinder, sandstone or granite aggregate tied with No. 5 gage steel wire, wound spirally over the column section on a pitch 

of 8 inches or equivalent ties, and concrete having siliceous aggregates containing a combined total of 60 percent or more ot quartz, chert and flint, if held in 

place with wire mesh or expanded metal having not larger than 4-inch mesh, weighing not less than 1 .7 lbs./yd. 2 , placed not more than 1 inch from the surface 

of the concrete. 

Group IV: includes concrete having siliceous aggregates containing a combined total of 60 percent or more of quartz, chert and Hint, and tied with No. 5 gage 

steel wire wound spirally over the column section on a pitch of 8 inches, or equivalent ties. 



240 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE 8 



RESOURCE A 



FIGURE 2.5.1.4 

STEEL COLUMNS— CONCRETE ENCASEMENTS 

MINIMUM DIMENSION 10" TO LESS THAN 12" 



NUMBER OF 
ASSEMBLIES 



A 



10 



11 



32 
21 



20 



36 
31 

22 



19 
18 
17 
14 



28 



12 
4 
3 



35 
30 

16 



15 
13 



The number in each box is 
keyed to the last number in the 
Item Code column in the Table. 

For example: 

C-11-SC{34) 



10 



27 




34 
29 
24 
23 



26 



33 



25 



10 



FIRE RESISTANCE RATING (HOURS) 

TABLE 2.5.1.4 

STEEL COLUMNS— CONCRETE ENCASEMENTS 

MINIMUM DIMENSION 10" TO LESS THAN 12" 



ITEM 
CODE 


MINIMUM 
DIMENSION 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE-BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST-BMS-92 


C-10-SC-1 


10" 


10" x 12" concrete encased steel column; 
8" x 6" x 35 lbs. "H" beam; Protection; gravel 
aggregate concrete (3640 psi); Mesh 6" x 4" 13 
SWG, 1" below column surface. 


90 tons 


3 hrs. 
7 min. 






7 


1,2 


3 


C-10-SC-2 


10" 


1 0" x 16" column; 8" x 6" x 35 lbs. "H" beam; 
Protection: clay brick concrete (3630 psi); 6" x 
4" mesh; 13 SWG, 1" below column surface. 


90 tons 


4 hrs. 
6 min. 






7 


2 


4 


C-10-SC-3 


10" 


10" x 12" column; 8" x 6" x 35 lbs. "H" beam; 
Protection: crushed stone and sand concrete 
(3930 psi); 6" x 4" - 13 SWG mesh; 1" below 
column surface. 


90 tons 


3 hrs. 
1 7 min. 






7 


2 


3V 4 


C-10-SC-4 


10" 


10" x 12" column; 8" x 6" x 35 lbs. "H" beam; 
Protection: crushed basalt and sand concrete 
(4350 psi); 6" x 4" - 13 SWG mesh; 1" below 
column surface. 


90 tons 


3 hrs. 
22 min. 






7 


2 


3V 3 


C-10-SC-5 


10" 


10" x 12" column; 8" x 6" x 35 lbs. 
"H" beam; Protection: gravel aggregate 
concrete (5570 psi); 6" x 4" mesh; 13 SWG. 


90 tons 


3 hrs. 
39 min. 






7 


2 


37 2 


C-10-SC-6 


10" 


10" x 16" column; 8" x 6" x 35 lbs. "I" beam; 
Protection: gravel concrete (4950 psi); mesh; 
6" x 4" 13 SWG 1" below column surface. 


90 tons 


4 hrs. 
32 min. 






7 


2 


4V 2 



(continued) 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



241 



RESOURCE A 



TABLE 2.5.1.4— continued 

STEEL COLUMNS— CONCRETE ENCASEMENTS 

MINIMUM DIMENSION 10" TO LESS THAN 12" 



ITEM 
CODE 


MINIMUM 
DIMENSION 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE-BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST-BMS-92 


C-10-SC-7 


10" 


10" x 12" concrete encased steel column; 
8" x 6" x 35 lbs. "H" beam; Protection: 
aggregate concrete (1370 psi); 6" x 4" mesh; 
13 SWG reinforcing 1" below column sur- 
face. 


90 tons 


2 hrs. 






7 


3,4 


2 


C-10-SC-8 


10" 


10" x 12" concrete encased steel column; 
8" x 6" x 35 lbs. "H" column; Protection: 
aggregate concrete (4000 psi); 13 SWG iron 
wire loosely around column at 6" pitch about 
2" beneath column surface. 


86 tons 


3 hrs. 
36 min. 






7 


2 


37, 


C-10-SC-9 


10" 


10" x 12" concrete encased steel column; 
8" x 6" x 35 lbs. "H" beam; Protection: 
aggregate concrete (3290 psi); 
2" cover minimum. 


86 tons 


2 hrs. 
8 min. 






7 


2 


2 


C-10-SC-10 


10" 


10" x 14" concrete encased steel column; 
8" x 6" x 35 lbs. "H" column; Protection: 
crushed brick filled concrete (5310 psi); 
6" x 4" mesh; 13 SWG reinforcement 
1" below column surface. 


90 tons 


4 hrs. 
28 min. 






7 


2 


4'/ 3 


C-10-SC-11 


10" 


10" x 1 4" concrete encased column; 
8" x 6" x 35 lbs. "H" beam; Protection: 
aggregate concrete (342 psi); 6" x 4" mesh; 
13 SWG reinforcement 1" below surface. 


90 tons 


1 hr. 
2 min. 






7 


2 


1 


C-10-SC-12 


1.0" 


10" x 1 2" concrete encased steel column; 
8" x 6" x 35 lbs. "H" beam; Protection: 
aggregate concrete (4480 psi); four V g " verti- 
cal bars at "H" beam edges with 3 / l6 " spacers 
at beam surface at 3' pitch and 3 /, 6 " binders at 
10" pitch; 2" concrete cover. 


90 tons 


3 hrs. 
2 min. 






7 


2 


3 


C-10-SC-13 


10" 


10" x 12" concrete encased steel column; 
8" x 6" x 35 lbs. "H" beam; Protection: 
aggregate concrete (5070 psi); 6" x 4" mesh; 
.13 SWG reinforcing at 6" beam sides 
wrapped and held by wire ties across (open) 
8" beam face; reinforcements wrapped in 
6" x 4" mesh; 13 SWG throughout; 
7," cover to column surface. 


90 tons 


3 hrs. 
59 min. 






7 


2 


3V 4 


C-10-SC-14 


10" 


10" x 12" concrete encased steel column; 
8" x 6" x 35 lbs. "H" beam; Protection: 
aggregate concrete (4410 psi); 6" x 4" mesh; 
13 SWG reinforcement 17 4 " below column 
surface; 7 2 " limestone cement plaster with 
7 g " gypsum plaster finish. 


90 tons 


2 hrs. 
50 min. 






7 


2 


2% 


C-10-SC-15 


10" 


10" x 12" concrete encased steel column; 
8" x 6" x 35 lbs. "H" beam; Protection: 
crushed clay brick filled concrete (4260 psi); 
6" x 4" mesh; 13 SWG reinforcing 
1" below column surface. 


90 tons 


3 hrs. 
54 min. 






7 


2 


3 3 / 4 


C-10-SC-16 


10" 


10" x 12" concrete encased steel column; 
8" x 6" x 35 lbs. "H" beam; Protection: 
limestone aggregate concrete (4350 psi); 
6" x 4" mesh; 13 SWG reinforcing 
1" below column surface. 


90 tons 


3 hrs. 
54 min. 






7 


2 


3V 4 



(continued) 



242 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE 8 



RESOURCE A 



TABLE 2.5.1.4— continued 

STEEL COLUMNS— CONCRETE ENCASEMENTS 

MINIMUM DIMENSION 10" TO LESS THAN 12" 



ITEM 
CODE 


MINIMUM 
DIMENSION 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 

HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE-BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST-BMS-92 


C-10-SC-17 


10" 


10" x 12" concrete encased steel column; 
8" x 6" x 35 lbs. "H" beam; Protection: lime- 
stone aggregate concrete (5300 psi); 
6" x 4"; 13 SWG wire mesh 
1" below column surface. 


90 tons 


3 hrs. 






7 


4,5 


3 


C-10-SC-18 


10" 


10" x 1 2" concrete encased steel column; 
8" x 6" x 35 lbs. "H" beam; Protection: lime- 
stone aggregate concrete (4800 psi) with 
6" x 4"; 1 3 SWG mesh reinforcement 
1 " below surface. 


90 tons 


3 hrs. 






7 


4,5 


3 


C-10-SC-19 


10" 


10" x 14" concrete encased steel column; 
12" x 8" x 65 lbs. "H" beam; Protection: 
aggregate concrete (3900 psi); 4" mesh: 
16 SWG reinforcing V 2 " below column 
surface. 


118 
tons 


2 hrs. 
42 min. 






7 


2 


2 


C-10-SC-20 


10" 


10" x 14" concrete encased steel column; 
12" x 8" x 65 lbs. "H" beam; Protection: 
aggregate concrete (4930 psi); 4" mesh; 
16 SWG reinforcing '//' below column 
surface. 


177 
tons 


2 hrs. 
8 min. 






7 


2 


2 


C-10-SC-21 


ioV 


10 3 / s "x 12 3 / 8 " concrete encased steel column; 
8" x 6" x 35 lbs. "H" beam; Protection: 
aggregate concrete (835 psi) with 6" x 4" 
mesh; 13 SWG reinforcing l 3 / l6 " below 
column surface; 3 / 16 " gypsum plaster finish. 


90 tons 


2 hrs. 






7 


3,4 


2 


C-ll-SC-22 


ii" 


11" x 13" concrete encased steel column; 
8" x 6" x 35 lbs. "H" beam; Protection: 
"open texture" brick filled concrete (890 psi) 
with 6" x 4" mesh; 13 SWG reinforcing 
1 '/," below column surface; V fi " lime cement 
plaster; V s " gypsum plaster finish. 


90 tons 


3 hrs. 






7 


6,7 


3 


C-1J-SC-23 


ii" 


11" x 12" column; 4" x 3" x 10 lbs. "H" 
beam; gravel concrete (4550 psi); 6" x 4" - 
13 SWG mesh reinforcing; 1" below column 
surface. 


1 2 tons 


6 hrs. 






7 


7,8 


6 


C-ll-SC-24 


ti" 


11" x 12" column; 4" x 3" x 10 lbs. "H" 
beam; Protection: gravel aggregate concrete 
(3830 psi); with 4" x 4" mesh; 16 SWG, 
1" below column surface. 


1 6 tons 


5 hrs. 
32 min. 






7 


2 


5 1 /, 


C-10-SC-25 


1.0" 


6" x 6" steel column with 4" outside 
protection; Group I. 


— 


9 hrs. 




1 




9 


9 


C-10-SC-26 


10" 


Description as per C-SC-25; Group II. 


— 


7 hrs. 




1 




9 


7 


C-10-SC-27 


10" 


Description as per C-10-SC-25; Group III. 


— 


5 hrs. 




1 




9 


5 


C-10-SC-28 


10" 


Description as per C-10-SC-25; Group IV. 


— 


3 hrs. 
30 min. 




1 




9 


3% 


C-10-SC-29 


10" 


8" x 8" steel column with 2" outside protec- 
tion; Group I. 


— 


6 hrs. 




1 




9 


6 


C-10-SC-30 


10" 


Description as per C-10-SC-29; Group II. 


— 


4 hrs. 




1 




9 


4 


C-10-SC-31 


10" 


Description as per C-10-SC-29; Group III. 


— 


3 hrs. 




1 




9 


3 


C-10-SC-32 


10" 


Description as per C-10-SC-29; Group IV. 


— | 2 hrs. 




1 




9 


2 



(continued) 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



243 



RESOURCE A 



TABLE 2.5.1.4— continued 

STEEL COLUMNS— CONCRETE ENCASEMENTS 

MINIMUM DIMENSION 10" TO LESS THAN 12" 



ITEM 
CODE 


MINIMUM 
DIMENSION 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE-BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST-BMS-92 


C-ll-SC-33 


11" 


8" x 8" steel column with 3" outside protec- 
tion; Group I. 


— 


8hrs. 




1 




9 


8 


C-ll-SC-34 


11" 


Description as per C-10-SC-33; Group II. 


— 


6hrs. 




1 




9 


6 


C-ll-SC-35 


11" 


Description as per C-IO-SC-33; Group III. 


— 


4hrs. 




1 




9 


4 


C-ll-SC-36 


1 1" 


Description as per C-IO-SC-33; Group IV. 


— 


3 his. 




1 




9 


3 



For SI: I inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound = 0.004448 kN, I pound per square inch = 0.00689 MPa, 1 pound per square yard = 5.3 N/nr, 1 ton = 8.896 kN. 
Notes: 

1. Tested under total restraint load to prevent expansion — minimum load 90 tons. 

2. Failure mode — collapse. 

3. Passed 2-hour fire test (Grade "C," British). 

4. Passed hose stream test. 

5. Column tested and passed 3-hour grade fire resistance (British). 

6. Column passed 3-hour fire test. 

7. Column collapsed during hose stream testing. 

8. Column passed 6-hour fire test. 

9. Group 1: includes concrete having calcareous aggregate containing a combined total of not more than 10 percent of quartz, chert and flint for the coarse 
aggregate. 

Group II: includes concrete having trap-rock aggregate applied without metal ties and also concrete having cinder, sandstone or granite aggregate, if held in 

place with wire mesh or expanded metal having not larger than 4-inch mesh, weighing not less than 1.7 lbs./yd. 2 , placed not more than 1 inch from the surface 

of the concrete. 

Group III: includes concrete having cinder, sandstone or granite aggregate tied with No. 5 gage steel wire, wound spirally over the column section on a pitch 

of 8 inches, or equivalent ties, and concrete having siliceous aggregates containing a combined total of 60 percent or more of quartz, chert and flint, if held in 

place with wire mesh or expanded metal having not larger than 4-inch mesh, weighing not less than 1.7 lbs./yd. 2 , placed not more than 1 inch from the surface 

of the concrete. 

Group IV: includes concrete having siliceous aggregates containing a combined total of 60 percent or more of quartz, chert and flint, and tied with No. 5 gage 

steel wire wound spirally over the column section on a pitch of 8 inches, or equivalent ties. 



244 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



RESOURCE A 



FIGURE 2.5.1.5 

STEEL COLUMNS— CONCRETE ENCASEMENTS 

MINIMUM DIMENSION 12" TO LESS THAN 14" 



NUMBER OF 
ASSEMBLIES 



10- 



5— 



The number in each box is 
keyed to the last number in the 
Item Code column in the Table. 



For example: 



C-13-SC(j5) 



13 



17 



12 



11 




14 



10 



FIRE RESISTANCE RATING (HOURS) 

TABLE 2.5.1 .5 
STEEL COLUMNS— CONCRETE ENCASEMENTS 

MINIMUM DIMENSION 12" TO LESS THAN 14" 



ITEM 
CODE 


MINIMUM 
DIMENSION 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE-BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST-BMS-92 


C-12-SC 1 


12" 


12" x 14" concrete encased steel column; 8" x 

6" x 35 lbs. "H" beam; Protection: aggregate 

concrete (4150 psi) with 

4" mesh; 16 SWG reinforcing 

1" below column surface. 


120 
tons 


3 hrs. 
24 min. 






7 


1 


37, 


C-12-SC-2 


12" 


12" x 16" concrete encased column; 

8" x 6" x 35 lbs. "H" beam; Protection: 

aggregate concrete (4300 psi) with 

4" mesh; 16 SWG reinforcing 

1" below column surface. 


90 tons 


2 hrs. 
52 min. 






7 


1 


2V 4 


C-12-SC-3 


12" 


12" x 16" concrete encased steel column; 12" 
x 8" x 65 lbs. "H" column; Protection: gravel 
aggregate concrete (3550 psi) with 
4" mesh; 1 6 SWG reinforcement 
1" below column surface. 


177 
tons 


2 hrs. 
31 min. 






7 


1 


2% 


C-12-SC-4 


12" 


12" x 16" concrete encased column; 

12" x 8" x 65 lbs. "H" beam; Protection: 

aggregate concrete (3450 psi) with 

4" mesh; 1 6 SWG reinforcement 

1" below column surface. 


118 
tons 


4 hrs. 
4 min. 






7 


1 


4 



(continued) 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



245 



RESOURCE A 



TABLE 2.5.1.5 

STEEL COLUMNS— CONCRETE ENCASEMENTS 

MINIMUM DIMENSION 12" TO LESS THAN 14" 



ITEM 
CODE 


MINIMUM 
DIMENSION 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE-BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST-BMS-92 


C-12-SC-5 


12'/ 2 " 


127/ x 14" column; 6" x 4'/ 2 " x 20 lbs. 
"H" beam; Protection: gravel aggregate con- 
crete (3750 psi) with 4" x 4" mesh; 
16 SWG reinforcing 1" below column sur- 
face. 


52 tons 


4hrs. 
29 min. 






7 


1 


47 3 


C-12-SC-6 


12" 


8" x 8" steel column; 2" outside protection; 
Group I. 


— 


1 1 hrs. 






1 


2 


11 


C-12-SC-7 


12" 


Description as per C-12-SC-6; Group II. 


— 


8hrs. 




1 




2 


8 


C-12-SC-8 


12" 


Description as per C-12-SC-6; Group III. 


— 


6 hrs. 




1 




2 


6 


C-12-SC-9 


12" 


Description as per C-12-SC-6; Group IV. 


— 


4 hrs. 




1 




2 


4 


C-12-SC- 
10 


12" 


10" x 10" steel column; 2" outside protection; 
Group I. 


— 


7 hrs. 




1 




2 


7 


C-12-SC- 
11 


12" 


Description as per C-12-SC-10; Group II. 


— 


5 hrs. 




1 




2 


5 


C-12-SC- 

12 


12" 


Description as per C-12-SC-10; Group III. 


— 


4 hrs. 




1 




2 


4 


C-12-SC- 
13 


12" 


Description as per C- 12-SC-10; Group IV. 


— 


2 hrs. 
30 min. 




1 




2 


27, 


C-13-SC- 

14 


13" 


10" x 10" steel column; 3" outside protection; 
Group I. 


— 


10 hrs. 




1 




2 


10 


C-13-SC- 

15 


13" 


Description as per C-12-SC-14; Group II. 


— 


7 hrs. 




1 




2 


7 


C-13-SC- 
16 


13" 


Description as per C-12-SC-14; Group III. 


— 


5 hrs. 




1 




2 


5 


C-13-SC- 
17 


13" 


Description as per C-12-SC-14; Group IV. 


— 


3 hrs. 
30 min. 




1 




2 


37 2 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound = 0.004448 kN, 1 pound per square inch = 0.00689 MPa, 1 pound per square yard = 5.3 N/m 2 , 1 ton = 8.896 kN. 
Notes: 

1. Failure mode — collapse. 

2. Group I: includes concrete having calcareous aggregate containing a combined total of not more than 10 percent of quartz, chert and flint for the coarse 
aggregate. 

Group II: includes concrete having trap-rock aggregate applied without metal ties and also concrete having cinder, sandstone or granite aggregate, if held in 

place with wire mesh or expanded metal having not larger than 4-inch mesh, weighing not less than 1 .7 lbs./yd. 2 , placed not more than 1 inch from the surface 

of the concrete. 

Group III: includes concrete having cinder, sandstone or granite aggregate tied with No. 5 gage steel wire, wound spirally over the column section on a pitch 

of 8 inches, or equivalent ties, and concrete having siliceous aggregates containing a combined total of 60 percent or more of quartz, chert and flint, if held in 

place with wire mesh or expanded metal having not larger than 4-inch mesh, weighing not less than 1 .7 lbs./yd. 2 , placed not more than 1 inch from the surface 

of the concrete. 

Group IV: includes concrete having siliceous aggregates containing a combined total of 60 percent or more of quartz, chert and flint, and tied with No. 5 gage 

steel wire wound spirally over the column section on a pitch of 8 inches, or equivalent ties. 



246 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



RESOURCE A 



NUMBER OF 
ASSEMBLIES 



10 - 



FIGURE 2.5.1.6 

STEEL COLUMNS— CONCRETE ENCASEMENTS 

MINIMUM DIMENSION 14" TO LESS THAN 16" 



The number in each box is 
keyed to the last number in the 
Item Code column in the Table. 

For example: 

C-15-SC{12) 



10 



14 
1 



13 




11 



4 5 6 7 8 

FIRE RESISTANCE RATING (HOURS) 



10 



11 



12 



TABLE 2.5.1.6 

STEEL COLUMNS— CONCRETE ENCASEMENTS 

MINIMUM DIMENSION 14" TO LESS THAN 16" 



ITEM 
CODE 



C-14-SC-1 



C-14-SC-2 



C-14-SC-3 



C-14-SC-4 



C-14-SC-1 



MINIMUM 
DIMENSION 



14" 



14" 



14" 



14" 



CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 



24" x 16" concrete encased steel column; 8" x 
6" x 35 lbs. "H" column; Protection: aggregate 
concrete (4240 psi); 4" mesh - 16 SWG rein- 
forcing 1" below column surface. 



14" x 18" concrete encased steel column; 12' 
x 8" x 65 lbs. "H" beam; Protection: gravel 
aggregate concrete (4000 psi) with 4" -16 
SWG wire mesh reinforcement 1" below col- 
umn surface. 



10" x 10" steel column; 4" outside protection: 
Group 1. 



Description as per C-14-SC-3; Group II. 



24" x 16" concrete encased steel column; 8 x 
6" x 35 lbs. "H" column; Protection: aggregate 
concrete (4240 psi); 4" mesh - 16 SWG rein- 
forcing \" below column surface. 



PERFORMANCE 



LOAD 



90 tons 



177 
tons 



90 tons 



TIME 



3 hrs. 
40 min. 



3 hrs. 
20 min. 



12 hrs. 



9 hrs. 



3 hrs. 
40 min. 



REFERENCE NUMBER 



PRE-BMS-92 



(continued) 



BMS-92 



POST-BMS-92 



NOTES 



REC. 
HOURS 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



247 



RESOURCE A 



ABLE 2.5.1. S— continued 

STEEL COLUMNS— CONCRETE ENCASEMENTS 

MINIMUM DIMENSION 14" TO LESS THAN 16" 



ITEM 
CODE 


MINIMUM 

DIMENSION 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE-BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST-BMS-92 


C-14-SC-2 


14" 


14" x 18" concrete encased steel column; 12" 
x 8" x 65 lbs. "H" beam; Protection: gravel 
aggregate concrete (4000 psi) with 4"- 16 
SWG wire mesh reinforcement 1" below col- 
umn surface. 


177 
tons 


3 hrs. 
20 min. 






7 


1 


3 


C-14-SC-3 


14" 


10" x 10" steel column; 4" outside 
protection; Group I. 


— 


12 hrs. 








2 


12 


C-14-SC-4 


14" 


Description as per C-14-SC-3; 
Group II. 


— 


9 hrs. 








2 


9 


C-14-SC-5 


14" 


Description as per C-14-SC-3; 
Group III. 


— 


7 hrs. 








2 


7 


C-14-SC-6 


14" 


Description as per C-14-SC-3; 
Group IV. 


— 


5 hrs. 








2 


5 


C-14-SC-7 


14" 


12" x 12" steel column; 2" outside 
protection; Group I. 


— 


8 hrs. 








2 


8 


C-14-SC-8 


14" 


Description as per C-14-SC-7; 
Group II. 


— 


6 hrs. 








2 


6 


C-14-SC-9 


14" 


Description as per C-14-SC-7; Group III. 


— 


5 hrs. 








2 


5 


C-14-SC-10 


14" 


Description as per C-14-SC-7; Group IV 


— 


3 hrs. 








2 


3 


C-15-SC-11 


15" 


12" x 12" steel column; 3" outside 
protection; Group I. 


— 


1 1 hrs. 








2 


11 


C-15-SC-12 


15" 


Description as per C-15-SC-11; 
Group II. 


— 


8 hrs. 








2 


8 


C-15-SC-13 


15" 


Description as per C-15-SC-11; 
Group III. 


— 


6 hrs. 








2 


6 


C-15-SC-14 


15" 


Description as per C-l 5-SC-l 1 ; 
Group IV. 


— 


4 hrs. 








2 


4 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound = 0.004448 kN, 1 pound per square inch = 0.00689 MPa, 1 pound per square yard = 5.3 N/nr, 1 ton = 8.896 kN. 
Notes: 

1 . Collapse. 

2. Group 1: includes concrete having calcareous aggregate containing a combined total of not more than 10 percent of quartz, chert and flint for the coarse 
aggregate. 

Group II: includes concrete having trap-rock aggregate applied without metal ties and also concrete having cinder, sandstone or granite aggregate, if held in 
place with wire mesh or expanded metal having not larger than 4-inch mesh, weighing not less than 1 .7 lbs./yd. 2 , placed not more than 1 inch from the surface 
of the concrete. 

Group III: includes concrete having cinder, sandstone or granite aggregate tied with No. 5 gage steel wire, wound spirally over the column section on a pitch 
of 8 inches, or equivalent ties, and concrete having siliceous aggregates containing a combined total of 60 percent or more of quartz, chert and flint, if held in 
place wilh wire mesh or expanded metal having not larger than 4-inch mesh, weighing not less than 1 .7 lbs./yd. 2 , placed not more than 1 inch from the surface 
of the concrete. 

Group IV: includes concrete having siliceous aggregates containing a combined total of 60 percent or more of quartz, chert and flint, and tied with No. 5 gage 
steel wire wound spirally over the column section on a pitch of 8 inches, or equivalent ties. 



248 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



RESOURCE A 



TABLE 2.5.1.7 

STEEL COLUMNS— CONCRETE ENCASEMENTS 

MINIMUM DIMENSION 16" TO LESS THAN 18" 



ITEM 
CODE 


MINIMUM 
DIMENSION 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE-BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST-BMS-92 


C-I6-SC-13 


16" 


1 2" x 12" steel column; 4" outside protec- 
tion; Group I. 


— 


14 hrs. 




1 




1 


14 


C-16-SC-2 


16" 


Description as per C-16-SC-1; Group II. 


— 


10 hrs. 




1 




1 


10 


C-16-SC-3 


16" 


Description as per C-16-SC-1; 
Group III. 


— 


8 hrs. 




1 




1 


8 


C-16-SC-4 


16" 


Description as per C-16-SC-1; 
Group IV. 


— 


5 hrs. 




1 




1 


5 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 
Notes: 

1. Group I: includes concrete having calcareous aggregate containing a combined total of not more than 10 percent of quartz, chert and flint for the coarse 
aggregate. 

Group II: includes concrete having trap-rock aggregate applied without metal ties and also concrete having cinder, sandstone or granite aggregate, if held in 

place with wire mesh or expanded metal having not larger than 4-inch mesh, weighing not less than 1.7 lbs./yd. 2 , placed not more than 1 inch from the surface 

of the concrete. 

Group III: includes concrete having cinder, sandstone or granite aggregate tied with No. 5 gage steel wire, wound spirally over the column section on a pitch 

of 8 inches, or equivalent ties, and concrete having siliceous aggregates containing a combined total of 60 percent or more of quartz, chert and flint, if held in 

place with wire mesh or expanded metal having not larger than 4-inch mesh, weighing not less than 1.7 lbs./yd. 2 , placed not more than 1 inch from the surface 

of the concrete. 

Group IV: includes concrete having siliceous aggregates containing a combined total of 60 percent or more of quartz, chert and flint, and tied with No. 5 gage 

steel wire wound spirally over the column section on a pitch of 8 inches, or equivalent ties. 

TABLE 2.5.2.1 

STEEL COLUMNS— BRICK AND BLOCK ENCASEMENTS 

MINIMUM DIMENSION 10" TO LESS THAN 12" 



ITEM 
CODE 


MINIMUM 
DIMENSION 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE-BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST-BMS-92 


C-10-SB-l 


10'//' 


10 7," x 13" brick encased steel columns; 8" x 
6" x 35 lbs. "H" beam; Protection. Fill of bro- 
ken brick and mortar; 2" brick on edge; joints 
broken in alternate courses; cement-sand 
grout; 13 SWG wire reinforcement in every 
third horizontal joint. 


90 tons 


3 hrs. 
6 min. 






7 


1 


3 


C-10-SB-2 


107/' 


107," x 13" brick encased steel columns; 8" x 
6" x 35 lbs. "H" beam; Protection: 2" brick; 
joints broken in alternate courses; cement- 
sand grout; 13 SWG iron wire reinforcement 
in alternate horizontal joints. 


90 tons 


2 hrs. 






7 


2,3,4 


2 


C-10-SB-3 


10" 


10" x 12" block encased columns; 

8" x 6" x 35 lbs. "H" beam; Protection: 2" 

foamed slag concrete blocks; 

13 SWG wire at each horizontal joint; mortar 

at each joint. 


90 tons 


2 hrs. 






7 


5 


2 


C-10-SB-4 


107/' 


107/' x 1 2" block encased steel columns; 8" x 
6" x 35 lbs. "H" beam; Protection: gravel 
aggregate concrete fill (unconsolidated) 2" 
thick hollow clay tiles with mortar at edges. 


86 tons 


56 
min. 






7 


1 


X 


C-10-SB-5 


107/' 


1 07 2 " x 12" block encased steel columns; 8" x 
6" x 35 lbs. "H" beam; Protection: 2" hollow 
clay tiles with mortar at edges. 


86 tons 


22 
min. 






7 


1 


% 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound = 0.004448 kN, 1 ton = 8.896 kN. 
Notes: 

1 . Failure mode — collapse. 

2. Passed 2-hour fire test (Grade "C" - British). 

3. Passed hose stream test. 

4. Passed reload test. 

5. Passed 2-hour fire exposure but collapsed immediately following hose stream test. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



249 



RESOURCE A 



TABLE 2.5.2.2 

STEEL COLUMNS— BRICK AND BLOCK ENCASEMENTS 
MINIMUM DIMENSION 12" TO LESS THAN 14" 



ITEM 
CODE 



C-12-SB-1 



MINIMUM 
DIMENSION 



12" 



CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 



12" x 15" brick encased steel columns; 
8" x 6" x 35 lbs. "H" beam; Protection: 
2 5 / 8 " thick brick; joints broken in alternate 
courses; cement-sand grout; fill of broken 
brick and mortar. 



PERFORMANCE 



LOAD 



90 tons 



TIME 



1 hr. 
49 min. 



REFERENCE NUMBER 



PRE-BMS-92 



BMS-92 



POST-BMS-92 



NOTES 



REC. 
HOURS 



iv 4 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound = 0.004448 kN, I ton = 8.896 kN. 

Notes: 

1 . Failure mode — collapse. 



TABLE 2 5 2 3 

STEEL COLUMNS— BRICK AND BLOCK ENCASEMENTS 

MINIMUM DIMENSION 14" TO LESS THAN 16" 



ITEM 
CODE 


MINIMUM 
DIMENSION 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE-BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST-BMS-92 


C-15-SB-1 


15" 


15" x 17" brick encased steel columns; 

8" x 6" x 35 lbs. "H" beam; Protection: 4'/," 

thick brick; joints broken in alternate courses; 

cement-sand grout; fill of broken brick and 

mortar. 


45 tons 


6 hrs. 






7 


1 


6 


C-15-SB-2 


15" 


15" x 17" brick encased steel columns; 

8" x 6" x 35 lbs. "H" beam; Protection. 

Fill of broken brick and mortar; 4'/ 2 " brick; 

joints broken in alternate courses; cement-sand 

grout. 


86 tons 


6 hrs. 






7 


2,3,4 


6 


C-15-SB-3 


15" 


15" x 18" brick encased steel columns; 

8" x 6" x 35 lbs. "H" beam; Protection: 47," 

brick work; joints alternating; 

cement-sand grout. 


90 tons 


4 hrs. 






7 


5,6 


4 


C-15-SB-4 


14" 


14" x 16" block encased steel columns; 8" x 6" 

x 35 lbs. "H" beam; Protection: 

4" thick foam slag concrete blocks; 

13 SWG wire reinforcement in each horizontal 

joint; mortar in joints. 


90 tons 


5 hrs. 
52 min. 






7 


7 


4% 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound = 0.004448 kN, 1 ton = 8.896 kN. 
Notes: 

1. Only a nominal load was applied to specimen. 

2. Passed 6-hour fire test (Grade "A" - British). 

3. Passed (6 minute) hose stream test. 

4. Reload not specified. 

5. Passed 4-hour fire exposure. 

6. Failed by collapse between first and second minute of hose stream exposure. 

7. Mode of failure-collapse. 



250 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



RESOURCE A 



TABLE 2.5.3.1 

STEEL COLUMNS— PLASTER ENCASEMENTS 

MINIMUM DIMENSION 6" TO LESS THAN 8" 



ITEM 
CODE 


MINIMUM 
DIMENSION 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE-BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST-BMS-92 


C-7-SP-1 


7V 2 " 


7'/ 2 " x 9'/ 2 " plaster protected steel columns; 
8" x 6" x 35 lbs. "H" beam; Protection: 24 
SWG wire metal lath; 
1 7 4 " lime plaster. 


90 tons 


57 min. 






7 


1 


% 


C-7-SP-2 


77 s " 


7 7 / g "x 10" plaster protected steel columns; 
8" x 6" x 35 lbs. "H" beam; Protection: 
\" gypsum bal wire wound with 1 6 SWG wire 
helically wound at 4" pitch; 
7 2 " gypsum plaster. 


90 tons 


Ihr. 
13 min. 






7 


1 


1 


C-7-SP-3 


77 4 " 


7'/ 4 "x 9 3 / s " plaster protected steel columns; 
8" x 6" x 35 lbs. "H" beam; Protection: 
%" gypsum board; wire helically wound 
16 SWG at 4" pitch; 
'/„" gypsum plaster finish. 


90 tons 


1 hr. 

14 min. 






7 


1 


1 



Notes: 

I. Failure mode — collapse. 



TABLE 2.5.3.2 

STEEL COLUMNS— PLASTER ENCASEMENTS 
MINIMUM DIMENSION 8 "TO LESS THAN 10" 



ITEM 
CODE 


MINIMUM 
DIMENSION 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE-BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST-BMS-92 


C-8-SP-1 


8" 


8" x 10" plaster protected steel columns; 
8" x 6" x 35 lbs. "H" beam; Protection: 
24 SWG wire lath; 1" gypsum plaster. 


86 tons 


Ihr. 
23 min. 






7 


1 


17 4 


C-8-SP-2 


87/ 


87," x I0'/ 2 " plaster protected steel columns; 
8" x 6" x 35 lbs. "H" beam; Protection: 24 
SWG metal lath wrap; 1 '//' gypsum plaster. 


90 tons 


Ihr. 
36 min. 






7 


1 


l'/ 2 


C-9-SP-3 


9" 


9" x 1 1 " plaster protected steel columns; 

8" x 6" x 35 lbs. "H" beam; Protection: 

24 SWG metal lath wrap; 7 8 " M.S. ties at 12" 

pitch wire netting 1 7 2 " x 22 SWG between first 

and second plaster coats; 1 7 2 " gypsum plaster. 


90 tons 


Ihr. 
33 min. 






7 


1 


17, 


C-8-SP-4 


8 3 / 4 " 


87 4 "x 1 3 / 4 " plaster protected steel columns; 
8" x 6" x 35 lbs. "H" beam; Protection: V 4 " gyp- 
sum board; wire wound spirally (#16 SWG) at 
1 7 2 " pitch; 7 2 " gypsum plaster. 


90 tons 


2 hrs. 






7 


2,3,4 


2 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound = 0.004448 kN, 1 ton = 
Notes: 

1. Failure mode — collapse. 

2. Passed 2 hour fire exposure test (Grade "C" - British). 

3. Passed hose stream test. 



8.896 kN. 



TABLE 2.5.4.1 

STEEL COLUMNS— MISCELLANEOUS ENCASEMENTS 

MINIMUM DIMENSION 6" TO LESS THAN 8" 



ITEM 
CODE 



C-7-SM-1 



MINIMUM 
DIMENSION 



7 s /,' 



CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 



77 s " x 9 I" (asbestos plaster) protected steel 
columns; 8" x 6" x 35 lbs. "H" beam; 
Protection: 20 gage 7 2 " metal lath; 9 / l6 " asbestos 
plaster (minimum). 



PERFORMANCE 



LOAD 



90 tons 



TIME 



Ihr. 
52 min. 



REFERENCE NUMBER 



PRE-BMS-92 



BMS-92 



POST-BMS-92 



NOTES 



For ST: I inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound = 0.004448 kN, 1 ton = 8.896 kN. 

Notes: 

1 . Failure mode — collapse. 



REC. 
HOURS 



i-v 4 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



251 



RESOURCE A 



TABLE 2.5.4.2 

STEEL COLUMNS— [MISCELLANEOUS ENCASEMENTS 

MINIMUM DIMENSION 8" TO LESS THAN 10" 



ITEM 
CODE 


MINIMUM 
DIMENSION 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE-BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST-BMS-92 


C-9-SM-1 


9\" 


97 8 "x 11%" asbestos slab and cement plaster 
protected columns; 8" x 6" x 35 lbs. "H" beam; 
Protection: 1" asbestos slab; wire wound; 7 8 " 
plaster. 


90 tons 


2hrs. 






7 


1,2 


2 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound = 0.004448 kN, 1 ton = 8.896 kN. 
Notes: 

1. Passed 2 hour fire exposure test. 

2. Collapsed during hose stream test. 



TABLE 2.5.4.3 

STEEL COLUMNS— MISCELLANEOUS ENCASEMENTS 

MINIMUM DIMENSION 10" TO LESS THAN 12" 



ITEM 
CODE 


MINIMUM 
DIMENSION 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE-BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST-BMS-92 


C-ll-SM-1 


ii y 2 " 


1 1 7," x 13'/ 2 " wood wool and plaster protected 
steel columns; 8" x 6" x 35 lbs. "H" beam; 
Protection: wood-wool-cement paste as fill 
and to 2" cover over beam; 3 / 4 " gypsum plaster 
finish. 


90 tons 


2hrs. 






7 


1,2,3 


2 


C-10-SM-1 


10" 


10" x 12" asbestos protected steel columns; 8" 
x 6" x 35 lbs. "H" beam; Protection: sprayed 
on asbestos paste to 2" cover over column. 


90 tons 


4hrs. 






7 


2,3,4 


4 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, I pound = 0.004448 kN, 1 ton = 8.896 kN. 
Notes: 

1. Passed 2 hour fire exposure (Grade "C" - British). 

2. Passed hose stream test. 

3. Passed reload test. 

4. Passed 4 hour fire exposure test. 



TABLE 2.5.4.4 

STEEL COLUMNS— MISCELLANEOUS ENCASEMENTS 

MINIMUM DIMENSION 12" TO LESS THAN 14" 



ITEM 
CODE 


MINIMUM 
DIMENSION 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE-BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST-BMS-92 


C-12-SM-1 


12" 


12" x 14'/ 4 " cement and asbestos protected 
columns; 8" x 6" x 35 lbs. "H" beam; Protec- 
tion: fill of asbestos packing pieces 1" thick 
1'3" o.c; cover of 2" molded asbestos inner 
layer; 1" molded asbestos outer layer; held in 
position by 1 6 SWG nichrome wire ties; wash 
of refractory cement on outer surface. 


86 tons 


4hrs. 
43 min. 






7 


1,2,3 


4% 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, I pound = 0.004448 kN, 1 ton = 8.896 kN. 
Notes: 

1. Passed 4 hour fire exposure (Grade "B" - British). 

2. Passed hose stream test. 

3. Passed reload test. 



252 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



RESOURCE A 



SECTION ill 
FLOOR/CEILING ASSEMBLIES 

FIGURE 3.1 
FLOOR/CEILING ASSEMBLES— REINFORCED CONCRETE 



NUMBER OF 

ASSEMBLIES 



10- 



5- 



43 



30 
5 



45 
44 

17 
14 



47 



46 
41 
19 
12 
1 



49 
48 
23 
20 
18 
16 
10 



15 



50 
42 
39 
33 
21 
13 
11 

9 

2 



The number in each box is 
keyed to the last number in the 
Item Code column in the Table. 

For example: 

FC-7-RC-40 ) 




35 



26 
22 



24 



27 



31 



40 
36 
34 
29 
28 
25 
6 



32 



38 
37 



2 3 4 

FIRE RESISTANCE RATING (HOURS) 



TABLE 3.1 

FLOOR/CEILING ASSEMBLIES— REINFORCED CONCRETE 



ITEM CODE 


ASSEMBLY 
THICKNESS 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE-BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST-BMS-92 


F/C-3-RC-1 


3'/ 4 " 


3'7 4 "thick floor; 3'/ 4 " (5475 psi) concrete 
deck; '/," plaster under deck; 3 / 8 " main rein- 
forcement bars at 5'/ 2 " pitch with 7 / 8 " con- 
crete cover; 3 / s " main reinforcement bars at 
4'/," pitch perpendicular with '//' concrete 
cover; 13'1" span restrained. 


195 psf 


24 min. 






7 


1,2 


'A 


F/C-3-RC-2 


37 4 " 


3'/ 4 " deep (3540 psi) concrete deck; V g " main 
reinforcement bars at 5'/," pitch with 7 / 8 " 
cover; 3 / s " main reinforcement bars at 4'/ 2 " 
pitch perpendicular with '/," cover; 13'1" 
span restrained. 


195 psf 


2 hrs. 






7 


1,3,4 


2 



(continued) 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



253 



RESOURCE A 







TABLE 3.1 — 
FLOOR/CEILING ASSEMBLIES 


continued 

—REINFORCED CONCRETE 










ITEM CODE 


ASSEMBLY 
THICKNESS 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE-BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST-BMS-92 


F/C-3-RC-3 


37 4 " 


37/ deep (4175 psi) concrete deck; 7/ 
main reinforcement bars at 5'/," pitch with 
'// cover; '// main reinforcement bars at 
47 2 " pitch perpendicular with 7," cover; 
13'1" span restrained. 


195 psf 


31 min. 






7 


1,5 


% 


F/C-3-RC-4 


37/' 


37/ deep (4355 psi) concrete deck; 
3 / 8 " main reinforcement bars at 57," pitch 
with 7/ cover; 3 / 8 " main reinforcement 
bars at 47," pitch perpendicular with 7," 
cover; 13'l" span restrained. 


195 psf 


41 min. 






7 


1,5,6 


% 


F/C-3-RC-5 


37/ 


37/ thick (3800 psi) concrete deck; 3 / g " 
main reinforcement bars at 57," pitch with 
'// cover; 7/ main reinforcement bars at 
47," pitch perpendicular with 7," cover; 
13'l" span restrained. 


195 psf 


Ihr. 
5 min. 






7 


1,5 


1 


F/C-4-RC-6 


47/ 


47/ thick; 37/' (4000 psi) concrete deck; 
1" sprayed asbestos lower surface; 7 S " 
main reinforcement bars at 57/ pitch with 
7 // concrete cover; 3 / 8 " main reinforce- 
ment bars at 47/ pitch perpendicular with 
7," concrete cover; 13'1" span restrained. 


195 psf 


4hrs. 






7 


1,7 


4 


F/C-4-RC-7 


4" 


4" (5025 psi) concrete deck; 7/ reinforce- 
ment bars at 77/ pitch with 3 / 4 " cover; 3 / s " 
main reinforcement bars at 3 3 // pitch per- 
pendicular with 7/ cover; 13'1" span 
restrained. 


140 psf 


Ihr. 
16 min. 






7 


1,2 


l'/ 4 


F/C-4-RC-8 


4" 


4" thick (4905 psi) deck; 7/ reinforcement 
bars at 77/ pitch with 7 / 8 " cover; 3 / 8 " main 
reinforcement bars at 3 3 // pitch perpen- 
dicular with 7/ cover; 13'1" span 
restrained. 


100 psf 


1 hr. 
23 min. 






7 


1,2 


17, 


F/C-4-RC-9 


4" 


4" deep (4370 psi);7/ reinforcement bars 
at 6" pitch with 3 / 4 " cover; 7/ main rein- 
forcement bars at 4" pitch perpendicular 
with 7/ cover; 13'1" span restrained. 


1 50 psf 


2hrs. 






7 


1,3 


2 


F/C-4-RC-10 


4" 


4" thick (5 140 psi) deck; 7/ reinforcement 
bars at 77/ pitch with 7/ cover; 3 / 8 " main 
reinforcement bars at 3 3 // pitch perpen- 
dicular with 7/ cover; 13'1" span 
restrained. 


140 psf 


1 hr. 

16 min. 






7 


1,5 


iv 4 


F/C-4-RC-11 


4" 


4" thick (4000 psi) concrete deck; 3" x 1 7/ 
x 4 lbs. R.S.J.; 2'6" C.R.S.; flush with top 
surface; 4" x 6" x 13 SWG mesh reinforce- 
ment \" from bottom of slab; 6'6" span 
restrained. 


150 psf 


2 hrs. 






7 


1,3 


2 



(continued) 



254 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE e 



RESOURCE A 







TABLE 3.1 — 
FLOOR/CEILING ASSEMBLIES 


continued 

— RESNFORCED CONCRETE 










ITEM CODE 


ASSEMBLY 
THICKNESS 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE-BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST-BMS-92 


F/C-4-RC-12 


4" 


4" deep (2380 psi) concrete deck; 
3" x 1 7 2 " x 4 lbs. R.S.J. ; 2'6" C.R.S.; flush 
with top surface; 4" x 6" x 13 SWG mesh 
reinforcement 1" from bottom surface; 
6'6" span restrained. 


150 psf 


lhr. 
3 min. 






7 


1,2 


1 


F/C-4-RC-13 


47/ 


47 2 " thick (5200 psi) deck; 7 4 " reinforce- 
ment bars at 77 4 " pitch with 7/ cover; 3 / s " 
main reinforcement bars at 3 3 / 4 " pitch per- 
pendicular with 7 2 " cover; 13'l" span 
restrained. 


140 psf 


2hrs. 






7 


1,3 


2 


F/C-4-RC-14 


47/ 


47 2 " deep (2525 psi) concrete deck; 7 4 " 
reinforcement bars at 77/ pitch with 7 / 8 " 
cover; 3 / 8 " main reinforcement bars at 3 3 / g " 
pitch perpendicular with 7," cover; 13'l" 
span restrained. 


150 psf 


42 min. 






7 


1,5 


% 


F/C-4-RC-15 


47/ 


47/ deep (4830 psi) concrete deck; 
1 7," x No. 15 gauge wire mesh; 3 / s " rein- 
forcement bars at 15" pitch with 1" cover; 
7," main reinforcement bars at 6" pitch 
perpendicular with 7/ cover; 12' span 
simply supported. 


75 psf 


1 hr. 
32 min. 






7 


1,8 


l'/ 2 


F/C-4-RC-16 


47," 


47/ deep (4595 psi) concrete deck; 7/ 
reinforcement bars at 7'// pitch with 7/ 
cover; 7 S " main reinforcement bars at 37/ 
pitch perpendicular with 7/ cover; 12' 
span simply supported. 


75 psf 


lhr. 
20 min. 






7 


1,8 


17, 


F/C-4-RC-17 


47/ 


47/ deep (3625 psi) concrete deck; 7/ 
reinforcement bars at 77/ pitch with 7 / g " 
cover; : 7 8 " main reinforcement bars at 37," 
pitch perpendicular with 7/ cover; 12' 
span simply supported. 


75 psf 


35 min. 






7 


1,8 


% 


F/C-4-RC-18 


47 2 " 


47/ deep (4410 psi) concrete deck; 7/ 
reinforcement bars at 77/ pitch with 7 / 8 " 
cover; 3 / s " main reinforcement bars at 37/ 
pitch perpendicular with 7/ cover; 12' 
span simply supported. 


85 psf 


lhr. 
27 min. 






7 


1,8 


17, 


F/C-4-RC-19 


47 2 " 


47/ deep (4850 psi) deck; 3 / 8 " reinforce- 
ment bars at 15" pitch with 1" cover; 7/ 
main reinforcement bars at 6" pitch per- 
pendicular with 7," cover; 12' span simply 
supported. 


75 psf 


2hrs. 
15 min. 






7 


1,9 


l'/ 4 


F/C-4-RC-20 


47," 


47/ deep (3610 psi) deck; 7/ reinforce- 
ment bars at 77/ pitch with 7/ cover; 3 / 8 " 
main reinforcement bars at 37," pitch per- 
pendicular with 7," cover; 12' span simply 
supported. 


75 psf 


1 hr. 
22 min. 






7 


1,8 


IV, 



(continued) 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



255 



RESOURCE A 







TABLE 3.1— continued 

FLOOR/CEILING ASSEMBLIES— REINFORCED CONCRETE 










ITEM CODE 


ASSEMBLY 
THICKNESS 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE-BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST-BMS-92 


F/C-5-RC-21 


5" 


5" deep; 47 2 " (5830 psi) concrete deck; 7 2 " 
plaster finish bottom of slab; 7 4 " reinforce- 
ment bars at 77/ pitch with 7 / 8 " cover; 3 / s " 
main reinforcement bars at 37/ pitch per- 
pendicular with 7/ cover; 12' span simply 
supported. 


69 psf 


2 hrs. 






7 


1,3 


2 


F/C-5-RC-22 


5" 


47/ (5290 psi) concrete deck; 7/ plaster 
finish bottom of slab; 7/ reinforcement 
bars at 777' pitch with 7 / 8 " cover; 7/ main 
reinforcement bars at 37/ pitch perpen- 
dicular with 7/ cover; 12' span simply 
supported. 


No 
load 


2 hrs. 
28 min. 






7 


1,10, 

11 


27 4 


F/C-5-RC-23 


5" 


5" (3020 psi) concrete deck; 3" x 1 7/ x 4 
lbs. R.S.J.; 2' C.R.S. with 1" cover on bot- 
tom and top flanges; 8' span restrained. 


172 psf 


Ihr. 
24 min. 






7 


1,2, 
12 


17 2 


F/C-5-RC-24 


57/ 


5" (5180 psi) concrete deck; 7/ retarded 
plaster underneath slab; 7/ reinforcement 
bars at 77/ pitch with lV 8 " cover; 7 8 " 
main reinforcement bars at 37/ pitch per- 
pendicular with 1" cover; 12' span simply 
supported. 


60 psf 


2 hrs. 
48 min. 






7 


1,10 


2% 


F/C-6-RC-25 


6" 


6" deep (4800 psi) concrete deck; 7/ rein- 
forcement bars at 77/ pitch with 7 // 
cover; 7 8 " main reinforcement bars at 37," 
pitch perpendicular with 7 / g " cover; 13'l" 
span restrained. 


195 psf 


4 hrs. 






7 


1,7 


4 


F/C-6-RC-26 


6" 


6" (4650 psi) concrete deck; 7/ reinforce- 
ment bars at 77/ pitch with 1 l" cover; 7 S " 
main reinforcement bars at 37/ pitch per- 
pendicular with 7/ cover; 13'1" span 
restrained. 


195 psf 


2 hrs. 
23 min. 






7 


1,2 


27 4 


F/C-6-RC-27 


6" 


6" deep (6050 psi) concrete deck; 7/ rein- 
forcement bars at 77/ pitch 7 / 8 " cover; 7/ 
reinforcement bars at 37/ pitch perpen- 
dicular with 7/ cover; 13'1" span 
restrained. 


195 psf 


3 hrs. 
30 min. 






7 


1, 10 


37 2 


F/C-6-RC-28 


6" 


6" deep (5180 psi) concrete deck; 7/ rein- 
forcement bars at 8" pitch 7/ cover; 7/ 
reinforcement bars at 57/ pitch perpen- 
dicular with 7," cover; 13'l" span 
restrained. 


150 psf 


4 hrs. 






7 


1,7 


4 


F/C-6-RC-29 


6" 


6" thick (4180 psi) concrete deck; 4" x 3" 
x 10 lbs. R.S.J.; 2' 6" C.R.S. with 1" cover 
on both top and bottom flanges; 13'l" span 
restrained. 


160 psf 


3 hrs. 
48 min. 






7 


1, 10 


37 4 


F/C-6-RC-30 


6" 


6" thick (3720 psi) concrete deck; 4" x 3" 
x 10 lbs. R.S.J. ; 2' 6" C.R.S. with 1" cover 
on both top and bottom flanges; 12' span 
simply supported. 


1 15 psf 


29 min. 






7 


1,5, 
13 


X 



(continued) 



256 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



RESOURCE A 







TABLE 3.1- 
FLOOR/CElLiNG ASSEMBLIES 


continued 

—REINFORCED CONCRETE 










ITEM CODE 


ASSEMBLY 
THICKNESS 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE-BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST-BMS-92 


F/C-6-RC-31 


6" 


6" deep (3450 psi) concrete deck; 4" x 
lV/'x 5 lbs. R.S.J.; 2' 6" C.R.S. with 1" 
cover on both top and bottom flanges; 12' 
span simply supported. 


25psf 


3 hrs. 
35 min. 






7 


1,2 


37 2 


F/C-6-RC-32 


6" 


6" deep (4460 psi) concrete deck; 4" x 
l 3 / 4 " x 5 lbs. R.S.J.; 2' C.R.S. ; with 1" 
cover on both top and bottom flanges; 12' 
span simply supported. 


60psf 


4 hrs. 
30 min. 






7 


1, 10 


47 2 


F/C-6-RC-33 


6" 


6" deep (4360 psi) concrete deck; 4" x l 3 / 4 " 
x 5 lbs. R.S.J.; 2' C.R.S.; with 1" cover on 
both top and bottom flanges; 13'l" span 
restrained. 


60psf 


2 hrs. 






7 


1,3 


2 


F/C-6-RC-34 


6'//' 


67 4 " thick; 4 3 / 4 " (5120 psi) concrete core; 
1" T&G board flooring; 7 2 " plaster under- 
coat; 4" x 3" x 10 lbs. R.S.J.; 3' C.R.S. 
flush with top surface concrete; 12' span 
simply supported; 2" x 1'3" clinker con- 
crete insert. 


100 psf 


4 hrs. 






7 


1,7 


4 


F/C-6-RC-35 


67 4 " 


47 4 " (3600 psi) concrete core; 1" T&G 
board flooring; 7 2 " plaster undercoat; 4" x 
3" x 10 lbs. R.S.J.; 3' C.R.S.; flush with 
top surface concrete; 12' span simply sup- 
ported; 2" x 1'3" clinker concrete insert. 


100 psf 


2 hrs. 
30 min. 






7 


1,5 


27 2 


F/C-6-RC-36 


67 4 " 


4 3 / 4 " (2800 psi) concrete core; 1" T&G 
board flooring; 7," plaster undercoat; 4" x 
3" x 10 lbs. R.SJ.; 3' C.R.S.; flush with 
top surface concrete; 12" span simply sup- 
ported; 2" x 1'3" clinker concrete insert. 


80 psf 


4 hrs. 






7 


1,7 


4 


F/C-7-RC-37 


7" 


(3640 psi) concrete deck; 7 4 " reinforce- 
ment bars at 6" pitch with 1 7 2 " cover; 7 4 " 
reinforcement bars at 5" pitch perpendicu- 
lar with 17," cover; 13'1" span restrained. 


169 psf 


6 hrs. 






7 


1, 14 


6 


F/C-7-RC-38 


7" 


(4060 psi) concrete deck; 4" x 3" x 10 lbs. 
R.S.J.; 2' 6" C.R.S. with 17 2 " cover on 
both top and bottom flanges; 4" x 6" x 13 
SWG mesh reinforcement 1 7 2 " from bot- 
tom of slab; 13'l" span restrained. 


175 psf 


6 hrs. 






7 


1, 14 


6 


F/C-7-RC-39 


7V 4 " 


5 3 / 4 " (4010 psi) concrete core; 1" T&G 
board flooring; 7 2 " plaster undercoat; 4" x 
3" x 10 lbs. R.S.J.; 2' 6" C.R.S.; 1" down 
from top surface of concrete; 12' simply 
supported span; 2" x l' 3" clinker concrete 
insert. 


95 psf 


2 hrs. 






7 


1,3 


2 


F/C-7-RC-40 


77/ 


5 3 / 4 " (3220 psi) concrete core; 1" T&G 
flooring; 7 2 " plaster undercoat; 4" x 3" x 
10 lbs. R.SJ.; 2'6" C.R.S.; 1" down from 
top surface of concrete; 12' simply sup- 
ported span; 2" x 1/3" clinker concrete 
insert. 


95 psf 


4 hrs. 






7 


1,7 


4 



(continued) 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



257 



RESOURCE A 



TABLE 3.1— continued 
FLOOR/CEILING ASSEMBLIES— REINFORCED CONCRETE 



ITEM CODE 


ASSEMBLY 
THICKNESS 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE-BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST-BMS-92 


F/C-7-RC-41 


10" 
(27 4 " Slab) 


Ribbed floor, see Note 15 for details; slab 
2'/ 2 " deep (3020 psi); 7 4 " reinforcement 
bars at 6" pitch with 3 / 4 " cover; beams 7'/ 2 " 
deep x 5" wide; 24" C.R.S.; 5 / g " reinforce- 
ment bars two rows V 2 " vertically apart 
with 1" cover; 13'1" span restricted. 


] 95 psf 


lhr. 
4 min. 






7 


1,2, 
15 


1 


F/C-5-RC-42 


5'/ 2 " 


Composite ribbed concrete slab assembly; 
see Note 17 for details. 


See 
Note 16 


2hrs. 






43 


16,17 


2 


F/C-3-RC-43 


3" 


2500 psi concrete; 5 / s " cover; fully 
restrained at test. 


See 
Note 16 


30 min. 






43 


16 


% 


F/C-3-RC-44 


3" 


2000 psi concrete; 5 / 8 " cover; free or partial 
restraint at test. 


See 
Note 16 


45 min. 






43 


16 


\ 


F/C-4-RC-45 


4" 


2500 psi concrete; V s " cover; fully 
restrained at test. 


See 
Note 16 


40 min. 






43 


16 


% 


F/C-4-RC-46 


4" 


2000 psi concrete; V 4 " cover; free or partial 
restraint at test. 


See 
Note 16 


lhr. 
15 min. 






43 


16 


1V 4 


F/C-5-RC-47 


5" 


2500 psi concrete; i l" cover; fully 
restrained at test. 


See 
Note 16 


1 hr. 






43 


16 


1 


F/C-5-RC-48 


5" 


2000 psi concrete; V 4 " cover; free or partial 
restraint at test. 


See 
Note 16 


lhr. 
30 min. 






43 


16 


1.7 2 


F/C-6-RC-49 


6" 


2500 psi concrete; 1" cover; fully 
restrained at test. 


See 
Note 1 6 


lhr. 
30 min. 






43 


16 


l% 


F/C-6-RC-50 


6" 


2000 psi concrete; 1" cover; free or partial 
restraint at test. 


See 
Note 16 


2hrs. 






43 


16 


2 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, I foot = 305 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 0.00689 MPa, 1 pound per square foot = 47.9 N/m 2 . 
Notes : 

1 . British test. 

2. Failure mode — local back face temperature rise. 

3. Tested for Grade "C" (2 hour) fire resistance 

4. Collapse imminent following hose stream. 

5. Failure mode — flame thru. 

6. Void formed with explosive force and report. 

7. Achieved Grade "B" (4 hour) fire resistance (British). 

8. Failure mode — collapse. 

9. Test was run to 2 hours, but specimen was partially supported by the furnace at 1 7 4 hours. 
1.0. Failure mode — average back face temperature. 

1 1 . Recommended endurance for nonload bearing performance only. 

12. Floor maintained load bearing ability to 2 hours at which point test was terminated. 

1 3. Test was run to 3 hours at which time failure mode 2 (above) was reached in spite of crack formation at 29 minutes. 

14. Tested for Grade "A" (6 hour) fire resistance. 

15. 

r 7„" REINFORCEMENT BARS AT 
SLAB2VTHICK-X / 6 "PITCH WITH %" COVER 



BEAMS AT 24" CRS. 




%" REINFORCEMENT 
BARS 



16. Load unspecified. 

17. Total assembly thickness 57, inches. Three-inch thick blocks of molded excelsior bonded with portlandcement used as inserts with 27 2 -inch cover 
(concrete) above blocks and 3 / 4 -inch gypsum plaster below. Nine-inch wide ribs containing reinforcing steel of unspecified size interrupted 20-inch wide 
segments of slab composite (i.e., plaster, excelsior blocks, concrete cover). 



258 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



RESOURCE A 



FIGURE 3.2 

FLOOR/CEILING ASSEMBLIES— STEEL STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS 



NUMBER OF 
ASSEMBLIES 



A 



10- 



The number in each box is 
keyed to the last number in the 
Item Code column in the Table. 

For example: 


















47 










50 




44 




47 


39 






40 




42 




43 




46 


26 






29 


21 


41 




31 


22 


35 


12 


8 


25 


14 


19 


30 




27 


18 


32 


7 


5 


3 


10 


17 


13 




24 


4 


9 























20 



16 



23 



28 



2 3 

FIRE RESISTANCE RATING (HOURS) 



TABLE 3.2 
FLOOR/CEILING ASSEMBLIES— STEEL STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS 



ITEM 
CODE 


MEMBRANE 
THICKNESS 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE-BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST-BMS-92 


F/C-S-l 


0" 


10' x 13'6" ; S.J. 103 - 24" o.c; Deck: 2" 
concrete; Membrane: none. 


145 psf 


7 min. 






3 


1,2,3, 
8 





F/C-S-2 


0" 


10' x 1 3'6" ; S.J. 103 - 24" o.c; Deck: 2" 
concrete; Membrane: none 


145 psf 


7 min. 






3 


1,2,3, 
8 





F/C-S-3 


V 


10' x 13' 6" ; S.J. 103 - 24" o.c; Deck: 2" 
concrete 1:2:4; Membrane: furring 12" o.c; 
Clips A, B, G; No extra reinforcement; 
'//'plaster- 1.5:2.5. 


145 psf 


Ihr. 
15 min. 






3 


2,3,8 


l'/ 4 


F/C-S-4 


'/;' 


10' x 13' 6" ; S.J. 103 - 24" o.c; Deck: 2" 
concrete 1:2:4; Membrane: furring 16" o.c; 
Clips D, E, F, G; Diagonal wire reinforcement; 
'//'plaster- 1.5:2.5. 


145 psf 


2 hrs. 
46 min. 






3 


3,8 


2% 


F/C-S-5 


V 


10' x 13'6" ; S.J. 103 - 24" o.c; Deck: 2" 
concrete 1:2:4; Membrane: furring 16" o.c; 
Clips A, B, G; No extra reinforcement; 
7 2 " plaster -1.5:2.5. 


145 psf 


1 hr. 

4 min. 






3 


2,3,8 


1 


F/C-S-6 


V 


10' x 13'6"; S.J. 103 - 24" o.c; Deck: 2" 
concrete 1:2:4; Membrane: furring 16" o.c; 
Clips D, E, F, G; Hexagonal mesh 
reinforcement; '//' plaster. 


145 psf 


3 hrs. 
28 min. 






3 


2,3,8 


2% 



(continued) 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



259 



RESOURCE A 



TABLE 3.2 
FLOOR/CEILING ASSEMBLIES— ! 



continued 
STEEL STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS 



ITEM 
CODE 


MEMBRANE 
THICKNESS 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE-BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST-BMS-92 


F/C-S-7 


'/," 


10' x 13'6" ; S.J. 103 - 24" o.c; Deck: 4 lbs. 
rib lath; 6" x 6" - 10 x 10 ga. reinforcement; 2" 
deck gravel concrete; Membrane: furring 16" 
o.c; Clips C, E; Reinforcement: none; '/," 
plaster - 1 .5:2.5 mill mix. 


N/A 


55 min. 






3 


5,8 


% 


F/C-S-8 


7 2 " 


Spec. 9' x 4'4"; S.J. 103 bar joists - 18" o.c; 
Deck: 4 lbs. rib lath base; 6" x 6" - 10 x 10 ga. 
reinforcement; 2" deck 1 :2:4 gravel concrete; 
Membrane: furring, %" C.R.S., 16" o.c; Clips 
C, E; Reinforcement: none; V 2 " plaster - 
1.5:2.5 mill mix. 


300 psf 


lhr. 
10 min. 






3 


2,3,8 


1 


F/C-S-9 


%" 


10' x 13'6"; S.J. 103 - 24" o.c; Deck: 2" con- 
crete 1:2:4; Membrane: furring 12" o.c; Clips 
A, B, G; Extra "A" clips reinforcement; %" 
plaster- 1.5:2; 1.5:3. 


145 psf 


3 hrs. 






3 


6,8 


3 


F/C-S-10 


V 


18' x 13'6" ; Joists, S J. 103 - 24" o.c; Deck: 4 
lbs. rib lath: 6" x 6" - 10 x 10 ga. reinforce- 
ment; 2" deck 1 :2:3.5 gravel concrete; Mem- 
brane: furring, spacing 16" o.c; Clips C, E; 
Reinforcement: none; %" plaster - 1.5:2.5 mill 
mix. 


145 psf 


1 hr. 
25 min. 






3 


2,3,8 


1'/, 


F/C-S-ll 


V 


10' x 13'6"; S.J. 103 - 24" o.c; Deck: 2" con- 
crete 1:2:4; Membrane: furring 12" o.c; Clips 
D, E, F, G; Diagonal wire reinforcement; 5 / 8 " 
plaster- 1.5:2; 0.5:3. 


145 psf 


3 hrs. 
15 min. 






3 


2,4,8 


3V 4 


F/C-S-12 


V 


10' x 13'6"; Joists, S.J. 103 - 24" o.c; Deck: 
3.4 lbs. rib lath; 6" x 6" - 10 x 10 ga. reinforce- 
ment; 2" deck 1:2:4 gravel concrete; Mem- 
brane: furring 16" o.c; Clips D, E, F, G; 
Reinforcement: none; %" plaster - 1.5:2.5. 


145 psf 


lhr. 






3 


7,8 


1 


F/C-S-13 


X" 


Spec. 9' x 4'4"; S.J. 103 - 18" o.c; Deck: 4 lbs. 
rib lath; 6" x 6" - 10 x 1 ga. reinforcement; 2" 
deck 1:2:4 gravel concrete; Membrane: fur- 
ring, 3 / 4 " C.R.S., 16" o.c; Clips C, E; Rein- 
forcement: none; 3 / 4 " plaster - 1 .5:2.5 mill mix. 


300 psf 


lhr. 
56 min. 






3 


3,8 


1% 


F/C-S-14 


V" 


Floor finish: 1" concrete; plate cont. weld; 4" - 
7.7 lbs. "I" beams; Ceiling: '//'rods 12" o.c; 
7 / g " gypsum sand plaster. 


105 psf 


1 hr. 
35 min. 






6 


2, 4, 9, 
10 


17 2 


F/C-S-15 


v 


Floor finish: lV 2 "L.W. concrete; '//'limestone 
cement; plate cont. weld; 5" - 10 lbs. "I" 
beams; Ceiling: '/" rods 12" o.c. tack welded 
to beams metal lath; 1" P. C. plaster. 


165 psf 


3 hrs. 
20 min. 






6 


4, 9, 1 1 


37, 


F/C-S-16 


v 


10' x 13'6" ; S.J. 103 - 24" o.c; Deck: 2" con- 
crete 1:2:4; Membrane: furring 12" o.c; Clips 
D, E, F, G; Hexagonal mesh reinforcement; 1" 
thick plaster - 1.5:2; 1.5:3. 


145 psf 


4 hrs. 
26 min. 






3 


2,4,8 


47 3 


F/C-S-17 


i" 


10' x 1 3'6" ; Joists - S.J. 103 - 24" o.c; Deck: 
3.4 lbs. rib lath; 6" x 6" - 10 x 10 ga. reinforce- 
ment; 2" deck 1:2:4 gravel concrete; Mem- 
brane: furring 16" o.c; Clips D, E, F, G; 1" 
plaster. 


145 psf 


lhr. 
42 min. 






3 


2,4,8 


1% 



(continued) 



260 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



RESOURCE A 



TABLE 3.2— continued 
FLOOR/CEILING ASSEMBLIES— STEEL STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS 



ITEM 
CODE 


MEMBRANE 
THICKNESS 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE-BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST-BMS-92 


F/C-S-18 


IV 


10' x 13'6" ; S. J. 103 - 24" o.c.; Deck: 2" con- 
crete 1:2:4; Membrane: furring 12" o.c; Clips 
C, E, F, G; Diagonal wire reinforcement; 1 7/ 
plaster. 


1 45 psf 


2 hrs. 
44 min. 






3 


2,4,8 


2% 


F/C-S-19 


17/ 


10' x 13'6" ; Joists - S.J. 103 - 24" o.c; Deck: 
17/ gypsum concrete over; 7/ gypsum 
board; Membrane: furring 12" o.c; Clips D, E, 
F, G; 17/ plaster -1.5:2; 1.5:3. 


145 psf 


1 hr. 
40 min. 






3 


2,3,8 


I 2 /., 


F/C-S-20 


iV 


27/ cinder concrete; 7/ topping; plate 6" 
welds 12" o.c; 5" - 18.9 lbs. "H" center; 5" - 
10 lbs. "I" ends; 1" channels 18" o.c; 17/ 
gypsum sand plaster. 


150 psf 


3 hrs. 
43 min. 






6 


2, 4, 9, 
11 


37., 


F/C-S-21 


iV 


10' x 13'6" ; Joists - S.J. 103 - 24" o.c; Deck: 
1 7/ gypsum concrete over; 7/ gypsum board 
base; Membrane: furring 12" o.c; Clips D, E, 
F,G; 17 4 " plaster- 1.5:2; 1.5:3. 


145 psf 


lhr. 
48 min. 






3 


2,3,8 


1% 


F/C-S-22 


17/ 


Floor finish: 1 7/ limestone concrete; 7," sand 
cement topping; plate to beams 37/; 12" o.c 
welded; 5" - 10 lbs. "I" beams; 1" channels 
1 8" o.c; 1 7/ wood fiber gypsum sand plaster 
on metal lath. 


292 psf 


2 hrs. 
45 min. 






6 


2, 4, 9, 
10 


2V 4 


F/C-S-23 


17/ 


27/ L.W. (gas exp.) concrete; Deck: 7," top- 
ping; plate 67/ welds 12" o.c; Beams: 5" - 
18.9 lbs. "H" center; 5" - 10 lbs. "I" ends; 
Membrane: 1" channels 18" o.c; 1 7," gypsum 
sand plaster. 


150 psf 


4 hrs. 
42 min. 






6 


2,4,9 


47, 


F/C-S-24 


17/ 


Floor finish: 17/ limestone concrete; 7/ 
cement topping; plate 37," - 12" o.c. welded; 
5" - 10 lbs. "I" beams; Ceiling: 1" channels 
18" o.c; 1 7/ gypsum plaster. 


292 psf 


2 hrs. 
34 min. 






6 


2, 4, 9, 
10 


27 2 


F/C-S-25 


l'/ 2 " 


Floor finish: 17/ gravel concrete on exp. 
metal; plate cont. weld; 4" - 7.7 lbs. "I" 
beams; Ceiling: 7/ rods 12" o.c welded to 
beams; 17/ fiber gypsum sand plaster. 


70 psf 


lhr. 
24 min. 






6 


2, 4, 9, 
10 


1'/, 


F/C-S-26 


2V 2 " 


Floor finish: bare plate; 67/ welding - 12" 
o.c; 5" - 18.9 lbs. "H" girders (inner); 5" - 10 
lbs "I" girders (two outer); 1" channels 18" 
o.c; 2" reinforced gypsum tile; 7," gypsum 
sand plaster. 


122 psf 


1 hr. 






6 


7,9, 11 


1 


F/C-S-27 


27/ 


Floor finish: 2" gravel concrete; plate to 
beams 37/ - 12" o.c. welded; 4" - 7.7 lbs. "I" 
beams; 2" gypsum ceiling tiles; 7/ 1:3 gyp- 
sum sand plaster. 


105 psf 


2 hrs. 
31 min. 






6 


2, 4, 9, 
10 


27, 


F/C-S-28 


27/ 


Floor finish: 1 7/ gravel concrete; 7/ gypsum 
asphalt; plate continuous weld;4" - 7.7 lbs. "I" 
beams; 12" - 31.8 lbs. "I" beams - girder at 5' 
from one end; 1" channels 18" o.c; 2" rein- 
forcement gypsum tile; 7/ 1 :3 gypsum sand 
plaster. 


200 psf 


4 hrs. 
55 min. 






6 


2, 4, 9, 
11 


4% 



(continued) 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



261 



RESOURCE A 







TABLE 3.2- 
FLOOR/CEILING ASSEMBLIES- 


—continued 

STEEL STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS 








ITEM 
CODE 


MEMBRANE 
THICKNESS 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE-BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST-BMS-92 


F/C-S-29 


V 


Floor: 2" reinforced concrete or 2" precast 
reinforced gypsum tile; Ceiling: 3 / 4 " portland 
cement-sand plaster 1 :2 for scratch coat and 
1:3 for brown coat with 15 lbs. hydrated lime 
and 3 lbs. of short asbestos fiber bag per 
cement or 3 / 4 " sanded gypsum plaster 1:2 for 
scratch coat and 1 :3 for brown coat. 


See 
Note 12 


lhr. 
30 min. 




1 




12, 13, 

14 


1% 


F/C-S-30 


%" 


Floor: 2'/ 4 " reinforced concrete or 2" rein- 
forced gypsum tile; the latter with 7 4 " mortar 
finish; Ceiling: 3 / 4 " sanded gypsum plaster; 
1 :2 for scratch coat and 1 :3 for brown coat. 


See 
Note 12 


2 hrs. 




1 




12, 13, 
14 


2 


F/C-S-31 


V 


Floor: 2'A," reinforced concrete or 2" rein- 
forced gypsum tile; the latter with V 4 " mortar 
finish; Ceiling: 1" neat gypsum plaster or 3 / 4 " 
gypsum-vermiculite plaster, ratio of gypsum 
to fine vermiculite 2: 1 to 3:1. 


See 
Note 12 


2hrs. 
30 min. 




1 




12, 13, 
14 


27, 


F/C-S-32 


X" 


Floor: 2'/ 2 " reinforced concrete or 2" rein- 
forced gypsum tile; the latter with 7," mortar 
finish; Ceiling: 1" neat gypsum plaster or 3 / 4 " 
gypsum-vermiculite plaster, ratio of gypsum 
to fine vermiculite 2:1 to 3:1. 


See 
Note 12 


3 hrs. 




1 




12, 13, 

14 


3 


F/C-S-33 


1" 


Floor: 2'/ 2 " reinforced concrete or 2" rein- 
forced gypsum slabs; the latter with 7 2 " mor- 
tar finish; Ceiling: 1" gypsum-vermiculite 
plaster applied on metal lath and ratio 2: 1 to 
3:1 gypsum to vermiculite by weight. 


See 
Note 12 


4 hrs. 




1 




12, 13, 

14 


4 


F/C-S-34 


2V 2 " 


Floor: 2" reinforced concrete or 2" precast 
reinforced portland cement concrete or gyp- 
sum slabs; precast slabs to be finished with 
7 4 " mortar top coat; Ceiling: 2" precast rein- 
forced gypsum tile, anchored into beams 
with metal ties or clips and covered with 7 2 " 
1 :3 sanded gypsum plaster. 


See 
Note 12 


4 hrs. 




1 




12, 13, 
14 


4 


F/C-S-35 


i" 


Floor: 1:3:6 portland cement, sand and gravel 
concrete applied directly to the top of steel 
units and 1 7 2 " thick at top of cells, plus 
7 2 " 1:27," cement-sand finish, total thick- 
ness at top of cells, 2" ; Ceiling: 1" neat 
gypsum plaster, back of lath 2" or more from 
underside of cellular steel. 


See 
Note 15 


3 hrs. 




1 




15,16, 
17, 18 


3 


F/C-S-36 


i" 


Floor: same as F/C-S-35; Ceiling: 1" gyp- 
sum-vermiculite plaster (ratio of gypsum to 
vermiculite 2:1 to 3:1), the back of lath 2" or 
more from under-side of cellular steel. 


See 
Note 15 


4 hrs. 




1 




15, 16, 
17, 18 


4 


F/C-S-37 


i" 


Floor: same as F/C-S-35; Ceiling: 1" neat 
gypsum plaster; back of lath 9" or more from 
underside of cellular steel. 


See 
Note 15 


4 hrs. 




1 




15,16, 
17,18 


4 


F/C-S-38 


i" 


Floor: same as F/C-S-35; Ceiling: 1" gyp- 
sum-vermiculite plaster (ratio of gypsum to 
vermiculite 2:1 to 3: 1 ), the back of lath being 
9" or more from underside of cellular steel. 


See 
Note 15 


5 hrs. 




1 




15, 16, 
17,18 


5 



(continued) 



262 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



RESOURCE A 



TABLE 3.2— continued 
FLOOR/CEILING ASSEMBLIES— STEEL STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS 



ITEM 
CODE 


MEMBRANE 
THICKNESS 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE-BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST-BMS-92 


F/C-S-39 


V 


Floor: asbestos paper 14 lbs./lOO ft. 2 cemented 
to steel deck with waterproof linoleum 
cement, wood screeds and 7 / g " wood floor; 
Ceiling: 3 / 4 " sanded gypsum plaster 1:2 for 
scratch coat and 1 :3 for brown coat. 


See 
Note 19 


lhr. 




1 




19, 20, 
21,22 


1 


F/C-S-40 


%" 


Floor: 1.7,", 1:2:4 portland cement concrete; 
Ceiling: 7 4 " sanded gypsum plaster 1 :2 for 
scratch coat and 1 :3 for brown coat. 


See 
Note 19 


1 hr. 
30 min. 




1 




19, 20, 

21,22 


17, 


F/C-S-41 


V 


Floor: 2", 1:2:4 portland cement concrete; 
Ceiling: V 4 " sanded gypsum plaster, 1:2 for 
scratch coat and 1:3 for brown coat. 


See 
Note 19 


2hrs. 




1 




19,20, 
21, 22 


2 


F/C-S-42 


1" 


Floor: 2", 1:2:4 portland cement concrete; 
Ceiling: 1" portland cement-sand plaster with 
10 lbs. of hydrated lime for @ bag of cement 
1 :2 for scratch coat and 1 :27 2 " for brown coat. 


See 
Note 19 


2 hrs. 




1 




19, 20, 

21,22 


2 


F/C-S-43 


1 7," 


Floor: 2", 1:2:4 portland cement concrete; 
Ceiling: 17 2 ", 1:2 sanded gypsum plaster on 
ribbed metal lath. 


See 
Note 19 


2 hrs. 
30 min. 




1 




19, 20, 

21,22 


27, 


F/C-S-44 


1V S " 


Floor: 2", 1:2:4 portland cement concrete; 
Ceiling: 17 8 ", 1:1 sanded gypsum plaster. 


See 
Note 19 


2 hrs. 
30 min. 




1 




19,20, 

21,22 


27, 


F/C-S-45 


1" 


Floor: 27,", 1:2:4 portland cement concrete; 
Ceiling: 1", 1 :2 sanded gypsum plaster. 


See 
Note 19 


2 hrs. 
30 min. 




1 




19, 20, 

21, 22 


27 2 


F/C-S-46 


V 


Floor: 27 2 ", 1 :2:4 portland cement concrete; 
Ceiling: 1" neat gypsum plaster or 3 / 4 " gyp- 
sum-vermiculite plaster, ratio of gypsum to 
vermiculite 2:1 to 3:1. 


See 
Note 19 


3 hrs. 




1 




19, 20, 

21,22 


3 


F/C-S-47 


17," 


Floor: 27,", 1:2:4 portland cement, sand and 
cinder concrete plus 7 2 ", l:2'/ 2 " cement-sand 
finish; total thickness 3"; Ceiling: l7 8 ", 
1:1 sanded gypsum plaster. 


See 
Note 19 


3 hrs. 




1 




19,20, 
21,22 


3 


F/C-S-48 


IV 


Floor: 27 2 ", gas expanded portland cement- 
sand concrete plus 7,", 1:2.5 cement-sand fin- 
ish; total thickness 3"; Ceiling: 1 7 8 " , 
1 : 1 sanded gypsum plaster. 


See 
Note 19 


3 hrs.| 
30 min. 




1 




19, 20, 

21,22 


37 2 


F/C-S-49 


1" 


Floor: 27,", 1:2:4 portland cement concrete; 
Ceiling: 1" gypsum- vermiculite plaster; ratio 
of gypsum to vermiculite 2:1 to 3:1 . 


See 
Note 19 


4 hrs. 




1 




19,20, 

21,22 


4 


F/C-S-50 


27," 


Floor: 2", 1:2:4 portland cement concrete; 
Ceiling: 2" interlocking gypsum tile supported 
on upper face of lower flanges of beams, 
7 2 " 1:3 sanded gypsum plaster. 


See 
Note 19 


2 hrs. 




1 




19, 20, 

21,22 


2 


F/C-S-51 


27/' 


Floor: 2", 1:2:4 portland cement concrete; 
Ceiling: 2" precast metal reinforced gypsum 
tile, 7," 1:3 sanded gypsum plaster (tile 
clipped to channels which are clipped to 
lower flanges of beams). 


See 
Note 19 


4 hrs. 




1 




19,20, 

21,22 


4 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 305 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 0.00689 MPa, 1 pound per square foot = 47.9 N/m 2 . 
Notes: 

1 . No protective membrane over structural steel. 

2. Performance time indicates first endpoint reached only several tests were continued to points where other failures occurred. 

3. Load failure, 

(continued) 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



263 



RESOURCE A 



TABLE 3.2— continued 
FLOOR/CEILING ASSEMBLIES— STEEL STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS 

4. Thermal failure. 

5. This is an estimated time to load bearing failure. The same joist and deck specimen was used for a later test with different membrane protection. 

6. Test stopped at 3 hours to reuse specimen; no endpoint reached. 

7. Test stopped at 1 hour to reuse specimen; no endpoint reached. 

8. All plaster used - gypsum. 

9. Specimen size - 18 feet by 13'/ 2 inches. Floor deck - base material - V 4 -inch by 18-foot steel plate welded to "I" beams. 

10. "I" beams - 24 inches o.c. 

11. "I" beams - 48 inches o.c. 

12. Apply to open web joists, pressed steel joists or rolled steel beams, which are not stressed beyond 18,000 lbs./in. 2 in flexure for open-web pressed or light 
rolled joists, and 20,000 lbs./in. 2 for American standard or heavier rolled beams. 

13. Ratio of weight of portland cement to fine and coarse aggregates combined for floor slabs shall not be less than 1:6'/,. 

14. Plaster for ceiling shall be applied on metal lath which shall be tied to supports to give the equivalent of single No. 18 gage steel wires 5 inches o.c. 

15. Load: maximum fiber stress in steel not to exceed 16,000 psi. 

16. Prefabricated units 2 feet wide with length equal to the span, composed of two pieces of No. 18 gage formed steel welded together to give four longitudinal 
cells. 

1 7. Depth not less than 3 inches and distance between cells no less than 2 inches. 

18. Ceiling; metal lath tied to furring channels secured to runner channels hung from cellular steel. 

19. Load: rolled steel supporting beams and steel plate base shall not be stressed beyond 20,000 psi in flexure. Formed steel (with wide upper flange) 
construction shall not be stressed beyond 16,000 psi. 

20. Some type of expanded metal or woven wire shall be embedded to prevent cracking in concrete flooring. 

21. Ceiling plaster shall be metal lath wired to rods or channels which are clipped or welded to steel construction. Lath shall be no smaller than 18 gage steel 
wire and not more than 7 inches o.c. 

22. The securing rods or channels shall be at least as effective as single V l6 -inch rods with 1-inch of their length bent over the lower flanges of beams with the 
rods or channels tied to this clip with 14 gage iron wire. 



264 2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



RESOURCE A 



FIGURE 3.3 
FLOOR/CEILING ASSEMBLIES— WOOD JOIST 



NUMBER OF 
ASSEMBLIES 



15- 



The number in each box is 
keyed to the last number in the 
Item Code column in the Table. 
For example: 




FIRE RESISTANCE RATING (HOURS) 



TABLE 3.3 
FLOOR/CEILING ASSEMBLIES— WOOD JOIST 



ITEM 
CODE 


MEMBRANE 
THICKNESS 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE-BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST-BMS-92 


F/C-W-l 


%" 


12' clear span - 2" x 9" wood joists; 18" ox.; 
Deck: 1" T&G; Filler: 3" of ashes on V 2 " boards 
nailed to joist sides 2" from bottom; 2" air space; 
Membrane: V 8 " gypsum board. 


60 psf 


36 min. 






7 


1,2 


% 


F/C-W-2 


V 


12' clear span - 2" x 7" joists; 15" ox.; Deck: 1" 
nominal lumber; Membrane: '/," fiber board. 


60psf 


22 min. 






7 


1,2,3 


v 4 


F/C-W-3 


'//' 


12' clear span - 2" x 7" wood joists; 16" ox.; 
2" x l'/ 2 " bridging at center; Deck: 1" T&G; 
Membrane: '/," fiber board; 2 coats "distemper" 
paint. 


30 psf 


28 min. 






7 


1,3, 
15 


% 


F/C-W-4 


V 


12' clear span - 2" x 7" wood joists; 16" ox.; 2" 
x 1 '/" bridging at center span; Deck: 1" nominal 
lumber; Membrane: '//' fiber board under V ]6 " 
gypsum plaster. 


30 psf 


32 min. 






7 


1,2 


% 


F/C-W-5 


5 /" 


As per previous F/C-W-4 except membrane is 
5 / 8 " lime plaster. 


70 psf 


48 min. 






7 


1,2 


3 A 


F/C-W-6 


V" 

's 


As per previous F/C-W-5 except membrane is 
5 / s " gypsum plaster on 22 gage 3 / 8 " metal lath. 


70 psf 


49 min. 






7 


1,2 


X 



(continued) 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



265 



RESOURCE A 



TABLE 3.3 — continued 
FLOOR/CEILING ASSEMBLIES— WOOD JOIST 



ITEM 
CODE 


MEMBRANE 
THICKNESS 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 

HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE-BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST-BMS-92 


F/C-W-7 


X" 


As per previous F/C-W-6 except membrane is 
7 2 " fiber board under '/," gypsum plaster. 


60psf 


43 min. 






7 


1,2,3 


\ 


F/C-W-8 


V 


As per previous F/C-W-7 except membrane is 
7," gypsum board. 


60 psf 


33 min. 






7 


1,2,3 


% 


F/C-W-9 


"/«: 


12' clear span - 2" x 7" wood joists; 15" o.c; 
2" x 1 '/" bridging at center; Deck; 1 " nominal 
lumber; Membrane: 3 / s " gypsum board; 
V l6 " gypsum plaster. 


60psf 


24 min. 






7 


1,2,3 


% 


F/C-W-10 


%" 


As per F/C-W-9 except membrane is 5 / 8 " gyp- 
sum plaster on wood lath. 


60 psf 


27 min. 






7 


1,2,3 


% 


F/C-W-ll 


x 


12' clear span - 2" x 9" wood joists; 15" o.c; 
2" x I 1 //' bridging at center span; Deck: 1" 
T&G; Membrane: original ceiling joists have 
"V 8 " plaster on wood lath; 4" metal hangers 
attached below joists creating 15" chases filled 
with mineral wool and closed with 7 / 8 " plaster 
(gypsum) on 3 / s " S.W.M. metal lath to form new 
ceiling surface. 


75 psf 


Ihr. 
10 min. 






7 


1,2 


1 


F/C-W-12 


X 


12' clear span - 2" x 9" wood joists; 15" o.c; 
2" x l'/ 2 " bridging at center; Deck: 1" T&G; 
Membrane: 3" mineral wood below joists; 
3" hangers to channel below joists; 7 / 8 " gypsum 
plaster on metal lath attached to channels. 


75 psf 


2hrs. 






7 


1,4 


2 


F/C-W-13 


%" 


12' clear span - 2" x 9" wood joists; 16" o.c; 
2" x lV," bridging at center span; Deck: 1" 
T&G on 1" bottoms on %" glass wool strips on 
3 / 4 " gypsum board nailed to joists; Membrane: 
3 / 4 " glass wool strips on joists; V 8 " perforated 
gypsum lath; V 2 " gypsum plaster. 


60 psf 


41 min. 






7 


1,3 


% 


F/C-W-14 


X 


12' clear span - 2" x 9" wood joists; 15" o.c; 
Deck: 1" T&G; Membrane: 3" foam concrete in 
cavity on V 2 " boards nailed to joists; wood lath 
nailed to 1" x 1 7 4 " straps 14 o.c. across joists; 
7 / 8 " gypsum plaster. 


60 psf 


Ihr. 

40 min. 






7 


1,5 


1% 


F/C-W-15 


X 


12' clear span - 2" x 9" wood joists; 18" o.c; 
Deck: 1" T&G; Membrane: 2" foam concrete 
on V 2 " boards nailed to joist sides 2" from joist 
bottom; 2" air space; 1" x 1 7 4 " wood straps 14" 
o.c. across joists; 7 / 8 " lime plaster on wood lath. 


60 psf 


53 min. 






7 


1,2 


% 


F/C-W-16 


X' 


12' clear span - 2" x 9" wood joists; 
Deck: 1" T&G; Membrane: 3" ashes on 7," 
boards nailed to joist sides 2" from joist bottom; 
2" air space; 1" x 17 4 " wood straps 14" o.c. ; 
7 / 8 " gypsum plaster on wood lath. 


60 psf 


28 min. 






7 


1,2 


% 


F/C-W-17 


X 


As per previous F/C-W-l 6 but with lime plaster 
mix. 


60 psf 


41 min. 






7 


1,2 


% 


F/C-W-18 


V 


12' clear span - 2" x 9" wood joists; 18" o.c; 
2" x lV," bridging at center; Deck: 1" T&G; 
Membrane: 7 / s " gypsum plster on wood lath. 


60 psf 


36 min. 






7 


1,2 


% 


F/C-W-19 


X 


As per previous F/C-W-18 except with lime 
plaster membrane and deck is 1" nominal 
boards (plain edge). 


60 psf 


19 min. 






7 


1,2 


% 



(continued) 



266 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



RESOURCE A 



TABLE 3.3— continued 
FLOOR/CEILING ASSEMBLIES— WOOD JOIST 



ITEM 
CODE 


MEMBRANE 
THICKNESS 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE-BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST-BMS-92 


F/C-W-20 


V 


As per F/C-W-19, except deck is 1" T&G 
boards. 


60psf 


43 min. 






7 


1,2 


X 


F/C-W-21 


1" 


12' clear span - 2" x 9" wood joists; 16" 
o.c; 2" x l'/ 2 " bridging at center; Deck: 1" 
T&G; Membrane: V 8 " gypsum base board; 
V 8 " gypsum plaster. 


70psf 


29 min. 






7 


1,2 


% 


F/C-W-22 


IV," 


12' clear span - 2" x 9" wood joists; 16" 
o.c; 2" x 2" wood bridging at center; 
Deck: 1 " T&G; Membrane: hangers, chan- 
nel with 3 / 8 " gypsum baseboard affixed 
under 3 / 4 " gypsum plaster. 


60psf 


lhr. 






7 


1,2,3 


1 


F/C-W-23 


V 


Deck: 1 " nominal lumber; Joists: 2" x 7"; 
15" o.c; Membrane: V 8 " plasterboard with 
plaster skim coat. 


60psf 


1 1 7 2 min. 






12 


2,6 


X 


F/C-W-24 


X" 


Deck: 1" T&G lumber; Joists: 2" x 9"; 16" 
o.c; Membrane: 7 2 " plasterboard. 


60psf 


18 min. 






12 


2,7 


X 


F/C-W-25 


%" 


Deck: 1" T&G lumber; Joists: 2" x 7"; 16" 
o.c; Membrane: 7 2 " fiber insulation board. 


30 psf 


8 min. 






12 


2,8 


% 


F/C-W-26 


V 


Deck: 1" nominal lumber; Joists: 2" x 7"; 
15" o.c; Membrane: V 2 " fiber insulation 
board. 


60 psf 


8 min. 






12 


2,9 


X, 


F/C-W-27 


■V" 

'a 


Deck: 1" nominal lumber; Joists: 2" x 7"; 
15" o.c; Membrane: 5 / s " gypsum plaster on 
wood lath. 


60 psf 


17 min. 






12 


2, 10 


X 


F/C-W-28 


V" 

'8 


Deck: 1" T&G lumber; Joists: 2" x 9"; 16" 
o.c; Membrane: 7 2 " fiber insulation board; 
7 2 " plaster. 


60 psf 


20 min. 






12 


2, 11 


X 


F/C-W-29 


No 
Membrane 


Exposed wood joists. 


See 
Note 13 


15 min. 




1 




1, 12, 
13, 14 


X 


F/C-W-30 


X" 


Gypsum wallboard: 3 / 8 " or 7 2 " with l7 2 " 
No. 15 gage nails with 3 / l6 " heads spaced 
6" centers with asbestos paper applied with 
paperhangers' paste and finished with 
casein paint. 


See 
Note 1 3 


25 min. 




1 




1, 12, 

13, 14 


7, 


F/C-W-31 


%" 


Gypsum wallboard: 7 2 " with l 3 / 4 " No. 12 
gage nails with 7 2 " heads, 6" o.c, and fin- 
ished with casein paint. 


See 
Note 13 


25 min. 




1 




1, 12, 
1 3, 14 


% 


F/C-W-32 


V 


Gypsum wallboard: 7/' with 17," No. 12 
gage nails with 7 2 " heads, 18" o.c, with 
asbestos paper applied with paperhangers' 
paste and secured with 1 7 2 " No. 15 gage 
nails with V,/' heads and finished with 
casein paint; combined nail spacing 6" o.c. 


See 
Note 13 


30 min. 




1 




1, 12, 
13, 14 


X 


F/C-W-33 


X" 


Gypsum wallboard: two layers V 8 " secured 
with 1 7 2 " No. 15 gage nails with %" heads, 
6" o.c. 


See 
Note 13 


30 min. 




1 




1, 12, 
13, 14 


% 


F/C-W-34 


X" 


Perforated gypsum lath: V 8 ", plastered with 
1 7 S " No. 13 gage nails with 7 16 " heads, 4" 
o.c; 7," sanded gypsum plaster. 


See 
Note 13 


30 min. 




1 




1, 12, 

13, 14 


% 


F/C-W-35 


X" 


Same as F/C-W-34, except with l7 8 " No. 
13 gage nails with 3 / 8 " heads, 4" o.c. 


See 
Note 13 


45 min. 




1 




1, 12, 
13, 14 


X 



(continued) 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



267 



RESOURCE A 



TABLE 3.3— continued 
FLOOR/CEIUNG ASSEMBLIES— WOOD JOIST 



ITEM 
CODE 


MEMBRANE 
THICKNESS 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE-BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST-BMS-92 


F/C-W-36 


V 2 " 


Perforated gypsum lath: V g " , nailed with 
1 V 8 " No. 1 3 gage nails with 3 / g " heads, 4" 
o.c.; joints covered with 3" strips of metal 
lath with l 3 / 4 " No. 12 nails with V," heads, 
5" o.c; 7 2 " sanded gypsum plaster. 


See 
Note 13 


1 hr. 




1 




1, 12, 
13,14 


1 


F/C-W-37 


V 


Gypsum lath: 3 / s " and lower layer of 3 / g " 
perforated gypsum lath nailed with l 3 / 4 " 
No. 13 nails with 5 / 16 " heads, 4" o.c; V," 
sanded gypsum plaster or V," portland 
cement plaster. 


See 
Note 13 


45 min. 




1 




1, 12, 
13, 14 


% 


F/C-W-38 


V 


Metal lath: nailed with l'/ 4 " No. 11 nails 
with 3 / g " heads or 6d common driven 1" 
and bent over, 6" o.c; 3 / 4 " sanded gypsum 
plaster. 


See 
Note 13 


45 min. 




1 




1,12, 
13,14 


% 


F/C-W-39 


V 


Same as F/C-W-38, except nailed with 
l7 2 " No. 11 barbed roof nails with '/,/' 
heads, 6" o.c. 


See 
Note 13 


1 hr. 




1 




1,12, 
13, 14 


1 


F/C-W-40 


V 


Same as F/C-W-38, except with lath nailed 
to joists with additional supports for lath 
27" o.c; attached to alternate joists and 
consisting of two nails driven l'/ 4 ", 2" 
above bottom on opposite sides of the 
joists, one loop of No. 18 wire slipped over 
each nail; the ends twisted together below 
lath. 


See 
Note 13 


lhr. 
15 min. 




1 




1, 12, 
13, 14 


l'/ 4 


F/C-W-41 


V 


Metal lath: nailed with 1 '//' No. 1 1 barbed 
roof nails with 7 / ]S " heads, 6 o.c, with 3 / 4 " 
portland cement plaster for scratch coat 
and 1:3 for brown coat, 3 lbs. of asbestos 
fiber and 15 lbs. of hydrated lime/94 lbs. 
bag of cement. 


See 
Note 13 


lhr. 




1 




1,12, 
13, 14 


1 


F/C-W-42 


V 


Metal lath: nailed with 8d, No. 1 1 '/, gage 
barbed box nails, 2'/ 2 " driven, l'/ 4 " on 
slant and bent over, 6" o.c; 3 / 4 " sanded 
gypsum plaster, 1:2 for scratch coat and 
1 :3 for below coat. 


See 
Note 13 


lhr. 




1 




1, 12, 
13, 14 


1 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 305 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 0.00689 MPa, 1 pound per square foot = 47.9 N/m 2 . 
Notes: 

1 . Thickness indicates thickness of first membrane protection on ceiling surface. 

2. Failure mode — flame thru. 

3. Failure mode — collapse. 

4. No endpoint reached at termination of test. 

5. Failure imminent — test terminated. 

6. Joist failure — 11 .5 minutes; flame thru — 13 minutes; collapse — 24 minutes. 

7. Joist failure — 17 minutes; flame thru — 18 minutes; collapse — 33 minutes. 

8. Joist failure — 18 minutes; flame thru — 8 minutes; collapse — 30 minutes. 

9. Joist failure — 12 minutes; flame thru — 8 minutes; collapse — 22 minutes. 

10. Joist failure — 1 1 minutes; flame thru — 17 minutes; collapse — 27 minutes. 

11. Joist failure — 17 minutes; flame thru — 20 minutes; collapse — 43 minutes. 

12. Joists: 2-inch by 10-inch southern pine or Douglas fir; No. 1 common or better. Subfloor: 3 / 4 -inch wood sheating diaphragm of asbestos paper, and finish of 
tongue-and-groove wood flooring. 

13. Loadings: not more than 1,000 psi maximum fiber stress in joists. 

1 4. Perforations in gypsum lath are to be not less than 3 / 4 -inch diameter with one perforation for not more than 16/in. 2 diameter. 

15. "Distemper" is a British term for a water-based paint such as white wash or calcimine. 



268 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



RESOURCE A 



FIGURE 3.4 
FLOOR/CEILING ASSEMBLIES— HOLLOW CLAY TILE WITH REINFORCED CONCRETE 



NUMBER OF 
ASSEMBLIES 



A 



10- 



The number in each box is 
keyed to the last number in the 
Item Code column in the Table. 

For example: 



11 
10 



12 



13 

5 
3 




FIRE RESISTANCE RATING (HOURS) 







TABLE 3.4 
FLOOR/CEILING ASSEMBLIES— HOLLOW CLAY TILE WITH REINFORCED CONCRETE 






ITEM 
CODE 


ASSEMBLY 
THICKNESS 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE-BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST-BMS-92 


F/C-HT-1 


6" 


Cover: I 1 //' concrete (6080 psi); three cell hol- 
low clay tiles, 12" x 12" x 4"; 3'/ 4 " concrete 
between tiles including two 7 2 " rebars with 3 / 4 " 
concrete cover; '/," plaster cover, lower. 


75psf 


2 hrs. 
7 min. 






7 


1,2,3 


2 


F/C-HT-2 


6" 


Cover: 1'/," concrete (5840 psi); three cell hol- 
low clay tiles, 12" x 12" x 4"; 3'/ 4 " concrete 
between tiles including two 7," rebars each 
with 7 2 " concrete cover and %" filler tiles 
between hollow tiles; '/■," plaster cover, lower. 


61 psf 


3 hrs. 
23 min. 






7 


3,4,6 


37, 


F/C-HT-3 


6" 


Cover: l'/ 2 " concrete (6280 psi); three cell hol- 
low clay tiles, 12" x 12" x 4"; 3'/ 4 " concrete 
between tiles including two 7," rebars with V 2 " 
cover; V 2 " plaster cover, lower. 


122 
psf 


2 hrs. 






7 


1,3,5, 
8 


2 


F/C-HT-4 


6" 


Cover: l'/ 2 " concrete (6280 psi); three cell hol- 
low clay tiles, 12" x 12" x 4"; 37/' concrete 
between tiles including two 7 2 " rebars with 3 / 4 " 
cover; 7 2 " plaster cover, lower. 


115 
psf 


2 hrs. 
23 min. 






7 


1,3,7 


27, 


F/C-HT-5 


6" 


Cover: 1 7 2 " concrete (6470 psi); three cell hol- 
low clay tiles, 12" x 12" x 4"; 37/' concrete 
between tiles including two 7," rebars with 7/' 
cover; 7 2 " plaster cover, lower. 


122 
psf 


2 hrs. 






7 


1,3,5, 
8 


2 



(continued) 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



269 



RESOURCE A 







TABLE 3.4— continued 
FLOOR/CEILING ASSEMBLIES— HOLLOW CLAY TILE WITH REINFORCED CONCRETE 






ITEM 
CODE 


ASSEMBLY 
THICKNESS 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE-BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST-BMS-92 


F/C-HT-6 


8" 


Floor cover: 17 2 " gravel cement (4300 psi); 
three cell, 12" x 12" x 6" ; 3'/ 2 " space between 
tiles including two '// rebars with 1" cover 
from concrete bottom; V," plaster cover, lower. 


165 

psf 


4 hrs. 






7 


1,3,9, 
10 


4 


F/C-HT-7 


9" (nom.) 


Deck: 7 / s " T&G on 2" x 1 7," bottoms 
(18" o.c.) 1 7 2 " concrete cover (4600 psi); three 
cell hollow clay tiles, 12" x 12" x 4"; 3" con- 
crete between tiles including one V 4 " rebar 3 / 4 " 
from tile bottom; V 4 " plaster cover. 


95 psf 


2 hrs. 
26 min. 






7 


4,11, 

12, 13 


27, 


F/C-HT-8 


9" (nom.) 


Deck: 7 / 8 " T&G on 2" x l7 2 " bottoms (18" 
o.c.) 1 '/," concrete cover (3850 psi); three cell 
hollow clay tiles, 12" x 12" x 4"; 
3" concrete between tiles including 
one V 4 " rebar 3 / 4 " from tile bottoms; 
7," plaster cover. 


95 psf 


3 hrs. 
28 min. 






7 


4,11, 
12, 13 




F/C-HT-9 


9" (nom.) 


Deck: 7 / 8 " T&G on 2" x Vl" bottoms (18" 
o.c.) 1 7 2 " concrete cover (4200 psi); three cell 
hollow clay tiles, 12" x 12" x 4"; 
3" concrete between tiles including 
one 3 / 4 " rebar 3 / 4 " from tile bottoms; 
7," plaster cover. 


95 psf 


2 hrs. 
14 min. 






7 


3, 5, 8, 
11 




F/C-HT-10 


5'/ 2 " 


Fire clay tile (4" thick); 17," concrete cover; 
for general details, see Note 15. 


See 

Note 

14 


lhr. 






43 


15 


1 


F/C-HT-11 


8" 


Fire clay tile (6" thick); 2" cover. 


See 

Note 

14 


lhr. 






43 


15 


1 


F/C-HT-12 


5'/ 2 " 


Fire clay tile (4" thick); 1 7 2 " cover; 
5 / s " gypsum plaster, lower. 


See 

Note 

14 


lhr. 
30 min. 






43 


15 


17 2 


F/C-HT-13 


8" 


Fire clay tile (6" thick); 2" cover; 
5 / g " gypsum plaster, lower. 


See 

Note 

14 


2 hrs. 






43 


15 


17 2 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 305 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 0.00689 MPa, 1 pound per square foot = 47.9 N/m 2 . 
Notes: 



1 %" 
CRS. 



DD 



DDD 



WITH 3 / 4 " COVER 
OF CONCRETE 

1 . A generalized cross section of this floor type follows: 

2. Failure mode - structural 

3. Plaster: base coat — lime-cement-sand; top coat — gypsum (neat). 



□ 



vu 



V PLASTER (2 COATS) 
1ST LIME-CEMENT-SAND 
2ND GYPSUM (NEAT) 



{continued) 



270 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



RESOURCE A 



TABLE 3.4— continued 
FLOOR/CEILING ASSEMBLIES-HOLLOW CLAY TILE WITH REINFORCED CONCRETE 



4. Failure mode — collapse. 

5. Test stopped before any endpoints were reached. 

6. A generalized cross section of this floor type follows: 




CRS. 



BARS 

WITH 3 //' COVER 

OF CONCRETE 



iL3L.:jGL,n 

\ 

TILES (12" x 12" x 4" 



~k 



1V ? ' 



T 



1STLIME-CEMENT-SAND 
2ND GYPSUM (NEAT) 



7. Failure mode — thermal — back face temperature rise. 

8. Passed hose stream test. 

9. Failed hose stream test. 



Gl FLOOR CLIPS 




7 8 "T&G BOARDING 

2" x 1 7 2 " BATTENS @ 18 CRS 
SECURED TO CLIPS 



BARS 3 / 4 "DIAM. WITH 3 / 4 " 
COVER OF CONCRETE 



TILES(12"x12"x4") 

V 2 " PLASTER (2 COATS) 
1ST LIME-CEMENT-SAND 
2ND GYPSUM (NEAT) 



10. Test stopped at 4 hours before any endpoints were reached. 

11. A generalized cross section of this floor type follows: 

12. Plaster: base coat — retarded hemihydrate gypsum-sand; second coat — neat gypsum. 

13. Concrete in Item 7 is P.C. based but with crushed brick aggregates while in Item 8 river sand and river gravels are used with the P.C. 

14. Load - unspecified. 

1 5. The 12-inch by 12-inch fire-clay tiles were laid end to end in rows spaced 2'/ 2 inches or 4 inches apart. The reinforcing steel was placed between these rows 
and the concrete cast around them and over the tile to form the structural floor. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE® 



271 



RESOURCE A 



SECTION IV 
BEAMS 

TABLE 4.1.1 

REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS 

DEPTH 10" TO LESS THAN 12" 



ITEM CODE 


DEPTH 


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 


PERFORMANCE 


REFERENCE NUMBER 


NOTES 


REC. 
HOURS 


LOAD 


TIME 


PRE-BMS-92 


BMS-92 


POST-BMS-92 


B-ll-RC-1 


11" 


24" wide x 11" deep reinforced concrete "T" 
beam (3290 psi); Details: see Note 5 figure. 


8.8 tons 


4 hrs. 
2 min. 






7 


1,2,14 


4 


B-10-RC-2 


10" 


24" wide x 10" deep reinforced concrete "T" 
beam (4370 psi); Details: see Note 6 figure. 


8.8 tons 


1 hr. 
53 min. 






7 


1,3 


l\ 


B-10-RC-3 


107," 


24" wide x 107 2 " deep reinforced concrete 
"T" beam (4450 psi); Details: see Note 7 fig- 
ure. 


8.8 tons 


2 hrs. 
40 min. 






7 


1,3 


2% 


B-ll-RC-4 


11" 


24" wide x 11" deep reinforced concrete "T" 
beam (2400 psi); Details: see Note 8 figure. 


8.8 tons 


3 hrs. 
32 min. 






7 


1,3,14 


37 2 


B-ll-RC-5 


11" 


24" wide x 1 1" deep reinforced concrete "T" 
beam (4250 psi); Details: see Note 9 figure. 


8.8 tons 


3 hrs. 
3 min. 






7 


1,3,14 


3 


B-ll-RC-6 


11" 


Concrete flange: 4" deep x 2' wide (4895 
psi) concrete; Concrete beam: 7" deep x 67," 
wide beam; "I" beam reinforcement; 1 0" x 
4V," x 25 lbs. R.S.J.; 1" cover on flanges; 
Flange reinforcement: V 8 " diameter bars at 
6" pitch parallel to "T"; 7 4 " diameter bars 
perpendicular to "T"; Beam reinforcement: 
4" x 6" wire mesh No. 13 SWG; Span: 11' 
restrained; Details: see Note 10 figure. 


10 tons 


6 hrs. 






7 


1,4 


6 


B-ll-RC-7 


11" 


Concrete flange: 6" deep x 1' 67," wide 
(3525 psi) concrete; Concrete beam: 5" deep 
x 8" wide precast concrete blocks 8V 4 " long; 
"I" beam reinforcement; 7" x 4" x 16 lbs. 
R.S.J. ; 2" cover on bottom; l7 2 " cover on 
top; Flange reinforcement: two rows 7," 
diameter rods parallel to "T"; Beam rein- 
forcement: V g " wire mesh perpendicular to 
1" ; Span: V 3" simply supported; Details: 
see Note 1 1 figure. 


3.9 tons 


4 hrs. 






7 


1,2 


4 


B-ll-RC-8 


11" 


Concrete flange: 4" deep x 2' wide (3525 
psi) concrete; Concrete beam 7" deep x 47," 
wide; (scaled from drawing); "I" beam rein- 
forcement; 10" x 47 2 " x 25 lbs. R.S.J.; no 
concrete cover on bottom; Flange reinforce- 
ment: V 8 " diameter bars at 6 pitch parallel to 
"T"; 7 4 " diameter bars perpendicular to "T"; 
Span: 1 1' restricted. 


1 tons 


4 hrs. 






7 


1,2, 12 


4 


B-ll-RC-9 


117," 


24" wide x 1 1 7 2 " deep reinforced concrete 
"T" beam (4390 psi); Details: see Note 12 
figure. 


8.8 tons 


3 hrs. 
24 min. 






7 


1,3 


37 3 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 f